Muhammad Al-Bukhari
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Muhammad Al-Bukhari
Mu?ammad ibn Ism?'?l al-Bukh?r?
? ? ?
ImamBukhari1.png
al-Bukh?r?'s name in Arabic calligraphy.
TitleImam al-Bukhari
Amir al-Mu'minin fi al-Hadith
Personal
Born21 July 810 C.E.
13th Shawwal 194 A.H.
Died1 September 870(870-09-01) (aged 60) C.E.
1 Shawwal 256 A.H.
Khartank, Samarkand, Abbasid Caliphate
Resting placeKhartank (Samarkand, Uzbekistan)
ReligionIslam
EthnicityPersian
EraIslamic Golden Age
(Abbasid era)
RegionAbbasid Caliphate
DenominationSunni
CreedKullabi[1][2]
Main interest(s)Hadith, Aqidah
Notable work(s)Sahih al-Bukhari
al-Adab al-Mufrad
OccupationMuhaddith, Hadith compiler, Islamic scholar
Muslim leader


Imam al-Bukh?r?
AlBukhari Mausoleum.jpg
Imam al-Bukh?r?'s mausoleum near Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Hadith Traditionalist
Venerated inSunni Islam
Khartank (Samarkand, Uzbekistan).

Mu?ammad ibn Ism?'?l al-Bukh?r? (Persian: ‎, ‎) (19 July 810 - 1 September 870), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari,[4] was a Persian[5][6][7] Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (early Khorasan and present day Uzbekistan). He compiled the hadith collection known as Sahih al-Bukhari, regarded by Sunni Muslims as the most authentic (sahih) hadith collections. He also wrote other books such as Al-Adab al-Mufrad.[8]

Biography

Birth

Muhammad ibn Isma?il al-Bukhari al-Ju?fi was born after the Jumu'ah prayer on Friday, 21 July 810 (13 Shawwal 194 AH) in the city of Bukhara in Greater Khorasan[9] (in present-day Uzbekistan).[5][10]

His father, Ismail ibn Ibrahim, a scholar of hadith, was a student and associate of Malik ibn Anas. Some Iraqi scholars related hadith narrations from him.[5]

Lineage

Imam Bukhari's great-grandfather, al-Mughirah, settled in Bukhara after accepting Islam at the hands of Bukhara's governor, Yaman al-Ju?fi. As was the custom, he became a mawla of Yaman, and his family continued to carry the nisbah of "al-Ju?fi".[5][10][11]

Al-Mughirah's father, Bardizbah, is the earliest known ancestor of Bukhari according to most scholars and historians. Bardizbah was a Zoroastrian Magi, and died as such. As-Subki is the only scholar to name Bardizbah's father, who he says was named Bazzabah (Persian: ‎). Little is known of either Bardizbah or Bazzabah, except that they were Persian and followed the religion of their people.[5] Historians have also not come across any information on Bukhari's grandfather, Ibrahim ibn al-Mughirah.[5]

Hadith studies and travels

The historian al-Dhahabi described his early academic life:

He began studying hadith in the year 205 (A.H.). He memorized the works of ['Abdullah] ibn al-Mubaarak while still a child. He was raised by his mother because his father died when he was an infant. He traveled with his mother and brother in the year 210 after having heard the narrations of his region. He began authoring books and narrating hadith while still an adolescent. He said, "When I turned eighteen years old, I began writing about the Companions and the Followers and their statements. This was during the time of 'Ubaid Allah ibn Musa (one of his teachers). At that time I also authored a book of history at the grave of the Prophet at night during a full moon.[12]

Bukhari's travels seeking and studying hadith.

At the age of sixteen, he, together with his brother and widowed mother, made the pilgrimage to Mecca. From there he made a series of travels in order to increase his knowledge of hadith. He went through all the important centres of Islamic learning of his time, talked to scholars and exchanged information on hadith. It is said that he heard from over 1,000 men, and learned over 600,000 traditions.[]

After sixteen years absence[], he returned to Bukhara, and there he drew up his al-Jami' as-Sahih, a collection of 7,275 tested traditions, arranged in chapters so as to afford a basis for a complete system of jurisprudence without the use of speculative law.

