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Higher education institution operated by or for the military
A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It normally provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned.
Three types of academy exist: pre-collegiate-level institutions awarding academic qualifications, university-level institutions awarding bachelor's-degree-level qualifications, and those preparing Officer Cadets for commissioning into the armed services of the state.
By the turn of the century, under the impetus of the Napoleonic Wars and the strain that the armies of Europe subsequently came under, military academies for the training of commissioned officers of the army were set up in most of the combatant nations. These military schools had two functions: to provide instruction for serving officers in the functions of the efficient staff-officer, and to school youngsters before they gained an officer's commission. The Kriegsakademie in Prussia was founded in 1801 and the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr was created by order of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802 as a replacement for the École Royale Militaire of the Ancien Régime (the institution that Napoleon himself had graduated from).
A military school teaches children of various ages (elementary school, middle school or high school) in a military environment which includes training in military aspects, such as drill. Many military schools are also boarding schools, and others are simply magnet schools in a larger school system. Many are privately run institutions, though some are public and are run either by a public school system (such as the Chicago Public Schools) or by a state.
A common misconception results because some states have chosen to house their juvenile criminal populations in higher-security boarding schools that are run in a manner similar to military boarding schools. These are also called reform schools, and are functionally a combination of school and prison. They attempt to emulate the environment of military boarding schools in the belief that a strict structured environment can reform these children. This may or may not be true. However, their environment and target population are different from those of military schools.
A college-level military academy is an institute of higher learning of things military. It is part of a larger system of military education and training institutions. The primary educational goal at military academies is to provide a high quality education that includes significant coursework and training in the fields of military tactics and military strategy. The amount of non-military coursework varies by both the institution and the country, and the amount of practical military experience gained varies as well.
Military academies may or may not grant university degrees. In the US, graduates have a major field of study, earning a Bachelor's degree in that subject just as at other universities. However, in British academies, the graduate does not achieve a university degree, since the whole of the one-year course (undertaken mainly but not exclusively by university graduates) is dedicated to military training.
There are two types of military academies: national (government-run) and state/private-run.
Graduates from national academies are typically commissioned as officers in the country's military. The new officers usually have an obligation to serve for a certain number of years. In some countries (e.g. Britain) all military officers train at the appropriate academy, whereas in others (e.g. the United States) only a percentage do and the service academies are seen as institutions which supply service-specific officers within the forces (about 15 percent of US military officers).
State or private-run academy graduates have no requirement to join the military after graduation, although some schools have a high rate of graduate military service. Today, most of these schools have ventured away from their military roots and now enroll both military and civilian students. The only exception in the United States is the Virginia Military Institute which remains all-military.
Graduates of the Colleges are widely acknowledged to have had a disproportionate impact in the Canadian services and society, thanks to the solid foundations provided by their military education. Military discipline and training, as well as a focus on physical fitness and fluency in both of Canada's two official languages, English and French, provided cadets with ample challenges and a very fulfilling experience. In 1995 the Department of National Defence was forced to close RRMC and CMR due to budget considerations, but RMCC continues to operate.
RRMC reopened as a civilian university in the fall of 1995, and is maintained by the Government of British Columbia. In 2007, the Department of National Defence reopened CMR as a military academy that offers equivalent schooling as CEGEP, a level of post-secondary education in Quebec's education system.
In addition to publicly operated institutions, Canada is also home to one private military boarding school, Robert Land Academy, in West Lincoln, Ontario. Founded in 1978, it is an all-boys' institute that is fully accredited by Ontario's Ministry of Education. The school offers elementary and secondary levels of education, providing schooling for students from Grade 6 to Grade 12.
École des officiers de la gendarmerie nationale (EOGN): gendarmerie commissioned officers academy
École Polytechnique (X): a French engineering grande école of military status. Though all of its French engineering students are enlisted and trained as officers, 5% of its graduates remain in the military after graduation.
Germany has a unique system for civil and military education. The only true military academy is the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr where mainly future staff officers and general staff officers are further trained.
The standard education in military leadership is the task of the Offizierschulen (officers' schools) run by the three branches. The contents differ from branch to branch. According to the doctrine "leading by task", in the army all prospective platoon leaders are trained down to the level of a commander of a mixed combat battalion. There they also have to pass an officer exam to become commissioned later on.
