Minister President (Germany)
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Minister President Germany

The Minister President (Ministerpräsident) is the head of state and government in thirteen of Germany's sixteen states.

In the three states of Berlin, Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg the heads of the state hold different titles:

In the former states of Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern, defunct since 1952, the heads of state held the title State President (Staatspräsident).

Nevertheless, in Germany it is usual to call all sixteen heads of the states ministers president if they are referred to collectively. For example, the regular meetings of the sixteen office-holders are called Conference of Ministers President (Ministerpräsidentenkonferenz).

Constitutional roles and powers

As the German constitution (Basic Law) defines the Federal Republic of Germany as a federation, each German state has its own constitution. The Basic Law gives the states a broad discretion to determine their respective state structure, only stating that each German state has to be a social and democratic republic under the rule of law (Article 28.1). In practice all German states have adopted some form of a mixed parliamentary republican system: Despite some differences between the individual state constitutions, the Ministers President have both typical powers of an executive leader (for example appointing and dismissing cabinet members or defining the political guidelines of the cabinet) and typical powers and functions of a head of state (for example the power to grant pardons on behalf of the state and to perform certain ceremonial duties). As such, their powers and functions resemble those of an executive president, but in contrast to a presidential system, they are not directly elected and depend on the confidence of the respective state parliament. Thus, the constitutional position of a minister president differs from that of the Chancellor of Germany at the federal level, who only holds the role of a chief executive leader, while the President of Germany performs the more ceremonial powers and functions of the federal head of state.

Even though all sixteen ministers president hold roughly the same position in their states, there are also some important differences between the provisions of the state constitutions with regard to the head of state and government. This begins with the election procedure: All ministers president are elected by the state parliament, but while in some states a majority of parliament members is needed for a successful election, in other states a simple majority (a plurality of votes cast) is sufficient. The same goes for recall procedures: In some states, the parliament may simply vote an officeholder out of office, while in other states the parliament has to elect a new officeholder at the same time (Constructive vote of no confidence). In Bavaria, the constitution does not allow a recall of the minister president at all. In fifteen states, the state constitution defines the minister president as the leader of the cabinet, giving him or her the right, to determine the cabinet's political guidelines, but this is not the case in Bremen, where the President of the Senate and Mayor only has a ceremonial precedence over the other cabinet members. There are also differences regarding the ministers president power, to shape his or her cabinet: While in some states the office-holder is free to appoint or dismiss cabinet ministers at his or her discretion, in other states there are limits to this power, while the constitution of Bremen does not give the President of the Senate and Mayor any power, to directly influence the composition of his or her cabinet.

State Title Election threshold Recall procedure Position in cabinet Power to shape the cabinet Right to grant pardon Minimum age Other provisions
Baden-Württemberg[1] Minister President majority of members constructive vote of no confidence guideline competence cabinet appointments subject to parliamentary approval, the state parliament may recall individual cabinet ministers with a two-thirds majority yes 35
Free State of Bavaria[2] Minister President simple majority none guideline competence cabinet appointments subject to parliamentary approval yes 40
Berlin[3] Governing Mayor simple majority vote of no confidence, but if the state parliament does not elect a new Governing Mayor within 21 days, the former officeholder is reinvested automatically guideline competence full no (whole cabinet) 18 (de facto)
Brandenburg[4] Minister President majority of members (first and second ballot), plurality (third ballot) constructive vote of no confidence guideline competence full yes 18 (de facto)
Bremen[5] President of the Senate and Mayor simple majority constructive vote of no confidence ceremonial precedence none no (whole cabinet) 18 may not be a member of the state parliament
Hamburg[6] First Mayor majority of members constructive vote of no confidence guideline competence cabinet appointments subject to parliamentary approval no (whole cabinet) 18 may not be a member of the state parliament
Hesse[7] Minister President majority of members vote of no confidence guideline competence dismissal of cabinet members subject to parliamentary approval yes 18 (de facto) members of noble houses, which have reigned in Germany before 1918, are ineligible for office
Lower Saxony[8] Minister President majority of members or plurality, if the state parliament does not elect a minister president in 21 days and does not dissolve itself thereupon constructive vote of no confidence guideline competence cabinet appointments subject to parliamentary approval yes 18 (de facto)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern[9] Minister President majority of members or plurality, if the state parliament does not elect a minister president in 28 days and does not dissolve itself thereupon constructive vote of no confidence guideline competence full yes 18 (de facto)
North Rhine-Westphalia[10] Minister President majority of members (first ballot), simple majority (second and third ballot), runoff (fourth ballot) constructive vote of no confidence guideline competence full yes 18 has to be a member of the state parliament
Rhineland-Palatinate[11] Minister President majority of members vote of no confidence guideline competence full yes 18 (de facto)
Saarland[12] Minister President majority of members vote of no confidence guideline competence cabinet appointments and dismissals subject to parliamentary approval no (whole cabinet) 18 (de facto)
Free State of Saxony[13] Minister President majority of members (first ballot), simple majority (following ballots) constructive vote of no confidence guideline competence full yes 18 (de facto)
Saxony-Anhalt[14] Minister President majority of members or simple majority, if the state parliament does not elect a minister president in 14 days and does not dissolve itself thereupon constructive vote of no confidence guideline competence full yes 18 (de facto)
Schleswig-Holstein[15] Minister President majority of members (first and second ballot), plurality (third ballot) constructive vote of no confidence guideline competence full yes 18 (de facto)
Free State of Thuringia[16] Minister President majority of members (first and second ballot), plurality (third ballot) constructive vote of no confidence guideline competence full yes 18 (de facto)

By virtue of their position in the Bundesrat, the ministers president can exert considerable influence on national politics within the federal structure. Along with several of their ministers, they commonly represent their state in the Bundesrat (the German Federal Council). Each state government is represented in the Bundesrat by three to six delegates, depending on the state's population.

Deputies

The Ministers President appoint one (or in some states two) member(s) of their cabinet as their deputies. In most states the deputy of the minister president holds the title Deputy Minister President. Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein have a higher ranking First Deputy Minister President and a lower ranking Second Deputy Minister President. Bavaria has a higher ranking Deputy Minister President and a lower ranking Additional Deputy Minister President. Berlin has two equally ranking Mayors deputizing for the Governing Mayor, while Bremen has a Mayor deputizing for the President of the Senate and Mayor and Hamburg has a Second Mayor deputizing for the First Mayor.