His book is highly regarded among Sunni Muslims, and considered the most authentic collection of hadith, even ahead of the Muwatta Imam Malik and Sahih Muslim of Bukhari's student Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. Most Sunni scholars consider it second only to the Quran in terms of authenticity. He also composed other books, including al-Adab al-Mufrad, which is a collection of hadiths on ethics and manners, as well as two books containing biographies of hadith narrators (see isnad).[13]

Last years

In the year 864/250, he settled in Nishapur. It was in Nishapur that he met Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. He would be considered his student, and eventually collector and organiser of hadith collection Sahih Muslim which is considered second only to that of al-Bukhari. Political problems led him to move to Khartank, a village near Samarkand where he died in the year 870/256.[14]

Mausoleum

Imam Al Bukhari Memorial

Today his tomb lies within the Imam al-Bukhari Complex, in Hartang Village, 25 kilometers from Samarkand. It was restored in 1998 after centuries of neglect and dilapidation. The mausoleum complex consists of Imam al-Bukhari's tomb, a mosque, a madrassah, library, and a small collection of Qurans. The modern ground level mausoleum tombstone of Imam Bukhari is only a cenotaph, the actual grave lies within a small burial crypt below the modern structure.[15]

Writings

Below is a summary of the discussion of Bukhari's available works in Fihrist Mu?annaf?t al-Bukh?ri by Umm 'Abdull?h bint Ma?r?s, Mu?ammad ibn ?amza and Ma?m?d ibn Mu?ammad.[16]

Works describing narrators of hadith

Bukhari wrote three works discussing narrators of hadith with respect to their ability in conveying their material: the "brief compendium of hadith narrators," "the medium compendium" and the "large compendium"

  • Al-Tarikh al-Kab?r (Eng: The great history) known as al-Tar?kh al-?agh?r, and al-Tar?kh al-Awsa?). The large compendium is published and well-identified. The medium compendium was thought to be the brief collection and was published as such. The brief compendium has yet to be found.[17] Another work, al-Kun?, is on patronymics: identifying people who are commonly known as "Father of so-and-so". Then there is a brief work on weak narrators: al-?u'af? al-?agh?r.

?a al-Bukhar? & extant hadith

Two of Bukhari's works on hadith survive:

  • ?a al-Bukhar? – full title, al-J?mi' al-Musnad al-Sah?h al-Mukhta?ar min um?r Rasûl All?h wa sunnanihi wa ayy?mihi  – "Collection of Selected True Reports of the Prophet, his Practices and Times"); al-Bukhar?'s famous magnum opus. [Note: these al-Musnad are reports with chains of narration that go back to the Prophet.]
  • Al-Adab al-Mufrad; hadith on respect and propriety.

Theological Views

Bukhari was a follower of early Sunni theologian (mutakallim) Ibn Kullab in creed,[1][2] preaching that one's recitation of the Qur'an is created, whilst the Qur'an itself is uncreated.[2][18][19] Reacting to such teaching, the hadith scholars of Baghdad warned the people of Nishapur against him, had him imprisoned and then drove him out of the city.[2][18] Other followers of Ibn Kullab, such as Harith al-Muhasibi, were also criticised and made to relocate.[19][20]

Away from discussions relating to God's speech, Bukhari also repudiated rejection of Qadar (the divine decree) in his Sahih by quoting a verse of the Quran implying that God had already determined all human acts with a precise determining.[18] According to Ibn Hajar, Bukhari signified that if someone was to accept autonomy in creating his acts, he would be assumed to be playing God's role and so would subsequently be declared a polytheist.[18] In another chapter, Bukhari refutes the creeds of the Kharijites, and according to al-Ayni, the heading of that chapter was designed not only to refute the Kharijites but also any who held similar beliefs.[18]

Interpretation of God's attributes

In Sahih al-Bukhari, in the book entitled "Tafsir al-Qur'an wa 'ibaratih" [i.e., Exegesis of the Qur'an and its expressions], surat al-Qasas, verse 88: "kullu shay'in halikun illa Wajhah" [the literal meaning of which is "everything will perish except His Face"], he said the term [illa Wajhah] means: "except His Sovereignty/Dominance". And there is [in this same chapter] other than that in terms of ta'wil (metaphorical interpretation), like the term 'dahk' (Arabic: ‎, lit.'laughter') which is narrated in a hadith, [which is interpreted by] His Mercy.[21][22]

School of thought

Many are of the opinion that Bukhari was a mujtahid with his own school of jurisprudence.[23][24][25][26]

Bukhari has however been claimed as a follower of the Hanbali school,[27] although members of the Shafi'i and hir? schools levy this claim as well.[28] JRD Mughal and Munir Ahmad assert that historically most jurists considered him to be a muhaddith and not a jurist, and that as a muhaddith they thought that he followed the Shafi'i school.[23] However, both go on to evidence the opinion that he was an absolute scholar of independent reasoning (Mujatahid Mutlaq).[23]

