Narasimha
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Narasimha

Narasimha
God of Protection
Member of Dashavatara
NarayanaTirumala15.JPG
A deity of Narasimha.
Devanagari
Sanskrit transliterationNarasimha
AffiliationLion headed God, fourth Avatar of Vishnu[1]
WeaponChakra, mace, Nails
FestivalsNarasimha Jayanti, Holi
ConsortLakshmi

Narasimha pronounced  (Sanskrit: , IAST: Narasi?ha, ISO: Narasi?ha, lit. man-lion) is a fierce avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, one who incarnates in the form of part lion and part man to destroy evil and end religious persecution and calamity on Earth, thereby restoring Dharma.[1][2]

Narasimha iconography shows him with a human torso and lower body, with a lion face and claws, typically with a demon Hiranyakashipu in his lap whom he is in the process of defeating. The demon is the powerful brother of evil Hiranyaksha who had been previously defeated by Vishnu, who hated Vishnu for defeating his brother.[3] Hiranyakashipu gains special powers by which he could not be killed during the day or night, inside or outside the house, any place in the world i.e. neither in sky nor on land nor in heaven nor in pataala, by any weapon, and by man, god, asura or animal.[4] Endowed with new powers, Hiranyakashipu creates chaos, persecutes all devotees of Vishnu including his own son.[1][4][5] Vishnu understands the demon's power, then creatively adapts into a mixed avatar that is neither man nor animal and kills the demon at the junction of day and night, inside and outside.[1] Narasimha is known primarily as the 'Great Protector' who specifically defends and protects his devotees from evil.[6] The most popular Narasimha mythology is the legend that protects his devotee Prahlada, and creatively destroys Prahlada's demonic father and tyrant Hiranyakashipu.[4][7]

Narasimha is one of the major deity in Vaishnavism. Narasimha legends are revered in Vaikhanasas, Sri Vaishnavism, Sadh Vaishnavism[8] and various other Vaishnavism traditions of Hinduism. He is celebrated in many regional Hindu temples, texts, performance arts and festivals such as Holika prior to the Hindu spring festival of colors called Holi.[4][9] The earliest representation, dating back to the 4th-century CE, of Narasimha is from Kondamotu in Coastal Andhra.[10][11] Other older known artworks of Narasimha have been found at several sites across Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh, such as at the Mathura archaeological site. These have been variously dated between 2nd and 4th-century CE.[12]

Etymology

Vishnu and his avatars (Vaikuntha Chaturmurti): Vishnu himself or V?sudeva-Krishna in human form, Narasimha as a lion, Varaha as a boar. Art of Mathura, mid-5th century CE. Boston Museum.[13]

In Sanskrit the word Narasimha consists of two words "nara" which means man, and "simha" which means lion. Together the term means "man-lion", referring to a mixed creature avatar of Vishnu.[1][4] Additionally, the word "singh" is often used in place of "simha" which also means lion in Sanskrit and other Indian languages.

He is known as Nrisimha, Nrisingha, Narasingha, Narasingh, Narsingh, Narasimba and Narasinghar in derivative languages. His other names are Agnilochana () - the one who has fiery eyes, Bhairavadambara () - the one who causes terror by roaring, Karala (?) - the one who has a wide mouth and projecting teeth, Hiranyakashipudvamsa (?) - the one who killed Hiranyakashipu, Nakhastra () - the one for whom nails are his weapons, Sinhavadana (?) - the whose face is of lion and Mrigendra () - king of animals or lion.[14]

Texts

Narasimha, Chola period, 12th -13th century, Tamil Nadu. from Museum Guimet, Paris.

Vedas

The Vishnu hymn 1.154 of the Rigveda (1700-1200 BCE) contains a verse with allusions to a "wild beast, dread, prowling, mountain-roaming",[15] which has been interpreted by some to be the Narasi?ha legend. Another hymn 8.14 alludes to the Namuci legend with "waters' foam you tore off, Indra, the head of Namuci, subduing all contending hosts", but the hymns does not present details.[16]

A more complete version of the Namuci legend is found in Shatapatha Brahmana of the Yajurveda in chapter 12.7.3.[16] Other references to Narasimha are found in the Vedic texts Vajaseneyi Samhita 10.34, Pancavimsa Brahmana 12.6.8 and Taittiriya Brahmana 1.7.1.6.[16]