Their duties and functions mirror roughly those of the Vice Chancellor of Germany on federal level. Most importantly, the Deputy Ministers President (or equivalent) temporarily act as Minister President in case of the office-holder's death or incapacity until the election of a successor by the state parliament. An exception to this are the regulations in the state constitution of Bavaria (Art. 44.3), which designates both the Deputy Minister President (for internal affairs) and the President of the Landtag (for the external representation) as acting successors. If an office-holder resigns, normally he or she stays in office as acting Minister President (or equivalent) themselves until a successor is elected. This is however not the case, if the reason for the resignation is some form of constitutional, legal or traditional incompatibility with an office, on which the resigning office-holder has entered: The Basic Law prohibits the President of Germany from holding office in a state government at the same time (Art. 55.1). According to the Federal Constitutional Court Act, the same applies to judges on the Federal Constitutional Court (§ 3.3). Under federal law, simultaneous membership in the Bundestag or the federal government is not prohibited for a Minister President (or other members of a state government), but in some states it is forbidden by the state constitution and generally it is not in line with political tradition. Therefore, office-holders elected or appointed to such office usually resign and refrain from continuing to hold the office of Minister President on an acting basis, leaving that role to their deputy.[17]

The historically most significant case of such an acting Minister Presidency occurred in Schleswig-Holstein in 1987/88: The state election on 13 September 1987 had resulted in a stalemate between the centre-right bloc of CDU and FDP, which supported the incumbent Uwe Barschel, and the centre-left parties SPD and SSW, each with 37 seats. Due to the weak election results for the CDU and above all the Barschel affair, a supposed election-fraud scandal, Barschel declared his resignation with effect from 2 October and died a few days later in a hotel in Geneva under circumstances that have not been clarified to this day. As a result, the previous deputy Henning Schwarz became acting Minister President. Attempts to elect a new Minister President in the state parliament failed because of the stalemate, so the parliament dissolved itself and early state elections were held on 8 May 1988. The SPD emerged from these with an absolute majority of seats and its leading candidate Björn Engholm was elected Minister President on 31 May. Schwarz thus held office as acting Minister President for 242 days.

List of current office-holders

The longest-serving incumbent office-holder is Volker Bouffier, who serves as the Minister President of Hesse since 31 August 2010. Bodo Ramelow, the Minister President of Thuringia (since 4 March 2020), is the shortest-serving incumbent, although he already held this office from 2014 until 5 February 2020.

Portrait Name
Cabinet
Title entered office Party Deputy
Title
Coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Winfried Kretschmann 2012 (cropped).jpg Winfried Kretschmann
Cabinet Kretschmann III
Minister President of Baden-Württemberg 12 May 2011 Alliance 90/The Greens Thomas Strobl
(CDU)
Deputy Minister President
Bayern Wappen.svg
Free State of Bavaria
2018-10-12 Markus Söder CSU 8341.jpg Markus Söder
Cabinet Söder II
Minister President of Bavaria 16 March 2018 CSU Hubert Aiwanger
(Free Voters)
Deputy Minister President

Joachim Herrmann
(CSU)
Additional Deputy Minister President
Coat of arms of Berlin
Berlin
2017-11-16 Michael Müller (Wiki Loves Parliaments 2017 in Berlin) by Sandro Halank.jpg Michael Müller
Senate Müller II
Governing Mayor of Berlin 11 December 2014 SPD Klaus Lederer
(The Left)
Mayor
Ramona Pop
(Alliance 90/The Greens)
Mayor
Coat of arms of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Dietmar Woidke M-0212 36139 Ausschnitt Color Hoffotografen (cropped).jpg Dietmar Woidke
Cabinet Woidke III
Minister President of Brandenburg 28 August 2013 SPD Michael Stübgen
(CDU)
First Deputy Minister President

Ursula Nonnenmacher
(Alliance 90/The Greens)
Second Deputy Minister President
Coat of arms of Bremen
Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
Bovenschulte, Andreas NEU-1.jpg Andreas Bovenschulte
Senate Bovenschulte
President of the Senate and Mayor of Bremen 15 August 2019 SPD Maike Schaefer
(Alliance 90/The Greens)
Mayor
Coat of arms of Hamburg
Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Peter Tschentscher (2018).jpg Peter Tschentscher
Senate Tschentscher II
First Mayor of Hamburg 28 March 2018 SPD Katharina Fegebank
(Alliance 90/The Greens)
Second Mayor
Coat of arms of Hesse
Hesse
MJK00898 Volker Bouffier.jpg Volker Bouffier
Cabinet Bouffier III
Minister President of Hesse 31 August 2010 CDU Tarek Al-Wazir
(Alliance 90/The Greens)
Deputy Minister President
Coat of arms of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
Weil, Stephan.jpg Stephan Weil
Cabinet Weil II
Minister President of Lower Saxony 19 February 2013 SPD Bernd Althusmann
(CDU)
Deputy Minister President
Coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Manuela Schwesig 2.jpg Manuela Schwesig
Cabinet Schwesig
Minister President of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 4 July 2017 SPD Harry Glawe
(CDU)
Deputy Minister President
Coat of arms of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
Grundsteinlegung MiQua-7004 (cropped).jpg Armin Laschet
Cabinet Laschet
Minister President of North Rhine-Westphalia 27 June 2017 CDU Joachim Stamp
(FDP)
Deputy Minister President
Coat of arms of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
WLP RLP 9648 Malu Dreyer.jpg Malu Dreyer
Cabinet Dreyer III
Minister President of Rhineland-Palatinate 16 January 2013 SPD Volker Wissing
(FDP)
Deputy Minister President
Coat of arms of Saarland
Saarland
Tobias Hans-6779.jpg Tobias Hans
Cabinet Hans
Minister President of Saarland 1 March 2018 CDU Anke Rehlinger
(SPD)
Deputy Minister President
Coat of arms of Saxony
Free State of Saxony
Michael Kretschmer-v2 Pawel-Sosnowski - Querformat (cropped).jpg Michael Kretschmer
Cabinet Kretschmer II
Minister President of Saxony 13 December 2017 CDU Wolfram Günther
(Alliance 90/The Greens)
First Deputy Minister President