Scott Lucas argues that Bukhari's legal positions were similar to those of the hir?s and Hanbalis of his time, suggesting Bukhari rejected qiyas and other forms of ra'y completely.[29] He makes comparisons between Bukhari's positions and those of Ibn Hazm.[30]

Early Islamic scholars

Muhammad (570-632 the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions
`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taughtAli (607-661) fourth caliph taughtAisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taughtAbd Allah ibn Abbas (618-687) taughtZayd ibn Thabit (610-660) taughtUmar (579-644) second caliph taughtAbu Hurairah (603-681) taught
Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taughtHusayn ibn Ali (626-680) taughtQasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (657-725) taught and raised by AishaUrwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taughtSaid ibn al-Musayyib (637-715) taughtAbdullah ibn Umar (614-693) taughtAbd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624-692) taught by Aisha, he then taught
Ibrahim al-Nakha'i taughtAli ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659-712) taughtHisham ibn Urwah (667-772) taughtIbn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taughtSalim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taughtUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (682-720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar
Hammad bin ibi Sulman taughtMuhammad al-Baqir (676-733) taughtFarwah bint al-Qasim Jafar's mother
Abu Hanifa (699-767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695-740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702-765) Muhammad and Ali's great great grand son, jurisprudence followed by Shia, he taughtMalik ibn Anas (711-795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taughtAl-Waqidi (748-822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
Abu Yusuf (729-798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749-805)Al-Shafi'i (767-820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taughtIsmail ibn IbrahimAli ibn al-Madini (778-849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the CompanionsIbn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography
Isma'il ibn Ja'far (719-775)Musa al-Kadhim (745-799)Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780-855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810-870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815-875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824-892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles
Ibn Majah (824-887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith bookAbu Dawood (817-889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver ShiaMuhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-TabariAbu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874-936) wrote Maq?l?t al-isl?m?y?n, Kit?b al-luma, Kit?b al-ib?na 'an us?l al-diy?na
Ibn Babawayh (923-991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver ShiaSharif Razi (930-977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver ShiaNasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver ShiaAl-Ghazali (1058-1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on SufismRumi (1207-1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Iran