The Indra-Namuci legend

Narasimha likely has roots in the metaphors filled Indra-Namuci legend in the Vedas.[16][17] Indra is the dharmic leader of the Devas who commands lightning, thunder, rain and rivers, while Namuci is a deceptive demigod Asura in competition for power. Namuci suggests peace to Indra, which the latter accepts. He demands Indra to promise that he will neither try to slay him with his "palm of the hand nor with the fist", neither in day nor in night, neither "anything that the dry" nor "anything that is moist". Indra agrees.[16][18]

After the deal is done, Namuci carries away all that nourishes the Devas: the Soma drink, the essence of food and the strength of Indra. The leader of the gods finds himself conflicted, feels bound by his promise. Indra then meets Saraswati (goddess of knowledge) and Ashvins.[16] They reply they will deal with Namuci, get it all back, if Indra agrees to share his powers, the essence of food and the Soma drink with them. Indra agrees. The gods and the goddess then come up with a creative plan. They pour out "foam of water" as a thunderbolt, which is neither dry nor moist, and the evil Asura Namuci is attacked and killed when it is neither day nor night.[16]

After Namuci is killed, the gods get all the powers back, but discover that Namuci had drunk the Soma already. The good was thus now mixed with his badness of his blood, which they did not want to drink. So, they extract the good out from the bad. Thus, good returns to the Devas, the bad is discarded.[16]

According to Deborah Soifer, the Vedic legend has many parallels with the Narasimha legend, it has the same plot, the same "neither-nor" constraints, and the same creative spirit that allows the good to vanquish the evil. Further, the Sanskrit words and phrasing such as "neither palm nor fist" and "neither day nor night" in the later Hindu texts is the same as in the Vedic texts. This suggests a link and continuity between the Vedic Namuci legend and the later Narasimha legend in the Puranas.[16] According to Walter Ruben, both versions along with several other legends in ancient and medieval texts reflect the Indian tradition against despots and tyrants who abuse power.[19]

Puranas

There are references to Narasi?ha in a variety of Puras, with 17 different versions of the main narrative.[20] The Valmiki Ramayana (7.24), Harivaa (41 & 3.41-47), Viu Pura (1.16-20), Bhagavata Pura (Canto 7),[21] Agni Pura (4.2-3), Brahma Pura(2.5.3-29), Vayu Pura (67.61-66), Brahma-Pura (213.44-79), Viudharmottara Pura(1.54), K?rma Pura (1.15.18-72), Matsya Pura(161-163), Padma Pura(Uttara-khaa 5.42), ?iva Pura (2.5.43 & 3.10-12), Linga Purana (1.95-96) and Skanda Pura 7 (2.18.60-130) all contain depictions of the Narasi?ha Avat?ra.[22][23]

Other texts

Narasimha is also found and is the focus of Nrisimha Tapaniya Upanishad.[24][25]

History

Prahl?da legend

Narasi?ha kills Hira?yaka?ipu (Oil painting)

The Bhagavata Pura describes that Vishnu, in his previous avatar as Var?ha, killed the evil asura Hira?ayak?a. The younger brother of Hir?ayak?a, demon king Hira?yaka?ipu, hated Vishnu and wanted revenge.[3] He undertook many years of austere penance to gain special powers. Thereafter, Brahma offered Hira?yaka?ipu a boon. Hira?yaka?ipu asked, "Grant me that I not die within any residence or outside any residence, during the daytime or at night, nor on the ground or in the sky. Grant me that my death not be brought about by any weapon, nor by any human being or animal. Grant me that I not meet death from any entity, living or nonliving created by you. Grant me, further, that I not be killed by any demigod or demon or by any great snake from the lower planets." Brahma granted him the boon, and Hira?yaka?ipu gained these powers.[4]

Hira?yaka?ipu, once powerful and invincible with the new boon, began to persecute those who were devotees of Vishnu. Hira?yaka?ipu had a son, Prahl?da, who disagreed and rebelled against his father. Prahl?da became a devotee of Vishnu. This angered Hira?yaka?ipu, who tried to kill the boy--but with each attempt, Prahl?da was protected by Viu's mystical power. When asked, Prahl?da refused to acknowledge his father as the supreme lord of the universe and claimed that Viu is all-pervading and omnipresent.

