Microsoft Academic Graph
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Microsoft Academic Graph
Microsoft Academic
Microsoft Research Homepage Screenshot.png
Type of site
Bibliographic database
LaunchedFebruary 22, 2016; 6 years ago (2016-02-22)
Current statusInactive (No longer accessible after Dec. 31, 2021)

Microsoft Academic was (until Dec. 31, 2021) a free internet-based academic search engines for academic publications and literature, developed by Microsoft Research. It profiled authors, organizations, keywords, and journals.[1] The search engine indexed over 260 million publications,[2] 88 million of which are journal articles.[2] The fact that Microsoft launched and soon after shut down both Microsoft Academic and its predecessor Microsoft Academic Search has been interpreted as a sign, that Microsoft "had never intended to enter into the business of scholarly metadata. Instead, the tech giant has been using data on scholarly communication as testing ground for big data and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies".[3] OpenAlex claims to be a successor to Microsoft Academic. It is expected to become operational in late 2022.


The Academic Knowledge API offers information retrieval from the underlying database using REST endpoints for advanced research purposes.[4] The search engine provides not only search results and access to sources but also citation information that include the number of sources, g-index, and h-index.[5] Aside from academic publications, it is also used to find websites that contain state and local records.[6] The technology uses machine learning, semantic inference and knowledge discovery from sources crawled and indexed by the Bing search engine.[7]

Microsoft Academic replaced the earlier Microsoft research project, Microsoft Academic Search, which ended development in 2012.[8] The platform was developed in 2009 of the Microsoft Research branch in Asia and the project was headed by Zaiqing Nie.[1] Microsoft Academic was re-launched in 2016, as a tool that features an entirely new data structure and search engine using semantic search technologies.

Preliminary reviews by bibliometricians suggested the new Microsoft Academic Search was a competitor to Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus for academic research purposes[9][10] as well as citation analysis.[11][12][13] However, it was primarily used as a resource in the field of computer science since that was the most completely indexed information.[14]

On May 4, 2021, Microsoft announced that the Microsoft Academic website and APIs would be retired on December 31, 2021.[15]

See also


  1. ^ a b Ortega, Jose Luis (2014). Academic Search Engines: A Quantitative Outlook. Oxford: Elsevier. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-84334-791-0.
  2. ^ a b Microsoft Academic
  3. ^ Tay, Aaron; Martín-Martín, Alberto; Hug, Sven E. (27 May 2021). "Goodbye, Microsoft Academic - Hello, open research infrastructure?". Impact of Social Sciences. Retrieved 2022.
  4. ^ Microsoft. "Academic Knowledge API". Microsoft. Retrieved 2017.
  5. ^ Thomas, C. George (2021). Research Methodology and Scientific Writing, Second Edition. Cham: Springer Nature. p. 241. ISBN 978-3-030-64864-0.
  6. ^ Parsons, Stephen P. (2019). Interviewing and Investigating: Essentials Skills for the Legal Professional. Frederick, MD: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business. p. 505. ISBN 978-1-5438-0107-1.
  7. ^ Ahmi, Aidi (2021). Bibliometric Analysis for Beginners: A starter guide to begin with a bibliometric study using Scopus dataset and tools such as Microsoft Excel, Harzing's Publish or Perish and VOSviewer software. p. 25.
  8. ^ Van Noorden, Richard (20 May 2014). "The decline and fall of Microsoft Academic Search". Nature. Retrieved 2016.
  9. ^ Harzing, Anne-Wil. "Microsoft Academic (Search): a Phoenix arisen from the ashes?" (PDF). Scientometrics. Retrieved 2017.
  10. ^ Hug, Sven E.; Braendle, Martin P. (2017). "The coverage of Microsoft Academic: Analyzing the publication output of a university". Scientometrics. 113 (3): 1551-1571. arXiv:1703.05539. Bibcode:2017arXiv170305539H. doi:10.1007/s11192-017-2535-3. S2CID 2458635.
  11. ^ Harzing, Anne-Wil; Alakangas, Satu. "Microsoft Academic: is the Phoenix getting wings ?" (PDF). Scientometrics. Retrieved 2017.
  12. ^ Hug, Sven E.; Ochsner, Michael; Braendle, Martin P. (2017). "Citation analysis with Microsoft Academic". Scientometrics. 111: 371-378. arXiv:1609.05354. doi:10.1007/s11192-017-2247-8. S2CID 14179411.
  13. ^ Haunschild, Robin; Hug, Sven E.; Braendle, Martin P.; Bornmann, Lutz (2017). "The number of linked references of publications in Microsoft Academic in comparison with the Web of Science". Scientometrics. 114: 367-370. arXiv:1710.04031. Bibcode:2017arXiv171004031H. doi:10.1007/s11192-017-2567-8. S2CID 21342104.
  14. ^ Chowdhury, G. G.; Foo, Schubert (2012). Digital Libraries and Information Access: Research Perspectives. Facet Publishing. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-85604-821-7.
  15. ^ "Next Steps for Microsoft Academic - Expanding into New Horizons". Microsoft Research. Retrieved .

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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