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Imam Bukhari's great-grandfather, al-Mughirah, settled in Bukhara after accepting Islam at the hands of Bukhara's governor, Yaman al-Ju?fi. As was the custom, he became a mawla of Yaman, and his family continued to carry the nisbah of "al-Ju?fi".
Al-Mughirah's father, Bardizbah, is the earliest known ancestor of Bukhari according to most scholars and historians. Bardizbah was a ZoroastrianMagi, and died as such. As-Subki is the only scholar to name Bardizbah's father, who he says was named Bazzabah (Persian: ). Little is known of either Bardizbah or Bazzabah, except that they were Persian and followed the religion of their people. Historians have also not come across any information on Bukhari's grandfather, Ibrahim ibn al-Mughirah.
Hadith studies and travels
The historian al-Dhahabi described his early academic life:
He began studying hadith in the year 205 (A.H.). He memorized the works of ['Abdullah] ibn al-Mubaarak while still a child. He was raised by his mother because his father died when he was an infant. He traveled with his mother and brother in the year 210 after having heard the narrations of his region. He began authoring books and narrating hadith while still an adolescent. He said, "When I turned eighteen years old, I began writing about the Companions and the Followers and their statements. This was during the time of 'Ubaid Allah ibn Musa (one of his teachers). At that time I also authored a book of history at the grave of the Prophet at night during a full moon.
Bukhari's travels seeking and studying hadith.
At the age of sixteen, he, together with his brother and widowed mother, made the pilgrimage to Mecca. From there he made a series of travels in order to increase his knowledge of hadith. He went through all the important centres of Islamic learning of his time, talked to scholars and exchanged information on hadith. It is said that he heard from over 1,000 men, and learned over 600,000 traditions.
After sixteen years absence, he returned to Bukhara, and there he drew up his al-Jami' as-Sahih, a collection of 7,275 tested traditions, arranged in chapters so as to afford a basis for a complete system of jurisprudence without the use of speculative law.
His book is highly regarded among Sunni Muslims, and considered the most authentic collection of hadith, even ahead of the Muwatta Imam Malik and Sahih Muslim of Bukhari's student Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. Most Sunni scholars consider it second only to the Quran in terms of authenticity. He also composed other books, including al-Adab al-Mufrad, which is a collection of hadiths on ethics and manners, as well as two books containing biographies of hadith narrators (see isnad).
In the year 864/250, he settled in Nishapur. It was in Nishapur that he met Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. He would be considered his student, and eventually collector and organiser of hadith collection Sahih Muslim which is considered second only to that of al-Bukhari. Political problems led him to move to Khartank, a village near Samarkand where he died in the year 870/256.
Imam Al Bukhari Memorial
Today his tomb lies within the Imam al-Bukhari Complex, in Hartang Village, 25 kilometers from Samarkand. It was restored in 1998 after centuries of neglect and dilapidation. The mausoleum complex consists of Imam al-Bukhari's tomb, a mosque, a madrassah, library, and a small collection of Qurans. The modern ground level mausoleum tombstone of Imam Bukhari is only a cenotaph, the actual grave lies within a small burial crypt below the modern structure.
Below is a summary of the discussion of Bukhari's available works in Fihrist Mu?annaf?t al-Bukh?ri by Umm 'Abdull?h bint Ma?r?s, Mu?ammad ibn ?amza and Ma?m?d ibn Mu?ammad.
Works describing narrators of hadith
Bukhari wrote three works discussing narrators of hadith with respect to their ability in conveying their material: the "brief compendium of hadith narrators," "the medium compendium" and the "large compendium"
Al-Tarikh al-Kab?r (Eng: The great history) known asal-Tar?kh al-?agh?r, and al-Tar?kh al-Awsa?). The large compendium is published and well-identified. The medium compendium was thought to be the brief collection and was published as such. The brief compendium has yet to be found. Another work, al-Kun?, is on patronymics: identifying people who are commonly known as "Father of so-and-so". Then there is a brief work on weak narrators: al-?u'af? al-?agh?r.
?a al-Bukhar? & extant hadith
Two of Bukhari's works on hadith survive:
?a al-Bukhar? – full title, al-J?mi' al-Musnad al-Sah?h al-Mukhta?ar min um?r Rasûl All?h wa sunnanihi wa ayy?mihi – "Collection of Selected True Reports of the Prophet, his Practices and Times"); al-Bukhar?'s famous magnum opus. [Note: these al-Musnad are reports with chains of narration that go back to the Prophet.]