Hira?yaka?ipu pointed to a nearby pillar and asked if 'his Viu' is in it and said to his son Prahl?da, "O most unfortunate Prahl?da, you have always described a supreme being other than me, a supreme being who is above everything, who is the controller of everyone, and who is all-pervading. But where is He? If He is everywhere, then why is He not present before me in this pillar?" Prahl?da then answered, "He was, He is and He will be."[26]

In an alternate version of the story, Prahl?da answered,

He is in pillars, and he is in the smallest twig.

Hira?yaka?ipu, unable to control his anger, smashed the pillar with his mace, and following a tumultuous sound, Viu in the form of Narasi?ha appeared from it and moved to attack Hira?yaka?ipu in defense of Prahl?da. In order to kill Hira?yaka?ipu and not upset the boon given by Brahma, the form of Narasi?ha was chosen. Hira?yaka?ipu could not be killed by human, deva or animal. Narasi?ha was none of these, as he is a form of Viu incarnate as a part-human, part-animal. He came upon Hira?yaka?ipu at twilight (when it is neither day nor night) on the threshold of a courtyard (neither indoors nor out), and put the demon on his thighs (neither earth nor space). Using his sharp fingernails (neither animate nor inanimate) as weapons, he disemboweled and killed the demon king.[26]

Narasimha was in rage and seeing this, Lord Brahma sent Prahlad to pacify him. Prahlad sang hymns and the 'Ugra' Narasimha now became peaceful 'Soumya' or 'Shant' Narasimha.[27][28][29]

In an alternate version, the Shaiva scriptures narrate that god Shiva assumed the Avatar (incarnation) of Sharabha to pacify Narasimha afterwards when he started to threaten the world violently.

The Shiva Purana mentions: After slaying Hiranyakashipu, Narasimha's wrath threatened the world. At the behest of the gods, Shiva sent Virabhadra to tackle Narasimha. When that failed, Shiva manifested as Sharabha. Sharabha then attacked Narasimha, defeated and immobilized him. Narasimha then brought forth Gandaberunda, for which Lord Sarabeshwara released goddess Pratyangira from one of his wings while goddess Shoolini being the other wing. The Goddess destroyed the form of Gandabherunda, while Shiva pacified Narasimha.

The K?rma Pura describes the preceding battle between the Puru?a and demonic forces in which he escapes a powerful weapon called Pa?up?ta. According to Soifer, it describes how Prahl?da's brothers headed by Anuhr?da and thousands of other demons "were led to the valley of death (yamalayam) by the lion produced from the body of man-lion".[30] The same episode occurs in the Matsya Pura 179, several chapters after its version of the Narasi?ha advent.[9]

Iconography

Narasimha at Bhadrachalam Temple (left), Alagar Koyil Temple (center) and Hampi (right)

Narasimha is always shown with a lion face with clawed fingers fused with a human body. Sometimes he is coming out of a pillar signifying that he is everywhere, in everything, in everyone. Some temples such as at Ahobilam, Andhra Pradesh, the iconography is more extensive, and includes nine other icons of Narasimha:[4]

  • Prahladavarada: blessing Prahlada
  • Yog?nanda-narasi?ha: serene, peaceful Narasimha teaching yoga
  • Guha-narasi?ha: concealed Narasimha
  • Krodha-narasi?ha: angry Narasimha
  • Vira-narasimha: warrior Narasimha
  • Malola-narasi?ha or Lakshmi-narasimha: with Lakshmi his wife
  • Jvala-narasi?ha: Narasimha emitting flames of wrath
  • Sarvatomukha-narasimha: many faced Narasimha
  • Bhishana-narasimha: ferocious Narasimha
  • Bhadra-narasimha: another fierce aspect of Narasimha
  • Mrityormrityu-narasimha: defeater of death aspect of Narasimha

The earliest known iconography of Narasimha is variously dated to between the 2nd and the 4th-century CE, and these have been found in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.[12] Most images and temples of Narasimha are found in the peninsular region of India, but important ancient and medieval archeological sites containing Narasimha icons are also found as Vaikuntha Chaturmurti in Kashmir and Khajuraho temples,[31] while single face versions are found in Garhwa and Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) and in Ellora Caves (Maharashtra).[4] Other major temples with notable icons of Narasimha are found in Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and the Vijayanagara Empire ruins in Karnataka.[4] Some of the oldest surviving Hindu temples, such as those found in Tigawa and Eran (Madhya Pradesh), dated to early 5th-century, include Narasimha along with other avatars of Vishnu.[12]

Significance

Narasimha sculptures guard an entrance, Banteay Srei temple, Cambodia.