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b Al-Asqalani, Ibn Hajar (2001). Fath al-bari sharh Sahih al-Bukhari. 1. Maktabah Misr. p. 293.
  2. ^ a b c d Wahab, Muhammad Rashidi, and Syed Hadzrullathfi Syed Omar. "Peringkat Pemikiran Imam al-Ash'ari Dalam Akidah." International Journal of Islamic Thought 3 (2013): 58-70. "Disebabkan itu, al- Bukhari dalam kebanyakan perkara berkaitan dengan persoalan akidah dikatakan akan mengambil pendapat Ibn Kullab dan al-Karabisi(al-'Asqalani 2001: 1/293)"
  3. ^ Ibn R?hwayh, Isq (1990), Bal?sh?, ?Abd al-Ghaf?r ?Abd al-?aqq ?usayn (ed.), Musnad Isq ibn R?hwayh (1st ed.), Tawz Maktabat al-?m?n, pp. 150-165
  4. ^ Arabic: ? ? ? ? ? ?‎: Ab? 'Abd All?h Mu?ammad ibn Ism?'?l ibn Ibr?h?m ibn al-Mugh?rah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju'f? al-Bukh?r?
  5. ^ a b c d e f Salaahud-Deen ibn ?Alee ibn ?Abdul-Maujood (December 2005). The Biography of Imam Bukhaaree. Translated by Faisal Shafeeq (1st ed.). Riyadh: Darussalam. ISBN 9960969053.
  6. ^ Bourgoin, Suzanne Michele; Byers, Paula Kay, eds. (1998). "Bukhari". Encyclopedia of World Biography (2nd ed.). Gale. p. 112. ISBN 9780787625436.
  7. ^ Lang, David Marshall, ed. (1971). "Bukh?r?". A Guide to Eastern Literatures. Praeger. p. 33. ISBN 9780297002741.
  8. ^ Al-Adab al-Mufrad
  9. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica".[permanent dead link]
  10. ^ a b Melchert, Christopher. "al-Bukh?r?". Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online.[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ Robson, J. (24 April 2012). "al-Bukh?r?, Mu?ammad b. Isml". Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online.
  12. ^ Tathkirah al-Huffath, vol. 2, pg. 104-5, al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah edition
  13. ^ Abdul Qadir Muhammad Jalal et al., "Elevating Imam Al Bukhari: Affirming the Status of Imam Al Bukhari and His Sahih by Dispelling the Misconceptions Surrounding them", Lagos 2021
  14. ^ Tabish Khair (2006). Other Routes: 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing. Signal Books. pp. 393-. ISBN 978-1-904955-11-5.
  15. ^ "Tomb of Imam al-Bukhari". Madain Project. Retrieved 2019.
  16. ^ Fihris Mu?annaf?t al-Bukh?ri, pp. 9-61, D?r al-'imah, Riya?: 1410.
  17. ^ Fihris Musannaf?t al-Bukh?ri, pp. 28-30.
  18. ^ a b c d e Azmi, Ahmad Sanusi. "Ahl al-Hadith Methodologies on Qur'anic Discourses in the Ninth Century: A Comparative Analysis of Ibn Hanbal and al-Bukhari." Online Journal of Research in Islamic Studies 4.1 (2017): 17-26.
  19. ^ a b Melchert, Christopher. "The Piety of the Hadith folk." International Journal of Middle East Studies 34.3 (2002): 425-439. "Hadith folk in Baghdad warned those of Nishapur against the famous traditionist Bukhari, whom they then drove from the city for suggesting one's pronunciation of the Qur'an was created"
  20. ^ Shakir, Zaid. "Treatise for the Seekers of Guidance." NID Publishers, 2008.
  21. ^ Namira Nahouza (2018). Wahhabism and the Rise of the New Salafists: Theology, Power and Sunni Islam. I.B. Tauris. p. 96. ISBN 9781838609832.
  22. ^ "What is the explanation of Ayah 88 of Suratul-Qasas [kullu shay'in halikun illa Wajhah]". Muslim Youth of Truth - Sydney - Australia.
  23. ^ a b c Mughal, Justice R. Dr, and Munir Ahmad. "Imam Bukhari (? ? ?) Was a Mujtahid Mutlaq." Available at SSRN 2049357 (2012).
  24. ^ Sattar, Abdul. "Konstruksi Fiqh Bukhari dalam Kitab al-Jami'al-Shahih." De Jure: Jurnal Hukum dan Syar'iah 3.1 (2011).
  25. ^ Masrur, Ali, and Imam Zainuddin Az-Zubaidi. "Imam Muhammad bin Ismail al-Bukhari (194-256 H): Kolektor Hadis Nabi Saw. paling unggul di Dunia Islam." (2018): 1-16.
  26. ^ Hasyim, Muh Fathoni. "FIKIH IMAM AL-BUKHAR1." (2009).
  27. ^ Imam al-Bukhari. (d. 256/870; Tabaqat al-Shafi'iya, 2.212-14 [6])
  28. ^ Falih al-Dhibyani, Al-zahiriyya hiya al-madhhab al-awwal, wa al-mutakallimun 'anha yahrifun bima la ya'rifun Archived 3 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Interview with Abdul Aziz al-Harbi for Okaz. 15 July 2006, Iss. #1824. Photography by Salih Ba Habri.
  29. ^ Lucas, Scott C. (2006). "The Legal Principles of Muhammad B. Isml Al-Bukh?r? and Their Relationship to Classical Salafi Islam". Islamic Law and Society. 13 (3): 290, 312. doi:10.1163/156851906778946341.

Sources

  • Bukhari, Imam (194-256H) ? ; An educational Encyclopedia of Islam; Syed Iqbal Zaheer
  • Abdul Qadir Muhammad Jalal et al., "Elevating Imam Al Bukhari: Affirming the Status of Imam Al Bukhari and His Sahih by Dispelling the Misconceptions Surrounding them", Lagos 2021

