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Arab jurist and a disciple of Abu Hanifa (8th-century)
Mu?ammad b. al-?asan was born in W?si?, Iraq, in 750; soon, however, he moved to Kufa, the home town of Ab? ?an?fa, and grew there. Though he was born to a soldier, he was much more interested in pursuing an intellectual career than a military one. Shaybani began studying in Kufa as a pupil of Abu Hanifa. When al-Shaybani was 18 (in 767), however, Abu Hanifa died after having taught him for only two years.
Shaybani then began training with Ab? Y?suf, his senior, and the leading disciple of Abu Hanifa. He also had other prominent teachers as well: Sufyan al-Thawr? and al-Awz. he also later visited Medina, and studied for two to three years with Malik b. Anas, founder of the Maliki school of fiqh. Thus, as a result of his education, al-Shaybani became a jurist at a very early age. According to Abu Hanifa's grandson Ismail, he taught in Kufa at age twenty (c. 770 CE).
Al-Shayb?n? moved to Baghdad, where he continued his learning. He was so respected that Caliph Harun al-Rashid appointed him qadi (judge) of his capital city Raqqa (so, after 796 CE). Al-Shayb?n? was relieved of this position in 803. He returned to Baghdad and resumed his educational activities. It was during this period he exerted his widest influence. He taught Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i, the most prestigious of his pupils. Even later, when ash-Shafi'? disagreed with his teacher and wrote the Kit?b al-Radd ?al? Mu?ammad b. al-?asan ("Refutation of Mu?ammad b. al-?asan [al-Shayb?n?]"), he still maintained immense admiration for his teacher.
Al-Rashid re-instated al-Shayb?n? in a judicial position. The latter accompanied the caliph to Khorasan, where he served as qadi until his death in 805 at Rey. He died the same day and the same place as the eminent Kufan philologist and grammarian al-Kis. Thus, al-Rashid remarked that he "buried law and grammar side by side."
His works, known collectively as zahir al-riwaya, were considered authoritative by later Hanafis; they are al-Mabsut, al-Jami al-Kabir, al-Jami al-Saghir, al-Siyar al-Kabir, al-Siyar al-Saghir, and al-Ziyadat.
Al-Shaybani wrote Introduction to the Law of Nations at the end of the 8th century, a book which provided detailed guidelines for the conduct of jihad against unbelievers, as well as guidelines on the treatment of non-Muslim subjects under Muslim rule. Al-Shaybani wrote a second more advanced treatise on the subject, and other jurists soon followed with a number of other multi-volume treatises. They dealt with both public international law as well as private international law.
^ abcde"al- Shayb?n?, Ab? ?Abd All?h Mu?ammad b. al-?asan b. Far?ad ." Encyclopaedia of Islam
^`Abd al-?ayy al-Laknaw? from the introduction of The Muwatta of Imam Mu?ammad, transl. Abdurrahman and Clarke, p. 27; quoting Tahdh?b al-asm?' wa'l-lugh?t by al-Khat?b: "I stood at Malik's door for three years and a bit".