Narasimha is a significant iconic symbol of creative resistance, hope against odds, victory over persecution, and destruction of evil. He is the destructor of not only external evil, but also one's own inner evil of "body, speech, and mind" states Pratapaditya Pal.[32]

In South Indian art - sculptures, bronzes and paintings - Viu's incarnation as Narasi?ha is one of the most chosen themes and amongst Avat?ras perhaps next only to R?ma and Ka in popularity. Lord Narasi?ha also appears as one of Hanuman's 5 faces,[33] who is a significant character in the R?m?ya?a as Lord (R?ma's) devotee.[]

Narasimha is worshipped across Telangana and Andhra Pradesh States in numerous forms.[34] Although, it is common that each of the temples contain depictions of Narasimha in more than one form, Ahobilam contains nine temples of Narasimha dedicated to the nine forms of Narasimha. It is also notable that the central aspect of Narasimha incarnation is killing the demon Hiranyakasipu, but that image of Narasimha is not commonly worshipped in temples, although it is depicted.

Coins, inscriptions and terracotta

The Narasimha legend was influential by the 5th-century, when various Gupta Empire kings minted coins with his images or sponsored inscriptions that associated the ethos of Narasimha with their own. The kings thus legitimized their rule as someone like Narasimha who fights evil and persecution.[35] Some of the coins of the Kushan era show Narasimha-like images, suggesting possible influence.[36]

Some of the oldest Narasimha terracotta artworks have been dated to about the 2nd-century CE, such as those discovered in Kausambi.[37] A nearly complete, exquisitely carved standing Narasimha statue, wearing a pancha, with personified attributes near him has been found at the Mathura archeological site and is dated to the 6th-century.[38]

Performance arts

The Narasimha legends have been a part of various Indian classical dance repertoire. For example, Kathakali theatre has included the Narasimha-Hiranyakasipu battle storyline, and adaptations of Prahlada Caritam with Narasimha has been one of the popular performances in Kerala.[39] Similarly, the Bhagavata Mela dance-drama performance arts of Tamil Nadu traditionally celebrate the annual Narasimha jayanti festival by performing the story within regional Narasimha temples.[40]

Prayers

A number of prayers have been written in dedication to Narasi?ha avat?ra. These include:[41]

  • The Narasi?ha Mah?-Mantra
  • Narasi?ha Prama Prayer
  • Davat?ra Stotra by Jayadeva
  • K?ma?ikha Aakam by Ved?nta De?ika
  • Divya Prabandham 2954[42]
  • Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Karavalamba Stotram by Adi Shankaracharya[43]

Early images

Narasi?ha statue

In Andhra Pradesh, a panel dating to third-fourth century AD shows a full theriomorphic squatting lion with two extra human arms behind his shoulders holding Vaiava emblems. This lion, flanked by five heroes (v?ra), often has been identified as an early depiction of Narasi?ha.[44] Standing cult images of Narasi?ha from the early Gupta period, survive from temples at Tigowa and Eran.[45] These sculptures are two-armed, long maned, frontal, wearing only a lower garment, and with no demon-figure of Hira?yaka?ipu. Images representing the narrative of Narasi?ha slaying the demon Hira?yaka?ipu survive from slightly later Gupta-period temples: one at Madhia and one from a temple-doorway now set into the K?rma-ma?ha at Nachna, both dated to the late fifth or early sixth century A.D.[46]

An image of Narasi?ha supposedly dating to second-third century AD sculpted at Mathura was acquired by the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 1987. It was described by Stella Kramrisch, the former Philadelphia Museum of Art's Indian curator, as "perhaps the earliest image of Narasi?ha as yet known".[46] This figure depicts a furled brow, fangs, and lolling tongue similar to later images of Narasi?ha, but the idol's robe, simplicity, and stance set it apart. On Narasi?ha's chest under his upper garment appears the suggestion of an amulet, which Stella Kramrisch associated with Visnu's cognizance, the Kau?tubha jewel. This upper garment flows over both shoulders; but below Hiranyakasipu, the demon-figure placed horizontally across Narasi?ha's body, a twisted waist-band suggests a separate garment covering the legs. The demon's hair streams behind him, cushioning his head against the man-lion's right knee. He wears a simple single strand of beads. His body seems relaxed, even pliant. His face is calm, with a slight suggestion of a smile. His eyes stare adoringly up at the face of Viu. There is little tension in this figure's legs or feet, even as Narasi?ha gently disembowels him. His innards spill along his right side. As the Matsya purana describes it, Narasi?ha ripped "apart the mighty Daitya chief as a plaiter of straw mats shreds his reeds".[46] Based on the Gandhara-style of robe worn by the idol, Michael Meiste altered the date of the image to fourth century AD.[46]