Further reading

Primary

  • Encyclopedia of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Arabic Virtual Translation Center (New York 2019, Barnes & Noble ISBN 9780359672653)
  • al-Bukh?r?, al-J?mi? al-?a, 9 vols. In 3, B?l?q 1311-3, repr. Liechtenstein 2001
  • al-Bukh?r?, al-Ta?r?kh al-kab?r, 4 vols. In 8, Hyderabad 1358-62/1941-5, 1377/19582
  • al-Dhahab?, Ta?r?kh al-Isl?m, ed. ?Umar ?Abd al-Sal?m Tadmur? (Beirut 1407-21/1987-2000), 19 (251-60 A.H.):238-74
  • Ibn Ab? tim, K. al-Jar? wa-l-ta?d?l, 4 vols. In 8, Hyderabad 1360/1941
  • Ibn ?Ad? al-Qan, al-K?mil f? ?u?af al-rij?l, ed. dil A?mad ?Abd al-Mawj?d et al., Beirut, 1418/1997
  • Ibn ?Ad? al-Qan, As?m? man raw? ?anhum Mu?ammad b. Isml al-Bukh?r?, ed. mir ?asan ?abr?, Beirut, 1414/1994
  • Ibn ?As?kir, Ta?r?kh mad?nat Dimashq, ed. Mu?ibb al-D?n Ab? Sad al-?Amraw?, 70 vols., Beirut 1415/1995
  • Ibn ?ajar, Fat? al-b?r?, ed. ?Abd al-?Az?z b. ?Abdall?h Ibn B?z, 15 vols. Beirut, 1428-9/2008
  • al-Khab al-Baghd?d?, Ta?r?kh Baghd?d aw Mad?nat al-Sal?m (Cairo 1349/1931), 2:4-34
  • al-Khab al-Baghd?d?, Ta?r?kh Mad?nat al-Sal?m, ed. Bashshar ?Aww?d Ma?r?f (Beirut 1422/2001), 2:322-59
  • al-Nawaw?, Tahdh?b al-asm wa-l-lugh?t, Cairo 1927
  • al-Qas?all?n?, Irsh?d al-s?r? ?a al-Bukh?r?, ed. Mu?ammad ?Abd al-?Az?z al-Kh?lid?, 15 vols., Beirut 1416/1996.

Studies

  • Ghassan Abdul-Jabbar, Bukhari, London, 2007
  • Mu?ammad ?Im ?Ar?r al-?asan?, Itf al-q?ri? bi-ma?rifat juh?d wa-a?m?l al-?ulam?? ?al? ?a al-Bukh?r?, Damascus 1407/1987
  • Jonathan Brown, The canonization of al-Bukh?r? and Muslim, Leiden 2007
  • Eerik Dickinson, The development of early Sunnite ?ad?th criticism, Leiden 2001
  • Mohammad Fadel, "Ibn ?ajar's Hady al-s?r?," JNES 54 (1995), 161-97
  • Johann W. Fück, "Beiträge zur Überlieferungsgeschichte von Bukh?r?'s Traditionssammlung," ZDMG 92 (n.s. 17, 1938), 60-87
  • Ignaz Goldziher, Muslim studies, ed. S. M. Stern, trans. C. R. Barber and S. M. Stern (Chicago 1968-71), 2:216-29
  • Niz?r b. ?Abd al-Kar?m b. Suln al-?amad?n?, al-Im?m al-Bukh?r?, Mecca 1412/1992
  • al-?usayn? ?Abd al-Maj?d H?shim, al-Im?m al-Bukh?r?, Cairo n.d.
  • Ab? Bakr al-K?f?, Manhaj al-Im?m al-Bukh?r?, Beirut 1421/2000
  • Najm ?Abd al-Ra?m?n Khalaf, Istidr?k?t ?al? Ta?r?kh al-tur?th al-?Arab? li-Fud Sizk?n f? ?ilm al-?ad?th (Beirut 1421/2000), 135-264
  • Scott C. Lucas, "The legal principles of Mu?ammad b. Isml al-Bukh?r? and their relationship to classical Salafi Islam," ILS 13 (2006), 289-324
  • Christopher Melchert, "Bukh?r? and early hadith criticism," JAOS 121 (2001), 7-19
  • Christopher Melchert, "Bukh?r? and his ?a," Le Muséon 123 (2010), 425-54
  • Alphonse Mingana, An important manuscript of the traditions of Bukh?r?, Cambridge 1936
  • Rosemarie Quiring-Zoche, "How al-Bukh?r?'s ?a was edited in the Middle Ages. ?Al? al-Y?n?n? and his rum?z," BEO 50 (1998), 191-222
  • Fuat Sezgin, Buhârî'nin kaynaklar?, Istanbul 1956
  • Umm ?Abdall?h bt. Ma?r?s al-?Asal? et al., Fihris Mu?annaf?t al-Im?m Ab? ?Abdall?h Mu?ammad b. Isml al-Bukh?r?...f?m? ?ad? al-?a, Riyadh 1408/1987-8

External links


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