Mid Front Unrounded Vowel
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Mid Front Unrounded Vowel
Mid front unrounded vowel
e?
IPA Number302 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal)e​̞
Unicode (hex)U+0065 U+031E
X-SAMPAe_o
Braille? (braille pattern dots-15)? (braille pattern dots-6)? (braille pattern dots-126)
Audio sample

The mid front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound that is used in some spoken languages. There is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid front unrounded vowel between close-mid [e] and open-mid [?], but it is normally written ⟨e⟩. If precision is required, diacritics may be used, such as ⟨e?⟩ or ⟨⟩ (the former, indicating lowering, being more common). In Sinology and Koreanology, ⟨?⟩ is sometimes used, for example in the Zhengzhang Shangfang reconstructions.

For many of the languages that have only one phonemic front unrounded vowel in the mid-vowel area (neither close nor open), the vowel is pronounced as a true mid vowel and is phonetically distinct from either a close-mid or open-mid vowel. Examples are Basque, Spanish, Romanian, Japanese, Turkish, Finnish, Greek, Hejazi Arabic, Serbo-Croatian and Korean (Seoul dialect). A number of dialects of English also have such a mid front vowel. However, there is no general predisposition. Igbo and Egyptian Arabic, for example, have a close-mid [e], and Bulgarian has an open-mid [?], but none of these languages have another phonemic mid front vowel.

Kensiu, spoken in Malaysia and Thailand, is claimed to be unique in having true-mid vowels that are phonemically distinct from both close-mid and open-mid vowels, without differences in other parameters such as backness or roundedness.[1]

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[2] bed [bt] 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. The height varies between mid [] and close-mid .[2] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Hejazi[3] ?‎ / b?t [be?:t] 'home' See Hejazi Arabic phonology
Breton[4] [example needed] Possible realization of unstressed /?/; can be open-mid or close-mid instead.[4]
Chinese Mandarin[5] ? / y? 'also' See Standard Chinese phonology
Czech Bohemian[6] led [lt] 'ice' Near-front; may be open-mid instead.[6] See Czech phonology
Dutch Some speakers[7] zet [zt] 'shove' (n.) Open-mid in Standard Dutch.[7] See Dutch phonology
English Broad New Zealand[8] cat [kt] 'cat' Lower in other New Zealand varieties;[8] corresponds to in other accents. See New Zealand English phonology
Cockney[9] bird [b:d] 'bird' Near-front; occasional realization of /?:/. It can be rounded or, more often, unrounded central instead.[9] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?:⟩.
Cultivated New Zealand[8] let [le?t] 'let' Higher in other New Zealand varieties.[8] See New Zealand English phonology
Received Pronunciation[10] Many speakers pronounce a more open vowel instead. See English phonology
Scottish[11] [bë]
Yorkshire[12] play [ple?:] 'play'
Estonian[13] sule ['sule] 'feather' (gen. sg.) Common word-final allophone of /e/.[14] See Estonian phonology
Finnish[15][16] menen ['me?ne?n] 'I go' See Finnish phonology
German Standard[17] Bett [bt] 'bed' More often described as open-mid front .[18][19] See Standard German phonology
Bernese dialect[20] rède ['rd] 'to speak' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. See Bernese German phonology
Greek Modern Standard[21][22] ??? / pes [pe?s?] 'say!' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[23] ‎/ken [ke?n] 'yes' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script, see Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian[24] hét [he?:t?] 'seven' Also described as close-mid .[25] See Hungarian phonology
Ibibio[26] [sé?] 'look'
Icelandic[27] kenna ['cn:ä] 'to teach' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. The long allophone is often diphthongized to [e?].[28] See Icelandic phonology
Italian Standard[29] crederci ['kre:d?e?rti] 'to believe' Common realization of the unstressed /e/.[29] See Italian phonology
Northern accents[30] penso ['peso] 'I think' Common realization of /e/.[30] See Italian phonology
Japanese[31] /emi 'smile' See Japanese phonology
Jebero[32] ['i?ë?k] 'bat' Near-front; possible realization of /?/.[32]
Korean / naega [n?:] 'I' Pronunciation of ⟨?⟩. See Korean phonology
Latvian[33] ?st [ê?:s?t?] 'to eat' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨e⟩.
Limburgish Maastrichtian[34] bèd [bt] 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩.
Weert dialect[35] zègke ['z?] 'to say'
Macedonian Standard ??? ['m?d?] 'honey'
Malay Standard elok [e?'lo] 'good' See Malay phonology
Norwegian Urban East[36][37] nett [nt:] 'net' See Norwegian phonology
Romanian[38] fete ['fe?t?e?] 'girls' See Romanian phonology
Russian[39] ?? [tl?'v?e?k] 'human' Occurs only after soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[40][41] ??? / tek [tk] 'only' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak Standard[42][43] beha? ['bäc?] 'to run' See Slovak phonology
Slovene[44] velikan [?e?li'ká?:n] 'giant' Unstressed vowel,[44] as well as an allophone of /e/ before /j/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word.[45] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[46] bebé [be?'e?] 'baby' See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[47] häll [hl?] 'flat rock' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. Many dialects pronounce short /e/ and /?/ the same. See Swedish phonology
Tera[48] ze [zè?:] 'spoke'
Turkish[49][50] ev [e?v] 'house' See Turkish phonology
Upper Sorbian[51] njebjo ['?b] 'sky' Allophone of /?/ between soft consonants and after a soft consonant, excluding /j/ in both cases.[51] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Yoruba[52] [example needed] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩. It is nasalized, and may be open-mid instead.[52]

Notes

  1. ^ Bishop, N. (1996). A preliminary description of Kensiw (Maniq) phonology. Mon-Khmer Studies Journal, 25.
  2. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded mid-front vowel /?/".
  3. ^ Abdoh (2010), p. 84.
  4. ^ a b Ternes (1992), p. 433.
  5. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), p. 110.
  6. ^ a b Dankovi?ová (1999), p. 72.
  7. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 131.
  8. ^ a b c d Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 609.
  9. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 305.
  10. ^ Roach (2004), p. 242.
  11. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  12. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 179.
  13. ^ Asu & Teras (2009), pp. 368-369.
  14. ^ Asu & Teras (2009), p. 369.
  15. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 60, 66.
  16. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  17. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  18. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 82, 107.
  19. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  20. ^ Marti (1985), p. 27.
  21. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 28.
  22. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  23. ^ Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  24. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  25. ^ Krá? (1988), p. 92.
  26. ^ Urua (2004), p. 106.
  27. ^ Brodersen (2011).
  28. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 57-60.
  29. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), pp. 137-138.
  30. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), p. 137.
  31. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  32. ^ a b Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 101.
  33. ^ Grigorjevs & Jaroslavien? (2015), p. 79, 85.
  34. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  35. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 107.
  36. ^ Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15-16.
  37. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  38. ^ Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  39. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 41.
  40. ^ Kordi? (2006), p. 4.
  41. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  42. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  43. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  44. ^ a b Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF).
  45. ^ ?u?tar?i?, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 138.
  46. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  47. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  48. ^ Tench (2007), p. 230.
  49. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  50. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  51. ^ a b ?ewc-Schuster (1984), p. 34.
  52. ^ a b Bamgbo?e (1966), p. 166.

References

External links


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