An image of Narasi?ha, dating to the 9th century, was found on the northern slope of Mount Ijo, at Prambanan, Indonesia.[47] Images of Trivikrama and Var?ha avat?ras were also found at Prambanan, Indonesia. Viu and His avat?ra images follow iconographic peculiarities characteristic of the art of central Java. This includes physiognomy of central Java, an exaggerated volume of garment, and some elaboration of the jewelry. This decorative scheme once formulated became, with very little modification, an accepted norm for sculptures throughout the Central Javanese period (circa 730-930 A.D.). Despite the iconographic peculiarities, the stylistic antecedents of the Java sculptures can be traced back to Indian carvings as the Chalukya and Pallava images of the 6th-7th centuries AD.[48]

Pilgrimage sites

In India

Germany

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2.
  2. ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0.
  3. ^ a b Roshen Dalal (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Roshen Dalal (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6.
  5. ^ Nanditha Krishna (2009). The Book of Vishnu. Penguin Books. pp. 50-53. ISBN 978-0-14-306762-7.
  6. ^ Steven J. Rosen, Narasi?ha Avatar, The Half-Man/Half-Lion Incarnation, p5
  7. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 734.
  8. ^ Farley P. Richmond; Darius L. Swann; Phillip B. Zarrilli (1993). Indian Theatre: Traditions of Performance. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 127 with footnote 1. ISBN 978-81-208-0981-9.
  9. ^ a b Soifer, Deborah A. (1991). The Myths of Narasi?ha and V?mana: Two Avatars in Cosmological Perspective. Albany, N.Y: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-0799-3.
  10. ^ Verghese, Anila (1995). Religious Traditions at Vijayanagara, as Revealed Through Its Monuments. Manohar. p. 39. ISBN 978-81-7304-086-3.
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  12. ^ a b c Meister, Michael W. (1996). "Man and Man-Lion: The Philadelphia Narasimha". Artibus Asiae. 56 (3/4): 291-301 with footnotes. doi:10.2307/3250120. JSTOR 3250120.
  13. ^ For English summary, see page 80 Schmid, Charlotte (1997). Les Vaikuha gupta de Mathura : Viu ou Ka?. pp. 60-88.
  14. ^ "Eight sacred names of Lord Narsimha to remove the fear". www.speakingtree.in. Retrieved 2020.
  15. ^ The Rigveda Mandala 1 Hymn 154, Ralph T.H. Griffith, Wikisource
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  21. ^ Ravi M. Gupta; Kenneth R. Valpey (2013). The Bhagavata Purana: Sacred Text and Living Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 21-23, 32-35. ISBN 978-0-231-53147-4.
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  28. ^ Vishwananda, Sri Swami (2019). Just Love: The Essence of Everything, Volume 3. BoD - Books on Demand. p. 75. ISBN 978-3-96343-046-6.
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  30. ^ Soifer, p.85: K.P.1.15.70
  31. ^ Alexandra Anna Enrica van der Geer (2008). Animals in Stone: Indian Mammals Sculptured Through Time. BRILL Academic. pp. 404-407. ISBN 978-90-04-16819-0.
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  41. ^ "Powerful Narasimha Mantras - For Protection - With Meaning, Benefits, Chants". TemplePurohit - Your Spiritual Destination | Bhakti, Shraddha Aur Ashirwad. Retrieved 2020.
  42. ^ "Bhakti". Om Narasimhaya Namah. Retrieved 2020.
  43. ^ "NARASIMHA - Sri Lakshmi Nrusimha Karavalamba Stotram Learning Aid - Agasthiar.Org". agasthiar.org. Retrieved 2020.
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  45. ^ Alexander Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Reports IX (1873-75), p.47
  46. ^ a b c d Michael W. Meiste, Man and Man-Lion: The Philadelphia Narasi?ha, Artibus Asiae, Vol. 56, No. 3/4 (1996), pp. 291-301
  47. ^ Jan Fontein, et al. (1990). The sculpture of Indonesia, p. 145
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