Namangan
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Namangan
Namangan
Namangan/
City
Namangan is located in Uzbekistan
Namangan
Namangan
Location in Uzbekistan
Coordinates: 41°00?04?N 71°40?06?E / 41.00111°N 71.66833°E / 41.00111; 71.66833Coordinates: 41°00?04?N 71°40?06?E / 41.00111°N 71.66833°E / 41.00111; 71.66833
CountryFlag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan
RegionNamangan Region
Established1610
Area
 o Total145 km2 (56 sq mi)
Elevation
450 m (1,480 ft)
Population
(2021)[1]
 o Total644,800
 o Density4,400/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Postal code
160100[2]
Area code(s)+998 6922[2]
Websitewww.namangan.uz

Namangan (Uzbek pronunciation: [næmææn]; ) is a city in eastern Uzbekistan. It is the administrative, economic, and cultural center of Namangan Region. Administratively, it is a district-level city.[3] Namangan is located in the northern edge of the Fergana Valley, less than 30 km from the Kyrgyzstan border. The city is served by Namangan Airport.

Namangan has been an important craft and trade center in the Fergana Valley since the 17th century. Many factories were built in the city during Soviet times. During World War II, industrial production in Namangan increased fivefold compared with that of 1926-1927. Currently, Namangan is mainly a center for light industry, especially in food.[4] The officially registered population of the city was 475,700 in 2014. Uzbeks are the largest ethnic group.

History

The city takes its name from the local salt mines (in Persian ? (namak kan) -- "a salt mine").[5] Babur mentioned the village of Namangan in his memoirs Baburnama.[6] In his book A brief History of the Khanate of Kokand (Russian: ? ? ?) (Kazan, 1886), the Russian ethnographer Vladimir Petrovich Nalivkin wrote that Namangan is mentioned in legal documents dating back to 1643.[6]

The city of Namangan dates back to the 17th cent. A local salt miner's settlement (naman kann) appeared in the north of the Ferghana valley. The inhabitants of Aksikent (Ahsykenta) migrated here in the 17th Century after the destructive earthquakes. Aksikent is the old city that was once the center of the valley of Fergana. The city was the province's administrative centre in the middle of the 18th century (viloyat). [1][7]

Namangan, like many other cities in the Fergana valley, was originally populated by Sogdian people, although it later became a Persian speaking city; the local variety of Persian became known as the Tajik language. An influx of Turkic-speaking people into the region, starting in late medieval times, led to turkification. While Namangan still had a Tajik majority until the middle of the 19th century, identification of its residents with Turkic rather than Iranian cultures has increased. By the late 20th century, most residents of Namangan speak Uzbek,[] albeit with a significant Tajik-speaking minority.

Politically, Namangan became a part of the Uyghur Empire of the Karakhanid State and was known to have been a settlement in the 15th century. The residents of the ancient city of Akhsikat, which was severely damaged by an earthquake, moved to the then-village of Namangan in 1610.[8] Namangan became a city afterward.[8] On the eve of the Russian invasion in 1867, the town had been a part of the Khanate of Kokand since the middle of the 18th century.[9][10]

Namangan was hit by a destructive earthquake in 1926 which killed 34 people, injured 72, and destroyed 4,850 houses.[11]

Since Uzbekistan's independence in 1991, Namangan has gained a reputation for Islamic revivalism, with many mosques and schools funded by organizations from Middle Eastern countries, including the extremist Wahhabi sect from Saudi Arabia that produced jihadist terrorists like Juma Namangani who fought and died in support of the Afghan Taliban and the Al Qaeda.[12][13] This has also translated into political opposition against the secular government of Uzbekistan. Some women have discarded traditional colorful scarves for large white veils or even the black paranja.[14]

Geography

Namangan is located 450 metres (1,480 ft) above sea level.[15] The Qoradaryo and Naryn Rivers join to form the Syr Darya just outside the southern edge of the city.[16] The area of the city is 145 km2 (56 sq mi).[17]

By road Namangan is 290 kilometres (180 mi) east of Tashkent, 68.5 kilometres (42.6 mi) west of Andijan, and 40.4 kilometres (25.1 mi) east of Chust.[18]

Climate

Namangan has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with cold winters and hot summers. The average July temperature is 26.3 °C (79.3 °F). The mean temperature in January is -2.3 °C (27.9 °F).[6]