Martin Dulig
(SPD)
Second Deputy Minister President
Coat of arms of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
Reiner Haseloff (Martin Rulsch) 09.jpg Reiner Haseloff
Cabinet Haseloff II
Minister President of Saxony-Anhalt 19 April 2011 CDU Petra Grimm-Benne
(SPD)
First Deputy Minister President

Claudia Dalbert
(Alliance 90/The Greens)
Second Deputy Minister President
Coat of arms of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
Daniel Günther (2017).jpg Daniel Günther
Cabinet Günther
Minister President of Schleswig-Holstein 28 June 2017 CDU Monika Heinold
(Alliance 90/The Greens)
First Deputy Minister President

Hainer Garg
(FDP)
Second Deputy Minister President
Coat of arms of Thuringia
Free State of Thuringia
2019-10-27 Wahlabend Thüringen by Sandro Halank-57.jpg Bodo Ramelow
Cabinet Ramelow II
Minister President of Thuringia 4 March 2020 The Left Wolfgang Tiefensee
(SPD)
Deputy Minister President

Lists of former Ministers president

The vast majority former ministers president have been members of Germany's two biggest political parties, the center-right CDU (or, in Bavaria, its sister party CSU) and the center-left SPD. However, all german parties currently represented in the Bundestag, apart from the AfD, have at least once provided a minister president.

Alliance 90/The Greens:

Free Democratic Party of Germany (FDP):

The Left:

  • Bodo Ramelow, Minister President of Thuringia (2014-2020 and since 2020)

Ministers President of Baden-Württemberg (since 1952)

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Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term of Office Political Party
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Reinhold Maier.jpg Reinhold Maier
(1889-1971)
25 April 1952 30 September 1953
resigned
1 year, 158 days FDP
2 Gebhard Müller.jpg Gebhard Müller
(1900-1990)
30 September 1953 17 December 1958
resigned
appointed to the
Federal Constitutional
Court
5 years, 78 days CDU
3 Kurt Georg Kiesinger (Nürburgring, 1969).jpg Kurt Georg Kiesinger
(1904-1988)
17 December 1958 1 December 1966
resigned
elected Chancellor
7 years, 349 days CDU
Wolfgang Haußmann (acting) 1 December 1966 16 December 1966 15 days FDP
4 Hans Filbinger (Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F054633-0026, Ludwigshafen, CDU-Bundesparteitag cropped).jpg Hans Filbinger
(1913-2007)
16 December 1966 30 August 1978
resigned
11 years, 257 days CDU
5 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F067146-0013, Lothar Späth.jpg Lothar Späth
(1937-2016)
30 August 1978 22 January 1991
resigned
12 years, 145 days CDU
6 Erwin Teufel 2011.JPG Erwin Teufel
(born 1939)
22 January 1991 21 April 2005
resigned
14 years, 89 days CDU
7 Guenther h oettinger 2007-portrait.jpg Günther Oettinger
(born 1953)
21 April 2005 10 February 2010
resigned
appointed to the
European
Commission
4 years, 295 days CDU
8 Stefan Mappus 2011 (cropped).jpg Stefan Mappus
(born 1966)
10 February 2010 12 May 2011 1 year, 91 days CDU
9 Winfried Kretschmann 2012 (cropped).jpg Winfried Kretschmann
(born 1948)
12 May 2011 Incumbent 10 years, 35 days Alliance 90/The Greens

Ministers President of Bavaria (since 1945)

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Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term of Office Political Party
Took office Left office Time in office
1 KAS-Schäffer, Fritz-Bild-395-1.jpg Fritz Schäffer
(1888-1967)
28 May 1945 28 September 1945 123 days CSU
2 Wilhelm Hoegner.jpg Wilhelm Hoegner
(1887-1980)
1st term
28 September 1945 16 December 1946 1 year, 79 days SPD
3 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F011950-0010, Hans Ehard cropped.jpg Hans Ehard
(1887-1980)
1st term
21 December 1946 14 December 1954 7 years, 358 days CSU
4 Wilhelm Hoegner.jpg Wilhelm Hoegner
(1887-1980)
2nd term
14 December 1954 8 October 1957
resigned
2 years, 298 days SPD
5 Hanns Seidel.jpg Hanns Seidel
(1901-1961)
16 October 1957 22 January 1960
resigned
2 years, 98 days CSU
6 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F011950-0010, Hans Ehard cropped.jpg Hans Ehard
(1887-1980)
2nd term
26 January 1960 11 December 1962 2 years, 319 days CSU
7 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F014898-0006, Alfons Goppel.jpg Alfons Goppel
(1905-1991)
11 December 1962 6 November 1978 15 years, 330 days CSU
8 Franz Josef Strauß 1982.jpg Franz Josef Strauss
(1915-1988)
6 November 1978 3 October 1988
died in office
9 years, 332 days CSU
Max Streibl (acting, Deputy MP), Franz Heubl (acting, President of the Landtag) 3 October 1988 19 October 1988 16 days both CSU
9 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F083104-0015, München, CSU-Parteitag, Streibl.jpg Max Streibl
(1932-1998)
19 October 1988 28 May 1993
resigned
4 years, 221 days CSU
10 DrEdmundStoiber.jpg Edmund Stoiber
(born 1941)
28 May 1993 9 October 2007
resigned
14 years, 135 days CSU
11 8035ri-Guenther Beckstein.jpg Günther Beckstein
(born 1943)
9 October 2007 27 October 2008 1 year, 18 days CSU
12 12-07-17-landtagsprojekt-bayern-RalfR-001.jpg Horst Seehofer
(born 1949)
27 October 2008 13 March 2018
resigend
appointed
Federal Minister
of the Interior
9 years, 140 days CSU
Ilse Aigner (acting, Deputy MP), Barbara Stamm (acting, President of the Landtag) 13 March 2018 16 March 2018 3 days both CSU
13 Markus Söder MSC 2019 (cropped).jpg Markus Söder
(born 1967)
16 March 2018 Incumbent 3 years, 92 days CSU

