|Native to||Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Iraq, Syria|
|4.05 million (2011-2015)|
Najdi Arabic (Arabic: ?) is the group of Arabic varieties originating from the Najd region of Saudi Arabia. The group includes the majority of bedouin tribes historically residing in deserts surrounding Najd, and as a result several regions surrounding Najd, including the Eastern Province, Al Jawf, Najran, and Northern Borders Regions are now mostly Najdi-speaking. Outside of Saudi Arabia, it is also the main Arabic variety spoken in the Syrian Desert of Iraq, Jordan, and Syria (with the exception of Palmyra oasis and settlements dotting the Euphrates, where Mesopotamian Arabic is spoken) as well as the westernmost part of Kuwait.
Najdi Arabic can be divided into four region-based groups:
Here is a table of the consonant sounds of Najdi Arabic. The phonemes /p/ ??? and /v/ ??? (not used by all speakers) are not considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and can be pronounced as /b/ and /f/ respectively depending on the speaker.
Unless adjacent to /? x h ? ?/, /a/ is raised in open syllables to [i], [?], or [u], depending on neighboring sounds. Remaining /a/ may become fronted to [æ~?] in the context of front sounds, as well as adjacent to the pharyngeals /? ?/.
Najdi Arabic exhibits the so-called gahawa syndrome, insertion of epenthetic /a/ after (/h x, ? ?, ?/). For example, [gahwah] > [gahawah].
When short /a/ appears in an open syllable that is followed by a nonfinal light syllable, it is deleted. For example, /sa?ab-at/ is realized as [s'?a.bat]. This, combined with the gahawa syndrome can make underlying sequence of /a/ and a following guttural consonant (/h x, ? ?, ?/) to appear metathesized, e.g. /?istaal/ ('got in a hurry') [?ist'?a?al].
Short high vowels are deleted in non-final open syllables, such as /tirsil-u:n/ ('you [m. sg.] send') [tirs'lu:n].
There is both limited distributional overlap and free variation between [i] and [u], with the latter being more likely in the environment of bilabials, pharyngealized consonants, and /r/.
The mid vowels /e: o:/ are typically monophthongs, though they can be pronounced as diphthongs when preceding a plosive, e.g. /be:t/ ('house') [beit]. [ei]
Najdi Arabic sentence structure can have the word order VSO and SVO, however, VSO usually occurs more often.Ingham (1994:37-44) NA morphology is distinguished by three categories which are: nouns ism, verb fial, and particle harf. Ism means name in Arabic and it corresponds to nouns and adjectives in English. Fial means action in Arabic and it corresponds to verbs. Harf means letter and corresponds to pronouns, demonstratives, prepositions, conjunctions and articles.
Verbs are inflected for number, gender, person, tense, aspect and transitives. Nouns show number (singular and plural) and gender (masculine and feminine). 
Complementizers in NA have three different classes which are: relative particle, declarative particle, and interrogative particles. The three different complementizers that are used in Najdi Arabic are: illi, in, itha.
Two particles are used in negation, which are: ma and la. These particles come before the verb in verbal sentences.Ingham (1994:37-44) ma is used with all verbal sentences but la is used with imperative verb forms indicating present and future tense.