Bukhari was a follower of early Sunni theologian (mutakallim) Ibn Kullab in creed, preaching that one's recitation of the Qur'an is created, whilst the Qur'an itself is uncreated. Reacting to such teaching, the hadith scholars of Baghdad warned the people of Nishapur against him, had him imprisoned and then drove him out of the city. Other followers of Ibn Kullab, such as Harith al-Muhasibi, were also criticised and made to relocate.
Away from discussions relating to God's speech, Bukhari also repudiated rejection of Qadar (the divine decree) in his Sahih by quoting a verse of the Quran implying that God had already determined all human acts with a precise determining. According to Ibn Hajar, Bukhari signified that if someone was to accept autonomy in creating his acts, he would be assumed to be playing God's role and so would subsequently be declared a polytheist. In another chapter, Bukhari refutes the creeds of the Kharijites, and according to al-Ayni, the heading of that chapter was designed not only to refute the Kharijites but also any who held similar beliefs.
Interpretation of God's attributes
In Sahih al-Bukhari, in the book entitled "Tafsir al-Qur'an wa 'ibaratih" [i.e., Exegesis of the Qur'an and its expressions], surat al-Qasas, verse 88: "kullu shay'in halikun illa Wajhah" [the literal meaning of which is "everything will perish except His Face"], he said the term [illa Wajhah] means: "except His Sovereignty/Dominance". And there is [in this same chapter] other than that in terms of ta'wil (metaphorical interpretation), like the term 'dahk' (Arabic: , lit. 'laughter') which is narrated in a hadith, [which is interpreted by] His Mercy.
Scott Lucas argues that Bukhari's legal positions were similar to those of the hir?s and Hanbalis of his time, suggesting Bukhari rejected qiyas and other forms of ra'y completely. He makes comparisons between Bukhari's positions and those of Ibn Hazm.
Key: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadith
Key: Worked in Iran
^ abAl-Asqalani, Ibn Hajar (2001). Fath al-bari sharh Sahih al-Bukhari. 1. Maktabah Misr. p. 293.
^ abcdWahab, Muhammad Rashidi, and Syed Hadzrullathfi Syed Omar. "Peringkat Pemikiran Imam al-Ash'ari Dalam Akidah." International Journal of Islamic Thought 3 (2013): 58-70. "Disebabkan itu, al- Bukhari dalam kebanyakan perkara berkaitan dengan persoalan akidah dikatakan akan mengambil pendapat Ibn Kullab dan al-Karabisi(al-'Asqalani 2001: 1/293)"
^ abcdeAzmi, Ahmad Sanusi. "Ahl al-Hadith Methodologies on Qur'anic Discourses in the Ninth Century: A Comparative Analysis of Ibn Hanbal and al-Bukhari." Online Journal of Research in Islamic Studies 4.1 (2017): 17-26.
^ abMelchert, Christopher. "The Piety of the Hadith folk." International Journal of Middle East Studies 34.3 (2002): 425-439. "Hadith folk in Baghdad warned those of Nishapur against the famous traditionist Bukhari, whom they then drove from the city for suggesting one's pronunciation of the Qur'an was created"
^Shakir, Zaid. "Treatise for the Seekers of Guidance." NID Publishers, 2008.
^Lucas, Scott C. (2006). "The Legal Principles of Muhammad B. Isml Al-Bukh?r? and Their Relationship to Classical Salafi Islam". Islamic Law and Society. 13 (3): 290-292, 303. doi:10.1163/156851906778946341.
^Lucas, Scott C. (2006). "The Legal Principles of Muhammad B. Isml Al-Bukh?r? and Their Relationship to Classical Salafi Islam". Islamic Law and Society. 13 (3): 290, 312. doi:10.1163/156851906778946341.
Bukhari, Imam (194-256H) ? ; An educational Encyclopedia of Islam; Syed Iqbal Zaheer
Abdul Qadir Muhammad Jalal et al., "Elevating Imam Al Bukhari: Affirming the Status of Imam Al Bukhari and His Sahih by Dispelling the Misconceptions Surrounding them", Lagos 2021