Governing Mayors of Berlin (since 1948, West Berlin until 1990/91)

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Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term of Office Political Party
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Ernst Reuter.jpg Ernst Reuter
(1889-1953)
7 December 1948 29 September 1953
died in office
4 years, 296 days SPD
2 Walther Schreiber.jpeg Walther Schreiber
(1884-1958)
29 September 1953 11 January 1955 1 year, 104 days CDU
3 DBPB 1958 181 Otto Suhr.jpg Otto Suhr
(1894-1957)
11 January 1955 30 August 1957
died in office
2 years, 231 days SPD
Franz Amrehn (acting) 30 August 1957 3 October 1957 34 days CDU
4 Willy Brandt.jpg Willy Brandt
(1913-1992)
3 October 1957 1 December 1966
resigned
appointed
Federal Minister
for Foreign Affairs
and Vice Chancellor
9 years, 59 days SPD
5 Heinrich Albertz.jpg Heinrich Albertz
(1915-1993)
1 December 1966 19 October 1967
resigned
322 days SPD
6 Klaus Schütz thumb.jpg Klaus Schütz
(1926-2012)
19 October 1967 2 May 1977
resigned
9 years, 195 days SPD
7 Dietrich Stobbe.jpg Dietrich Stobbe
(1938-2011)
2 May 1977 23 January 1981
resigned
3 years, 266 days SPD
8 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F039421-0018, Hannover, SPD-Bundesparteitag, Vogel.jpg Hans-Jochen Vogel
(1926-2020)
23 January 1981 11 June 1981 139 days SPD
9 Richard von Weizsäcker.jpg Richard von Weizsäcker
(1920-2015)
11 June 1981 9 February 1984
resigned
elected
President of Germany
2 years, 243 days CDU
10 KAS-Diepgen, Eberhard-Bild-18960-1.jpg Eberhard Diepgen
(born 1941)
1st term
9 February 1984 16 March 1989 5 years, 35 days CDU
11 MomperBrandenburgerTor Dec 1989.jpg Walter Momper[a]
(born 1945)
16 March 1989 24 January 1991 1 year, 314 days SPD
12 KAS-Diepgen, Eberhard-Bild-18960-1.jpg Eberhard Diepgen
(born 1941)
2nd term
24 January 1991 16 June 2001
replaced by
a constructive vote
of no confidence
10 years, 143 days CDU
13 Klaus Wowereit Berlin-Tegel 01.jpg Klaus Wowereit
(born 1953)
16 June 2001 11 December 2014
resigned
13 years, 178 days SPD
14 2017-11-16 Michael Müller (Wiki Loves Parliaments 2017 in Berlin) by Sandro Halank.jpg Michael Müller
(born 1964)
11 December 2014 Incumbent 6 years, 187 days SPD
  1. ^ Due to the German Reunification Treaty, from 3 October 1990 on Momper, as Governing Mayor of West Berlin, governed the reunited state of Berlin together with the Lord Mayor of East Berlin, until the formation of a democratically legitimate state government following the 1990 Berlin state election on 24 January 1991. The Lord Mayors of East Berlin during this period were Tino Schwierzina (SPD, 3 October 1990-11 January 1991) and Thomas Krüger (acting, SPD, 11 January-24 January 1991).

Ministers President of Brandenburg (since 1990)

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Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
1 Manfred Stolpe (cropped) (2).JPG Manfred Stolpe
(1936-2019)
1 November 1990 26 June 2002
resigned
11 years, 237 days SPD
2 Matthias-platzeck-ebw-01.jpg Matthias Platzeck
(born 1953)
26 June 2002 28 August 2013
resigned
11 years, 63 days SPD
3 2017-03-19 Dietmar Woidke SPD Parteitag by Olaf Kosinsky-1.jpg Dietmar Woidke
(born 1961)
28 August 2013 Incumbent 7 years, 292 days SPD

Presidents of the Senate and Mayors of Bremen (since 1945)

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Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
1 Blank portrait, male (rectangular).png Erich Vagts
(1884-1967)
2 May 1945 31 July 1945 90 days Independent
2 Bgm Kaisen k.jpg Wilhelm Kaisen
(1887-1979)
31 July 1945 20 July 1965 19 years, 354 days SPD
3 Bgm Dehnkamp.jpg Willy Dehnkamp
(1903-1985)
20 July 1965 28 November 1967 2 years, 141 days SPD
4 Bgm Koschnick.jpg Hans Koschnick
(1929-2016)
28 November 1967 18 September 1985 17 years, 294 days SPD
5 Bgm Wedemeier k.jpg Klaus Wedemeier
(born 1944)
18 September 1985 4 July 1995 9 years, 289 days SPD
6 HenningScherf.jpg Henning Scherf
(born 1938)
4 July 1995 8 November 2005
resigned
10 years, 127 days SPD
7 Portrait Buergermeister Boehrnsen.jpg Jens Böhrnsen
(born 1949)
8 November 2005 17 July 2015 9 years, 251 days SPD
8 2019-05-26 Wahlabend Bremen by Sandro Halank-063.jpg Carsten Sieling
(born 1959)
17 July 2015 15 August 2019 4 years, 29 days SPD
9 Bovenschulte, Andreas NEU-1.jpg Andreas Bovenschulte
(born 1965)
15 August 2019 Incumbent 1 year, 305 days SPD

First Mayors of Hamburg (since 1946)