Climate data for Namangan (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
7.9
(46.2)
15.3
(59.5)
23.0
(73.4)
28.5
(83.3)
34.0
(93.2)
35.1
(95.2)
33.9
(93.0)
28.9
(84.0)
21.7
(71.1)
13.3
(55.9)
5.7
(42.3)
21.0
(69.8)
Average low °C (°F) -3.1
(26.4)
-0.7
(30.7)
5.1
(41.2)
10.9
(51.6)
15.2
(59.4)
19.6
(67.3)
21.1
(70.0)
19.6
(67.3)
14.5
(58.1)
8.6
(47.5)
3.2
(37.8)
-1.4
(29.5)
9.4
(48.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.1
(0.71)
25.7
(1.01)
28.9
(1.14)
23.9
(0.94)
20.6
(0.81)
11.1
(0.44)
4.3
(0.17)
2.4
(0.09)
2.9
(0.11)
15.7
(0.62)
20.6
(0.81)
26.2
(1.03)
200.4
(7.88)
Average precipitation days 9 10 10 9 10 6 5 3 3 5 6 9 85
Source: Centre of Hydrometeorological Service of Uzbekistan[19]

Main sites

Babur Park

Babur Park in Namangan, Uzbekistan

Located in the centre of the city, Babur Park was created in the late 19th century as the private garden of Namangan's Russian governor, but it is now open to the public. The park is named after Emperor Babur, who was born in the Fergana Valley, and it is known for its many old chinor trees.[20]

Mullah Kyrgyz Madrasa

The Mullah Kyrgyz Madrassa, built 1910, is named after a local architect, Usto Kyrgyz. Founded by a wealthy cotton magnate from Namangan, it was closed by the Soviets and spent much of the 20th century as a literary museum.[20] The madrassa was restored by local residents following independence and it is listed as an historic monument.

The madrassa's minarets and portal have been completely restored, and the white, blue, yellow, and green mosaic tiles are particularly beautiful. There is carved woodwork on both the ceilings and the columns, including some finely carved calligraphy. Inside is a small courtyard surrounded by 35 rooms, which would have housed nearly 150 students.

Khodjamni Kabri Mausoleum and Khodja Amin Mosque

The Khodjamni Kabri Mausoleum and neighbouring Khodja Amin Mosque both date from the 1720s and are the work of local architect Usto Muhammad Ibrahim.[20] They have both recently been renovated. Opened on all four sides, the portal-domed mosque hosts intricate terracotta tilework which was produced using a method which was commonplace in the 12th century but had disappeared in the Fergana Valley.[20] The buildings are open for prayer, but only men may enter.

Ota Valikhon Tur Mosque

Built in 1915, the Ota Valikhon Tur Mosque is located 1 km east of Namangan's bazaar. Arabic calligraphy adorns the brickwork on the exterior, with gorgeous star-shaped carvings. The large domes are decorated with blue mosaic stripes. This mosque was linked with the controversial Wahhabi sect during the 1990s and received funding from Saudi Arabia before it was closed by the Uzbek government.[20] It is now a gallery of the Namangan Artists' Union, displaying the work of local artists.[20]

Demographics

With a population of 644,800 (2021),[1] Namangan is Uzbekistan's second-largest city by population. Between 2016 and 2017, the population rose by almost 100,000,[1] partly due to a change of boundaries between the city and the neighbouring districts.[21] Uzbeks and Tajiks are the largest ethnic groups.

Economy

Namangan has been an important craft and trade center in the Fergana Valley since the 17th century. After annexation by the Russians in 1867, cotton production and food processing became the dominant economic activity, as it did in many other places in the country.[23] Many factories were built in the city during Soviet times. During World War II, industrial production in Namangan increased fivefold compared with that of 1926-1927.[6] After the war both light and heavy industries increased significantly.

Currently Namangan is mainly a center for light industry, especially in food. There are 36 joint companies and over 400 small and medium enterprises in the city.[15]

Education

There are three higher education institutions in Namangan city -- Namangan State University, Namangan Engineering Pedagogical Institute, and Namangan Engineering Technological Institute. Namangan State University is the largest, oldest and highest ranked of the three. The city is also home to ten colleges, two vocational schools, four academic lyceums (the best one is Lola academic lyceum under Namangan State University), and 51 general education schools.[15]

Transportation

Namangan is served by Namangan Airport which is located 12 km from the city center. The city has its own railway station which was built in 1912. It currently only allows for passengers two days a week. Taxi and bus services are run by private organisations but all use a similar route and payment model.

