This article contains content that is written like an advertisement. (September 2016)
|Jurisdiction||Federal government of the United States|
|Headquarters||1305 East-West Highway|
Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.
|Employees||1,259 (FY 2012)|
|Annual budget||US$559.6 million (FY 2012)|
|Parent agency||National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|
The National Ocean Service (NOS), an office within the U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is responsible for preserving and enhancing the nation's coastal resources and ecosystems along 95,000 miles (153,000 km) of shoreline bordering 3,500,000 square miles (9,100,000 km2) of coastal, Great Lakes, and ocean waters. Its mission is to "provide science-based solutions through collaborative partnerships to address evolving economic, environmental, and social pressures on our oceans and coasts." NOS works closely with many partner agencies to ensure that ocean and coastal areas are safe, healthy, and productive. National Ocean Service scientists, natural resource managers, and specialists ensure safe and efficient marine transportation, promote innovative solutions to protect coastal communities, and conserve marine and coastal places. NOS is a scientific and technical organization of 1,700 scientists, natural resource managers, and specialists in many different fields.
As one of six NOAA Line Offices, NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) observes, studies, and manages the nation's coastal and marine resources. NOS measures and predicts coastal and ocean phenomena, protects large areas of the oceans, works to ensure safe navigation, and provides tools and information to protect and restore coastal and marine resources. NOAA's National Ocean Service is composed of seven program and two staff offices.
The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) is a source for water-level and current measurements that support safe and efficient maritime commerce, sound coastal management, and recreation. CO-OPS is composed of four divisions:
The Field Operations Division (FOD) operates and maintains all oceanographic and Great Lakes observing systems required to meet CO-OPS' mission objectives. The Division ensures the continuous operations of navigation and other real-time observing systems needed to support the protection of life and property. FOD also operates the Ocean Systems Test and Evaluation Facility (OSTEF) in order to support Requirements and Development Division (RDD), and Information Systems Division (ISD) development efforts. FOD operates equipment to test and evaluate new observing systems and software modules developed to support NOS mission objectives. The Division: installs, documents, operates and maintains CO-OPS measurement systems (e.g., NWLON, PORTS); conducts field reconnaissance and geodetic operations to include the establishment, leveling, documentation, and inspection of NOS benchmarks; and provides training in the installation, operation and maintenance of CO-OPS observing equipment.
The Oceanographic Division ensures the quality of all data collected by CO-OPS, and produces/disseminates operational products from this data stream. The Division monitors the performance of all CO-OPS observing systems and reports discrepancies to appropriate Center personnel. The Division performs operational data quality control/data analysis; produces oceanographic products; manages the content of CO-OPS data/product delivery systems; develops web page services; distributes real-time data to CO-OPS customers; produces/distributes CD-ROM products; provides information for matters such as litigation and boundary disputes (e.g., certified water level and benchmark information); provides technical assistance to customers regarding the use of CO-OPS products and services; designs new products and services to meet user needs, and maintains customer lists, billing information and accounting procedures to ensure the accurate accounting of revenues collected through user fees.
The Engineering Division establishes observation and analysis requirements for CO-OPS based on the assessment of user/customer needs. The Division also manages the Ocean Systems Test and Evaluation Program (OSTEP) and its associated test facilities. The Division develops new oceanographic measurement systems and techniques to improve the safety of marine navigation. The Division: develops and issues standard operating procedures, project instructions, and manuals, to guide the operation and maintenance of CO-OPS oceanographic and meteorological measurement systems; prepares measurement requirements (based on tidal zoning) for hydrographic or photogrammetric field surveys, and to support other NOS requirements needs for water level and current information; prepares and monitors interagency agreements, technology transfer agreements and work plans; prepares and administers contracts; provides technical assistance and guidance to other countries, agencies, and the public in the establishment and operation of water level and current measurement stations; and develops/integrates measurement and telemetry systems needed to support CO-OPS activities.
The National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) provides research, scientific information and tools to help balance the nation's ecological, social and economic goals. The research and tools provided are central to addressing coastal issues raised in legislation and NOAA's priorities. NCCOS was formed within the National Ocean Service (NOS) in March 1999 as the focal point for coastal ocean science. Research areas and strategy were selected in response to Federal legislation, stakeholder input, and in concert with scientific expertise and capabilities. NCCOS has five centers with specific capabilities and research expertise in coastal and ocean issues. Three of the centers are dedicated research laboratories, another conducts research through analyses of field data, and one funds research with competitive grants.
Answers questions about the impacts of environmental stress and change on the function ecosystems and health of coastal resources and people.
Conducts research on the effects of coastal habitat change and restoration on living marine resources such as seagrasses, marshes, reefs, and fish.
Conducts field research and data analysis to support marine resource management at local, regional, and national levels.