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Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
1 Max Brauer 1927.jpg Max Brauer
(1887-1973)
1st term
22 November 1946 2 December 1953
replaced by
a constructive vote
of no confidence
7 years, 10 days SPD
2 Sieveking Kurt 7. CDU-Bundesparteitag.JPG Kurt Sieveking
(1897-1986)
2 December 1953 4 December 1957 4 years, 2 days CDU
3 Max Brauer 1927.jpg Max Brauer
(1887-1973)
2nd term
4 December 1957 31 December 1960
resigned
3 years, 27 days SPD
4 Paul Nevermann - Ausschnitt aus Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F009507-0007, Hamburg, Besuch Staatspräsident von Pakistan.jpg Paul Nevermann
(1902-1979)
1 January 1961 9 June 1965
resigned
4 years, 159 days SPD
5 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F034188-0011, Bonn, Heinemann empfängt Oberbürgermeister.jpg Herbert Weichmann
(1896-1983)
9 June 1965 9 June 1971
resigned
6 years, 0 days SPD
6 PeterSchulzErsterBürgermeisterHamburg.jpg Peter Schulz
(1930-2013)
9 June 1971 12 November 1974 3 years, 156 days SPD
7 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F055059-0030, Köln, SPD-Parteitag, Klose.jpg Hans-Ulrich Klose
(born 1937)
12 November 1974 8 June 1981
resigned
6 years, 208 days SPD
8 Klaus von Dohnanyi 1978 (cropped).jpg Klaus von Dohnanyi
(born 1928)
24 June 1981 8 June 1988 6 years, 350 days SPD
9 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F079282-0019, Münster, SPD-Parteitag, Voscherau.jpg Henning Voscherau
(1941-2016)
8 June 1988 12 November 1997 9 years, 157 days SPD
10 Ortwin Runde (retuschiert).jpg Ortwin Runde
(born 1944)
12 November 1997 31 October 2001 3 years, 353 days SPD
11 Ole von Beust 3289c.JPG Ole von Beust
(born 1955)
31 October 2001 25 August 2010
resigned
8 years, 298 days CDU
12 Christoph Ahlhaus.jpg Christoph Ahlhaus
(born 1969)
25 August 2010 7 March 2011 194 days CDU
13 Olaf Scholz - Bürgerschaftswahl in Hamburg 2015 02 (cropped).jpg Olaf Scholz
(born 1958)
7 March 2011 13 March 2018
resigned
appointed
Federal Minister of Finance
and Vice Chancellor
7 years, 6 days SPD
Katharina Fegebank (acting) 13 March 2018 28 March 2018 15 days Alliance 90/The Greens
14 Peter Tschentscher (2018).jpg Peter Tschentscher
(born 1966)
28 March 2018 Incumbent 3 years, 80 days SPD

Ministers President of Hesse (since 1946)

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Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
1 Christian Stock.jpg Christian Stock
(1884-1967)
20 December 1946 14 December 1950 3 years, 359 days SPD
2 Georg-August Zinn.jpg Georg-August Zinn
(1901-1976)
14 December 1950 3 October 1969 18 years, 293 days SPD
3 Albert Osswald.jpg Albert Osswald
(1919-1996)
3 October 1969 16 October 1976
resigned
7 years, 13 days SPD
4 -Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F055060-0007A, Köln, SPD-Parteitag, Börner-2.jpg Holger Börner
(1931-2006)
16 October 1976 23 April 1987 10 years, 189 days SPD
5 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F073628-0015, Mainz, CDU-Bundesparteitag, Wallmann.jpg Walter Wallmann
(1932-2013)
23 April 1987 5 April 1991 3 years, 347 days CDU
6 Hans Eichel 01.jpg Hans Eichel
(born 1941)
5 April 1991 7 April 1999 8 years, 2 days SPD
7 RKoch.jpg Roland Koch
(born 1958)
7 April 1999 31 August 2010
resigned
11 years, 146 days CDU
8 MJK00898 Volker Bouffier.jpg Volker Bouffier
(born 1951)
31 August 2010 Incumbent 10 years, 289 days CDU

Ministers President of Lower Saxony (since 1946)

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Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
1 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F046120-0016, Koblenz, "Rittersturz-Konferenz", Kopf.jpg Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf
(1893-1961)
1st term
9 December 1946 26 May 1955 8 years, 168 days SPD
2 Blank portrait, male (rectangular).png Heinrich Hellwege
(1908-1991)
26 May 1955 12 May 1959 3 years, 351 days German Party
3 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F046120-0016, Koblenz, "Rittersturz-Konferenz", Kopf.jpg Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf
(1893-1961)
2nd term
12 May 1959 21 December 1961
died in office
2 years, 223 days SPD
Hermann Ahrens (acting) 21 December 1961 29 December 1961 8 days GB/BHE
4 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F030208-0027, Bonn, Landesvertretung Niedersachsen, Diederichs.jpg Georg Diederichs
(1900-1983)
29 December 1961 8 July 1970 8 years, 191 days SPD
5 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F046646-0036, Bonn, Empfang für Bundesratsdirektor Dr. Pfitzer (Alfred Kubel cropped).jpg Alfred Kubel
(1909-1999)
8 July 1970 6 February 1976
resigned
5 years, 213 days SPD
6 KAS-Albrecht, Ernst-Bild-1099-1.jpg Ernst Albrecht
(1930-2014)
6 February 1976 21 June 1990 14 years, 135 days CDU
7 Gerhard Schröder (cropped).jpg Gerhard Schröder
(born 1944)
21 June 1990 28 October 1998
resigned
elected Chancellor
8 years, 129 days SPD
8 Blank portrait, male (rectangular).png Gerhard Glogowski
(born 1943)
28 October 1998 15 October 1999
resigned
352 days SPD
9 Sigmar Gabriel (2012).jpg Sigmar Gabriel
(born 1959)
15 October 1999 4 March 2003 3 years, 140 days SPD
10 Landtag Niedersachsen DSCF7770 cropped.JPG Christian Wulff
(born 1959)
4 March 2003 30 June 2010
resigned
elected President of Germany
7 years, 118 days CDU
Jörg Bode (acting) 30 June 2010 1 July 2010 1 day FDP
11 Landtag Niedersachsen DSCF7646 - McAllister cropped.jpg David McAllister
(born 1971)
1 July 2010 19 February 2013 2 years, 233 days CDU
12 Weil, Stephan.jpg Stephan Weil
(born 1958)
19 February 2013 Incumbent 8 years, 117 days SPD

Ministers President of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (since 1990)