Moreover, there exist so called Waffenschulen (school of weapons) like infantry school or artillery school. There the officers learn to deal with the typical tasks of their respective corps.
A specialty of the German concept of officer formation is the academic education. Germany runs two Universities of the German Federal Armed Forces where almost every future officer has to pass non-military studies and achieve a bachelor's or master's degree. During their studies (after at least three years of service) the candidates become commissioned Leutnant (second lieutenant).
Currently, the Tentara Nasional Indonesia or the TNI (Indonesian National Armed Forces), under the supervision of the Commanding General of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Academy System (a two or three-star officer in billet) in the HQ of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has divided the academies into the three respective services:
Indonesian Air Force Academy (Akademi Angkatan Udara; AAU), in Yogyakarta, is under the supervision of the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Air Force. The academy has three majorings which are: electronics, engineering, and administration. Following graduation, students who are selected as Pilot and Navigator conduct further training in the Pilot and Navigator Flight School prior bearing the Pilot/Navigator designation. Active since 1945, but also inherits the traditions of former Dutch military aviation schools.
Each service academy is headed by a two-star general who serves as superintendent, and his/her deputy is a one-star officer. All the students (cadets/midshipman) are recruited from senior high school graduates from all over Indonesia. Shortly after graduation, they are commissioned as Letnan Dua (Second Lieutenant/Ensign)) in their respective service branches and get the Diploma IV (Associate degree, 4th Grade) comparable to civil academies or universities. The length term is now 4 years and is divided into five grades of cadets' ranks, starting from the lowest:
Prajurit Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Private), 1st year (4 months)
Kopral Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Corporal), 1st year (8 months)
Sersan Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Sergeant), 2nd year
Sersan Mayor Dua Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Second Sergeant Major), 3rd year
Sersan Mayor Satu Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet First Sergeant Major), 4th year
Taruna refers to cadets in the Military Academy, Kadet refers to cadets in the Naval Academy, and Karbol refers to cadets in the Air Force Academy.
Until 1999, before the Indonesian National Police officially separated from the armed forces, the Indonesian Police Academy ("AKPOL") also stood under the National Armed Forces Academy but now has separated from the Military and is under the auspices of the President of Indonesia controlled by the National Police Headquarters (Mabes Polri), where in the other hand the Armed Forces (Army, Naval, and Air Force) Academies of Indonesia is under the auspices of the Ministry of Defense controlled by the Armed Forces General Headquarters (Mabes TNI). Presently, the Police Academy is in Semarang (Central Java), and is supervised under the supervision of the Chief of the Indonesian National Police (Kapolri).
All three academies and the Police Academy have a joint 4th class cadet training program since 2008, after completing it the cadets go to their respective academies to continue with the three remaining years of study before commissioning.
Malaysian Armed Forces Staff College (Maktab Turus Angkatan Tentera)
Armed Forces Health Training Institute (Institut Latihan Kesihatan Angkatan Tentera)
Malaysian Peacekeeping Training Centre (Pusat Latihan Pengaman Malaysia)
Reserve Officer Training Units (Malay: Pasukan Latihan Pegawai Simpanan or PALAPES) or ROTU exists only in public universities in Malaysia. This is a tertiary institution based officer commissioning program to equip students as officer cadets with military knowledge and understanding for service as Commissioned Officers in the reserve components of the various branches of the Malaysian Armed Forces.
These higher education institutions are operated by the Philippine Government and grant different baccalaureate degrees.
Philippine Military Academy (Akademiyang Militar ng Pilipinas), City of Baguio - It is the primary training school of the Armed Forces of the Philippines for would be regular commissioned officers of the Philippine Army, Philippine Navy, Philippine Marine Corps and the Philippine Air Force. It is under the control of the Department of National Defense. Its former name was the Philippine Constabulary Academy. During the American colonial rule era, U.S. Army Cavalry Officers established the school for the professionalization of the enlisted personnel of the defunct Philippine Constabulary. It was renamed the Philippine Military Academy before the 1930s. In 1992, PMA stopped providing graduates to the Philippine Constabulary after the passage of Republic Act 6975 which resulted in the merger of the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police. The merged institutions was named the Philippine National Police. Beginning in 1993, PMA became a co-educational school.