Notable people

  • Mashrab (1640-1711) -- an influential Sufi poet.[24] Boborahim Mashrab was born in 1657. He went to Qashqar and increased his knowledge under supervision of Ofoq Hoja. From 1673 up to the end of his life he lived as a travelling mystic. In 1711 he was murdered by hokim of Balh Mahmud Taragay. In M. Namangoniy's " Tazkiratul-avliyo", I. Bogistoniy's "Tazkirai-qalandaron", M. Samarqandiy's "Muzakkiri - ashob", Hakimhon's "Muhtabat - tavorih", M. Olim's "Ansobus-Salotin" we may find some information about his life and works. The Russian scientists N.I. Veselovskiy, N.S. Likoshin, V.L. Vyatkin expressed important ideas about Mashrab's creative works in 19th and 20th centuries. Also some specialists in Uzbek literature such as I. Sulton, V. Zohidov, I. Muminov, G. Gulom, A.Hayitmetov, A. Abdugafurov, E. Shodiyev, V. Abdullayev expressed their own opinion about Mashrab's life and creative activity.[25] More detailed information we find in "Qissai Mashrab" by Pirmat Setoriy. This work has many manuscripts and copies.
  • Sobir Rahmonov (1910-1990) -- a famous theater actor, People's Artist of Uzbekistan (1961)[26]
  • Usmon Nosir (1912-1944)- The talented poet Usmon Nosir who entered the Uzbek literature of the 20th century as a thunder and lived a very short creative life as a lightning. He was born on November 13, 1912, in Namangan. Writing books from his childhood his creative work extended only 15 years, until the time he was put in prison. In that period he showed his rare talent. Young poet's books as "Quyosh bilan suhbat" (conversation with the sun) (1932), "Safarbar satrlar" (mobilized lines) (1932), "Yurak" (heart) (1935), "Mehrim" (my loving) (1935) were published at that time. In 1937, on July 14, with the slander "the enemy of the people" he was put in prison first in Tashkent, Magadan and in Kemerovo. Being exhausted in the prison he died in 1944, in Kemerovo.[27][28]

Sister cities

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Urban and rural population by district" (PDF) (in Uzbek). Namangan regional department of statistics.
  2. ^ a b "Namangan". SPR (in Russian). Retrieved 2014.
  3. ^ "Classification system of territorial units of the Republic of Uzbekistan" (in Uzbek and Russian). The State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on statistics. July 2020.
  4. ^ "Namangan travel guide". Caravanistan. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Lovell-Hoare, Sophie; Lovell-Hoare, Max (8 July 2013). Uzbekistan. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-84162-461-7.
  6. ^ a b c d e Mo?minov, Ibrohim, ed. (1976). "Namangan". O?zbek sovet ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Vol. 7. Toshkent. pp. 527-528.
  7. ^ "Namangan, Uzbekistan". Retrieved 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ a b c "Namangan". Ensiklopedik lug?at (in Uzbek). Vol. 1. Toshkent: O?zbek sovet ensiklopediyasi. 1988. p. 554. 5-89890-002-0.
  9. ^ Pierce, Richard A. (1960). Russian Central Asia, 1867-1917: A Study in Colonial Rule. University of California Press. p. 227.
  10. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: A New Survey of Universal Knowledge. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1964. p. 470.
  11. ^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts. Newspaper Enterprise Association. 1928. p. 145.
  12. ^ Hughes, James; Sasse, Gwendolyn (January 2002). Ethnicity and Territory in the Former Soviet Union: Regions in Conflict. Psychology Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-7146-5226-9.
  13. ^ Melvin, Neil J. (30 May 2000). Uzbekistan: Transition to Authoritarianism. Taylor & Francis. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-135-28751-1.
  14. ^ Mikhailov, Nikolai Nikolaevich (December 1988). A Book About Russia: In the Union of Equals: Descriptions, Impressions, the Memorable. Progress Publishers. p. 167. ISBN 9785010017941.
  15. ^ a b c d Haydarov, Murodulla (2000-2005). "Namangan". O?zbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: O?zbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi.
  16. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica: Macropædia : Knowledge in depth. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. p. 715. ISBN 978-0-85229-787-2.
  17. ^ "Administrative-territorial division of Namangan region" (in Russian). Republic of Uzbekistan Open Data Portal. Retrieved 2022.
  18. ^ "Namangan". Google Maps. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ "Average monthly data about air temperature and precipitation in 13 regional centers of the Republic of Uzbekistan over period from 1981 to 2010". Centre of Hydrometeorological Service of the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzhydromet). Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Ibbotson, Sophie (2020). Uzbekistan. United Kingdom: Bradt Guides Ltd. pp. 136-137. ISBN 9-781784-771089.
  21. ^ Decree 31.05.2016 No 179, LexUZ.
  22. ^ "About the City of Namangan". The official website of the Namangan Region Administration. Retrieved 2014.
  23. ^ BISNIS bulletin. Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States (BISNIS), U.S. Dept. of Commerce, International Trade Administration. 1992. p. 12.
  24. ^ Abdug?afurov, Abdurashid (2000-2005). "Mashrab". O?zbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: O?zbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi.
  25. ^ Mashrab (1997), Mabdai Nur (in Uzbek), Toshkent
  26. ^ "Rahmonov Sobir". O?zbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: O?zbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000-2005.
  27. ^ Mirvaliev, S (2000), O?zbek adiblari (in Uzbek), Toshkent: Yozuvchi
  28. ^ Q. Yo?ldoshev, B. Qosimov (2000), Adabiyot (7-sinf darsligi) (in Uzbek), Toshkent: O?qituvchi
  29. ^ "Ahmedov Yoqub". O?zbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: O?zbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000-2005.

External links


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