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Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term Party
Took office Left office Days
1 Alfred Gomolka.jpg Alfred Gomolka
(1942-2020)
27 October 1990 19 March 1992
resigned
1 year, 144 days CDU
2 Berndt Seite (2009) by Guenter Prust.jpg Berndt Seite
(born 1940)
19 March 1992 3 November 1998 6 years, 229 days CDU
3 Harald Ringstorff Jun07.jpg Harald Ringstorff
(1939-2020)
3 November 1998 6 October 2008
resigned
9 years, 338 days SPD
4 13-06-20-erwin-sellering-07.jpg Erwin Sellering
(born 1949)
6 October 2008 4 July 2017
resigned
8 years, 271 days SPD
5 Manuela Schwesig 2.jpg Manuela Schwesig
(born 1974)
4 July 2017 Incumbent 3 years, 347 days SPD

Ministers President of North Rhine-Westphalia (since 1946)

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Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
1 Rudolf Amelunxen - Ausschnitt aus Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F001946-0009, Berlin, Bundesversammlung wählt Bundespräsident.jpg Rudolf Amelunxen
(1888-1969)
23 August 1946 17 June 1947 298 Non-partisan
(until 1947)
Centre Party
(from 1947)
2 KAS-Arnold, Karl-Bild-398-1.jpg Karl Arnold
(1901-1958)
17 June 1947 20 February 1956
replaced
by a constructive vote
of no confidence
8 years, 248 days CDU
3 Bundesarchiv Fritz Steinhoff.jpg Fritz Steinhoff
(1897-1969)
20 February 1956 21 July 1958 2 years, 151 days SPD
4 Franz Meyers ex Ludwig Erhard 1965 FdG 1.jpg Franz Meyers
(1908-2002)
21 July 1958 8 December 1966
replaced
by a constructive vote
of no confidence
8 years, 140 days CDU
5 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F023752-0007 Heinz Kühn cropped.jpg Heinz Kühn
(1912-1992)
8 December 1966 20 September 1978 11 years, 286 days SPD
6 Johannes rau 2004-05-16 berlin-RZ.jpg Johannes Rau
(1931-2006)
20 September 1978 27 May 1998
resigned
19 years, 249 days SPD
7 Wolfgang Clement.jpg Wolfgang Clement
(1940-2020)
27 May 1998 22 October 2002
resigned
appointed Federal Minister
for the Economy
and Labour
4 years, 148 days SPD
Michael Vesper (acting) 22 October 2002 6 November 2002 15 days Alliance 90/The Greens
8 Dts news streinbrueck wikipedia.JPG Peer Steinbrück
(born 1947)
6 November 2002 22 June 2005 2 years, 228 days SPD
9 Juergen Ruettgers.jpg Jürgen Rüttgers
(born 1951)
22 June 2005 14 July 2010 5 years, 22 days CDU
10 Hannelorekraft.jpg Hannelore Kraft
(born 1961)
14 July 2010 27 June 2017 6 years, 348 days SPD
11 Grundsteinlegung MiQua-7004 (cropped).jpg Armin Laschet
(born 1961)
27 June 2017 Incumbent 3 years, 354 days CDU

Ministers President of Rhineland-Palatinate (since 1946)

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Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
1 Blank portrait, male (rectangular).png Wilhelm Boden
(1890-1961)
1 December 1946 9 July 1947 220 days CDU
2 KAS-Altmeier, Peter-Bild-6902-1.jpg Peter Altmeier
(1899-1977)
9 July 1947 19 May 1969 21 years, 314 days CDU
3 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F074398-0021 Kohl (cropped).jpg Helmut Kohl
(1930-2017)
19 May 1969 2 December 1976
resigned
elected to the Bundestag
7 years, 197 days CDU
4 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F077600-0003, Bernhard Vogel cropped.jpg Bernhard Vogel
(born 1932)
2 December 1976 8 December 1988
resigned
12 years, 6 days CDU
5 KAS-Wagner, Carl-Ludwig-Bild-2447-2.jpg Carl-Ludwig Wagner
(1930-2012)
8 December 1988 21 May 1991 2 years, 164 days CDU
6 Bundeswehr-Foto BVM012 Rudolf Scharping.jpg Rudolf Scharping
(born 1947)
21 May 1991 26 October 1994
resigned
elected to the Bundestag
3 years, 158 days SPD
7 Kurt Beck in Düsseldorf (2010) cropped.jpg Kurt Beck
(born 1949)
26 October 1994 16 January 2013
resigned
18 years, 82 days SPD
8 WLP RLP 9648 Malu Dreyer.jpg Malu Dreyer
(born 1961)
16 January 2013 Incumbent 8 years, 151 days SPD

Ministers President of Saarland (since 1947, joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957)

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Portrait Name
(born and died)
Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Days
1 WP Johannes Hoffmann 1941.jpg Johannes Hoffmann
(1890-1967)
20 December 1947 29 October 1955
resigned
7 years, 313 days CVP
2 Blank portrait, male (rectangular).png Heinrich Welsch
(1888-1976)
29 October 1955 10 January 1956 73 days Independent
3 Ney, Hubert cropped, Bestanddeelnr 907-3847.jpg Hubert Ney
(1892-1984)
10 January 1956 4 June 1957
resigned
1 year, 145 days CDU
4 Blank portrait, male (rectangular).png Egon Reinert
(1908-1959)
4 June 1957 23 April 1959
died in office
1 year, 323 days CDU
5 KAS-Röder, Franz Josef-Bild-902-2.jpg Franz-Josef Röder
(1909-1979)
23 April 1959 26 June 1979
died in office
20 years, 64 days CDU
Werner Klumpp (acting) 26 June 1979 5 July 1979 9 days FDP
6 KAS-Zeyer, Werner-Bild-7286-1.jpg Werner Zeyer
(1929-2000)
5 July 1979 9 April 1985 5 years, 278 days CDU
7 Oskar Lafontaine (1990).jpg Oskar Lafontaine
(born 1943)
9 April 1985 10 November 1998
resigned
appointed Federal Minister
of Finance
13 years, 215 days SPD
8 ReinhardKlimmtP1060301.jpg Reinhard Klimmt
(born 1942)
10 November 1998 29 September 1999 323 days SPD
9 Peter Müller1.jpg Peter Müller
(born 1955)
29 September 1999 10 August 2011
resigned
appointed to the
Federal Constitutional Court
11 years, 315 days CDU
10 Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer 2 par Claude Truong-Ngoc janvier 2015.jpg Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer
(born 1962)
10 August 2011 1 March 2018
resigned
6 years, 203 days CDU
11 Tobias Hans-6779.jpg Tobias Hans
(born 1978)
1 March 2018 Incumbent 3 years, 107 days CDU