Philippine Merchant Marine Academy, Zambales - It is a school for students who shall serve in different private shipping companies, foreign or local. Its graduates may serve in the Philippine Coast Guard and the Philippine Navy as an ensign after graduation depending upon their choice. All PMMA graduates are also automatically appointed by the president of the Philippines as ensigns (2nd lieutenants) in the Philippine Navy Reserve. This is the oldest of the Philippine service academies having been established in 1820 during the long period of Spanish colonial rule in the country, and was first situated in Manila for many years.
Aside from the PMA and the PMMA, all three branches of the AFP have their own Officer Candidate Course Programs for both men and women, patterned after their US counterparts.
National Defense College of the Philippines, Quezon City - is a school for senior AFP officers for military/naval planning and to ready them in holding the ranks of Brigadier General/Commodore. Notable civilians may enroll and be given the honorary rank of Lieutenant Colonel/Commander in the AFP Reserve upon graduation.
There are also numerous Cadet forces that operate for all branches of the armed forces for children aged 10-20. These are not designed to recruit people into the armed forces but rather are simply Ministry of Defence sponsored youth organisations.
Although an undergraduate degree is not a prerequisite for Officer training, the majority of potential Officers will have attended University before joining the Armed Forces. At some universities there may be the option for people to join either a University Royal Naval Unit, a University Officer Training Corps (UOTC) or a University Air Squadron, which are designed to introduce students to life in the Forces and show them the careers that are available. People sponsored under the Defence Technical Undergraduate Scheme will join one of the four Support Units attached to universities participating in DTUS. There is a requirement for bursars of DTUS to join the military for three years after completion of their degree, there no requirement for students of any other organisation to join the military after they finish their degree programs; and the great majority have no further contact with the armed forces. Although service with these organisations may give some initial benefit to cadets attending the military colleges/academies, the next stage of the officer training programs assumes no prior military experience/knowledge, and those that did not partake in military activities at university are not disadvantaged.
There are now four military academies in the United Kingdom. Although the curriculum at each varies due to the differing nature of the service a man or woman is joining, it is a combination of military and academic study that is designed to turn young civilians into comprehensively trained military officers.
Officer Training for the Reserve Forces (e.g. Army Reserve, Royal Naval Reserve, RAF Reserves and Royal Marines Reserves) also takes place at the relevant military academies, but under a different curriculum and the courses tend to be concentrated into a much shorter period - a significant amount of the study will be undertaken at the cadet's reserve unit.
In the United States, the term "military academy" does not necessarily mean a government-owned institution run by the armed forces to train its own officers. It may also mean a middle school, high school, or college, whether public or private, which instructs its students in military-style education, discipline and tradition. Students at such civilian institutions can earn a commission in the U.S. military through the successful completion of a Reserve Officer Training Corps program along with their college or university's academic coursework.
In addition, these five institutions that were military colleges at the time of their founding now maintain both a corps of cadets and a civilian student body. Many of these institutions also offer on-line degree programs:
Norwich University Corps of Cadets. Norwich University, Northfield, Vermont is a private university in Northfield, Vermont. It is the oldest private military college in the United States. The university was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont, as the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy. It is the oldest of six senior military colleges, and is recognized by the United States Department of Defense as the "Birthplace of ROTC"
These merchant marine academies operate on a military college system. Part of the training that the cadets receive is naval and military in nature. Cadets may apply for Naval Reserve commissions upon obtaining their Merchant Marine Officer's licenses. Most if not all also offer some form of military commissioning program into the active duty US Navy, US Marine Corps, or US Coast Guard.
The United States staff colleges, mandated to serve the needs of officers for post-graduate studies and other such graduate institutions as mandated by the Department of Defense are:
United States Air Force Air University attached staff colleges
^Standberry, Lee (May 9, 2012). "Top 10 Military Colleges in America". TopTenz.net. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved 2016. Unlike other military colleges (the federal service academies), all of VMI's students are members of the Corps of Cadets. This tradition of not offering civilian programs is in keeping with VMI efforts to offer students 'a Spartan, physically and academically demanding environment combined with strict military discipline.'