Ministers President of Saxony (since 1990)

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Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
1 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F082409-0036, Bremen, CDU-Bundesparteitag, Biedenkopf Porträt.jpg Kurt Biedenkopf
(born 1930)
27 October 1990 18 April 2002
resigned
11 years, 173 days CDU
2 Milbrad Dresden Hbf (cropped).jpg Georg Milbradt
(born 1945)
18 April 2002 28 May 2008
resigned
6 years, 40 days CDU
3 SACHSEN CDU 13.06.20130123 - Portrait.jpg Stanislaw Tillich
(born 1959)
28 May 2008 13 December 2017
resigned
9 years, 199 days CDU
4 2019-09-01 Wahlabend Sachsen by Sandro Halank-057.jpg Michael Kretschmer
(born 1975)
13 December 2017 Incumbent 3 years, 185 days CDU

Ministers President of Saxony-Anhalt (since 1990)

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Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
1 KAS-Gies, Gerd-Bild-15355-1.jpg Gerd Gies
(born 1943)
28 October 1990 4 July 1991
resigned
249 days CDU
2 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F089255-0009, Werner Münch.jpg Werner Münch
(born 1940)
4 July 1991 2 December 1993
resigned
2 years, 151 days CDU
3 MK28109 Christoph Bergner.jpg Christoph Bergner
(born 1948)
2 December 1993 21 June 1994 201 days CDU
4 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1990-0421-330, Reinhard Höppner.jpg Reinhard Höppner
(1948-2014)
21 June 1994 16 May 2002 7 years, 329 days SPD
5 KAS-Böhmer, Wolfgang-Bild-26353-3 (cropped).jpg Wolfgang Böhmer
(born 1936)
16 May 2002 19 April 2011 8 years, 338 days CDU
6 Reiner Haseloff (Martin Rulsch) 09.jpg Reiner Haseloff
(born 1954)
19 April 2011 Incumbent 10 years, 58 days CDU

Ministers President of Schleswig-Holstein (since 1946)

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Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
1 Blank portrait, male (rectangular).png Theodor Steltzer
(1885-1967)
12 September 1946 29 April 1947 229 days CDU
2 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F046120-0015, Koblenz, "Rittersturz-Konferenz", Lüdemann.jpg Hermann Lüdemann
(1880-1959)
29 April 1947 29 August 1949 2 years, 122 days SPD
3 Blank portrait, male (rectangular).png Bruno Diekmann
(1897-1982)
29 August 1949 5 September 1950 1 year, 7 days SPD
4 Walter Bartram, cropped.jpg Walter Bartram
(1893-1971)
5 September 1950 25 June 1951
resigned
293 days CDU
5 Blank portrait, male (rectangular).png Friedrich-Wilhelm Lübke
(1887-1954)
25 June 1951 11 October 1954
resigned
3 years, 108 days CDU
6 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F054627-0003, Ludwigshafen, CDU-Bundesparteitag, von Hassel (cropped).jpg Kai-Uwe von Hassel
(1913-1997)
11 October 1954 14 January 1963
resigned
appointed Federal Minister
of Defence
8 years, 95 days CDU
7 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F025579-0006, Bonn, Bundesratspräsident cropped.jpg Helmut Lemke
(1907-1990)
14 January 1963 24 May 1971 8 years, 130 days CDU
8 Verteidigungsminister Dr. Gerhard Stoltenberg (4909220253).jpg Gerhard Stoltenberg
(1928-2001)
24 May 1971 14 October 1982
resigned
appointed Federal Minister
of Finance
11 years, 143 days CDU
9 Uwe Barschel.jpg Uwe Barschel
(1944-1987)
14 October 1982 2 October 1987
resigned
4 years, 353 days CDU
Henning Schwarz (acting) 2 October 1987 31 May 1988 242 days CDU
10 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F080691-0026, Björn Engholm.jpg Björn Engholm
(born 1939)
31 May 1988 19 May 1993
resigned
4 years, 353 days SPD
11 Heidesimonis.jpg Heide Simonis
(born 1943)
19 May 1993 27 April 2005 11 years, 343 days SPD
12 PeterHarryCarstensen (Foto Frank Ossenbrink).jpg Peter Harry Carstensen
(born 1947)
27 April 2005 12 June 2012 7 years, 46 days CDU
13 13-08-23-torsten-albig-07.jpg Torsten Albig
(born 1963)
12 June 2012 28 June 2017 5 years, 16 days SPD
14 Daniel Günther (2017).jpg Daniel Günther
(born 1973)
28 June 2017 Incumbent 3 years, 353 days CDU

Ministers President of Thuringia (since 1990)

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Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took office Left office Days
1 KAS-Duchac, Josef-Bild-15465-2 (cropped).jpg Josef Duchac
(born 1938)
8 November 1990 5 February 1992
resigned
1 year, 89 days CDU
2 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F077600-0003, Bernhard Vogel cropped.jpg Bernhard Vogel
(born 1932)
5 February 1992 5 June 2003
resigned
11 years, 120 days CDU
3 Dieter althaus2008.jpg Dieter Althaus
(born 1958)
5 June 2003 30 October 2009 6 years, 147 days CDU
4 Thüringens Ministerpräsidentin Christine Lieberknecht.JPG Christine Lieberknecht
(born 1958)
30 October 2009 5 December 2014 5 years, 36 days CDU
5 2019-10-27 Wahlabend Thüringen by Sandro Halank-57.jpg Bodo Ramelow
(born 1956)
1st term
5 December 2014 5 February 2020 5 years, 62 days The Left
6 2019-10-27 Wahlabend Thüringen by Sandro Halank-25.jpg Thomas Kemmerich
(born 1965)
5 February 2020 4 March 2020
resigned
28 days FDP
7 2019-10-27 Wahlabend Thüringen by Sandro Halank-57.jpg Bodo Ramelow
(born 1956)
2nd term
4 March 2020 Incumbent 1 year, 104 days The Left

Defunct states

State Presidents of Baden (1947-1952)

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Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term of Office Political Party
Took office Left office Time in office
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F046120-0005, Koblenz, "Rittersturz-Konferenz", Wohleb, Haberer.jpg Leo Wohleb
(1888-1955)
24 July 1947 25 April 1952
state was merged
into
Baden-Württemberg
4 years, 276 days CDU

Ministers President of Württemberg-Baden (1945-1952)

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Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
Reinhold Maier.jpg Reinhold Maier
(1889-1971)
19 September 1945 25 April 1952
state was merged
into
Baden-Württemberg
6 years, 219 days FDP

State Presidents of Württemberg-Hohenzollern (1945-1952)

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Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
1 Carlo Schmid (1963).jpg Carlo Schmid
(1896-1979)
16 October 1945 22 July 1947 1 year, 279 days SPD
2 Lorenz Bock.jpg Lorenz Bock
(1883-1948)
22 July 1947 3 August 1948
died in office
1 year, 12 days CDU
Carlo Schmid (acting) 3 August 1948 13 August 1948 10 days SPD
3 Gebhard Müller.jpg Gebhard Müller
(1900-1990)
13 August 1948 25 April 1952
state was merged
into
Baden-Württemberg
3 years, 256 days CDU

Trivia

The office of a minister president is both highly prestigious in its own right and acts as a potential "career springboard" for German politicians.

Three out of twelve Presidents of Germany have been head of a state before becoming President:

One out of 13 Presidents of the Bundestag has been head of a state before becoming President:

Four out of eight Chancellors of Germany have been head of a state before becoming Chancellor:

One out of nine Presidents of the Federal Constitutional Court has been head of a state before becoming President:

  • Gebhard Müller, State President of Württemberg-Hohenzollern (1948-1952), Minister President of Baden-Württemberg (1953-1958)

Many more Ministers President went on to become members of the federal government, EU institutions or associate judges of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany for example.

The three longest serving office-holders were:

  • Peter Altmeier, Minister President of Rhineland-Palatinate (1947-1969, 21 years, 314 days)
  • Franz-Josef Röder, Minister President of Saarland (1959-1979, 20 years, 64 days)
  • Wilhelm Kaisen, President of the Senate and Mayor of Bremen (1945-1965, 19 years, 354 days)

The three shortest serving office-holders were:

There have been six female heads of a German state:

One person has managed to become Minister President of two different states, which did not merge into one another:

  • Bernhard Vogel, Minister President of Rhineland-Palatinate (1976-1988) and Minister President of Thuringia (1992-2003)

Two persons have been Ministers President of two states before and after they had merged into one another:

  • Reinhold Maier, Minister President of Württemberg-Baden (1945-1952), Minister President of Baden-Württemberg (1952-1953)
  • Gebhard Müller, State President of Württemberg-Hohenzollern (1948-1952), Minister President of Baden-Württemberg (1953-1958)

So far, there has been already one Minister President from a recognized national minority: Stanislaw Tillich, who served as Minister President of Saxony between 2008-2017, is of Sorbian origin and speaks Sorbian and German as his mother tongue.

David McAllister, who served as the Minister President of Lower Saxony between 2010-2013, has been the first office-holder with dual nationality (Germany and United Kingdom).

See also

References

  1. ^ "Verfassung des Landes Baden-Württemberg vom 11. November 1953 (GBl. S. 173)" (PDF). Lpb-bw.de. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ "Bayerische Verfassung" (PDF). Uni-augsburg.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^ "Verfassung von Berlin Vom 23. November 1995" (PDF). Datenschutz.fu-berlin.de. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ "Verfassung des Landes Brandenburg". Bravors.brandenburg.de. Retrieved 2018.
  5. ^ "Landesverfassung der Freien Hansestadt Bremen" (PDF). Bremische-buergerschaft.de. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ "Landesrecht - Justiz - Portal Hamburg". Landesrecht-hamburg.de. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ "Verfassung des Landes Hessen" (PDF). Starweb.hessen.de. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ "VORIS Artikel 29 Verf ND - Landesnorm Niedersachsen - - Regierungsbildung - Niedersächsische Verfassung vom 19. Mai 1993 - gültig ab: 01.06.1993". Nds-voris.de. Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ "Verfassung Des Landes Mecklenburg-Vorpommern" (PDF). Landtag-mv.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ "Verfssung der North Rhine-Westphalia" (PDF). Krefeld.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 October 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ "Verfassung für Rheinland-Pfalz" (PDF). Rlp.de. Retrieved 2018.
  12. ^ "Verfassung des Saarlandes (SVerf) vom 15. Dezember 1947 zuletzt geändert durch das Gesetz vom 13. Juli 2016 (Amtsbl. I S. 178)" (PDF). Landtag-saar.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 October 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  13. ^ "REVOSax Landesrecht Sachsen : Verfassung". Revosax.sachsen.de. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  14. ^ "Landesrecht Sachsen-Anhalt Verf ST - Landesnorm Sachsen-Anhalt - Gesamtausgabe - Verfassung des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt vom 16. Juli 1992 - gültig ab: 18.07.1992". Landesrecht.sachsen-anhalt.de. Retrieved 2018.
  15. ^ "Gesetze-Rechtsprechung Schleswig-Holstein Verf SH 2014 - Landesnorm Schleswig-Holstein - Gesamtausgabe - Verfassung des Landes Schleswig-Holstein in der Fassung vom 2. Dezember 2014 - gültig ab: 11.12.2014". Gesetze-rechtsprechung.sh.juris.de. Retrieved 2018.
  16. ^ "Landesrecht TH Verf TH - Landesnorm Thüringen - Gesamtausgabe - Verfassung des Freistaats Thüringen vom 25. Oktober 1993 - gültig ab: 30.10.1993". Landtag.thueringen.de. Retrieved 2018.
  17. ^ https://www.bundestag.de/resource/blob/189468/8464d1ab92cf523017d226d478dca83c/2005_11_10-data.pdf

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