Administers NCCOS Extramural Research - a portfolio of 11 programs consisting of 73 multi-year awards held by over 370 university, state and government scientists and managers.
The Cooperative Oxford Laboratory (COL) research mission is to combine the unique scientific, response, and management capabilities of NOAA, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, and U.S. Coast Guard to identify and evaluate actions and policies that will protect, restore, and secure the health of the Chesapeake Bay and other threatened coastal marine ecosystems.
The Hollings Marine Laboratory studies the complex interaction between marine environments, aquatic organisms and their connections to human health.
Provides navigation products and services that ensure safe and efficient maritime commerce on America's oceans and coastal waters, and in the Great Lakes. OCS consists of the following offices:
Established in 2014 when NOAA combined two offices: the Coastal Services Center and the Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. In addition to implementing specific initiatives, a top priority for NOAA's Office for Coastal Management is to unify efforts to make communities more resilient. Many organizations are involved, including the private sector, nonprofits, the scientific community, and all levels of government. The Office for Coastal Management works to be a unifying force in these efforts, providing unbiased NOAA data and tools and providing opportunities for the community to come together to define common goals and find ways to work smarter by working together. Issues run the gamut from protecting endangered species to erosion to generating better building codes for storm-resistant buildings. The OCM has four programs:
The National Coastal Zone Management Program comprehensively addresses the nation's coastal issues through a voluntary partnership between the federal government and coastal and Great Lakes states and territories. Authorized by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, the program provides the basis for protecting, restoring, and responsibly developing coastal communities and resources. Currently 34 coastal states participate. While state partners must follow basic requirements, the program also gives states the flexibility to design unique programs that best address their coastal challenges and regulations.
NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) is a cross-cutting program that brings together expertise from a wide array of NOAA programs and offices in the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS). The CRCP was established in 2000 to help fulfill NOAA's responsibilities under the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 (CRCA) and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (established by Presidential Executive Order 13089 on Coral Reef Protection). The mission of the CRCP is to protect, conserve, and restore coral reef resources by maintaining healthy ecosystem function. CRCP focuses on four main pillars of work: increase resilience to climate change, reduce land-based sources of pollution, improve fisheries' sustainability, and restore viable coral populations. In strong partnership with local managers, CRCP addresses strategic coral reef management needs in a targeted, cost-effective, and efficient manner.
CRCP funds and equips reef conservation activities by NOAA and its partners in the seven U.S. states and jurisdictions containing coral reefs (American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Florida, Guam, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands), uninhabited islands including the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and Pacific Remote Island Areas, and the Pacific Freely Associated States (Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Palau). CRCP supports multiple cross-cutting activities and associated products including the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program and Coral Reef Watch.
This NOAA-sponsored website is focused on helping communities address coastal issues and has become one of the most-used resources in the coastal management community.
The National Estuarine Research Reserve System is a network of 28 coastal sites designated to protect and study estuarine systems. Established through the Coastal Zone Management Act, the reserves represent a partnership program between NOAA and the coastal states. NOAA provides funding and national guidance, and each site is managed on a daily basis by a lead state agency or university with input from local partners.
The Office of National Geodetic Survey (NGS) provides the framework for all positioning activities in the nation. The foundational elements - latitude, longitude, elevation, shoreline information and their changes over time - contribute to informed decision making and impact a wide range of important activities including mapping and charting, navigation, flood risk determination, transportation, land use and ecosystem management. NGS' authoritative spatial data, models, and tools are vital for the protection and management of natural and manmade resources and support the economic prosperity and environmental health of the nation. The NGS consists of six divisions:
The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries serves as the trustee for a network of underwater parks encompassing more than 170,000 square miles of marine and Great Lakes waters from Washington state to the Florida Keys, and from Lake Huron to American Samoa. The network includes a system of 13 national marine sanctuaries and Papah?naumoku?kea and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. These monuments are:
NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration (OR&R) is a center of expertise in preparing for, evaluating, and responding to threats to coastal environments, including oil and chemical spills, releases from hazardous waste sites, and marine debris. To fulfill its mission of protecting and restoring NOAA trust resources, the Office of Response and Restoration:
OR&R has three divisions:
The Emergency Response Division (ERD) of NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration (OR&R) provides scientific expertise to support an incident response. Under the National Contingency Plan, NOAA has responsibility for providing scientific support to the Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) for oil and hazardous material spills. To support this mandate, ERD provides 24-hour, 7 day a week response to spill events. Find out more about ERD's work with oil and chemical spills.
The Assessment and Restoration Division (ARD), formerly Coastal Protection and Restoration Division (CPRD), is responsible for evaluating and restoring coastal and estuarine habitats damaged by hazardous waste releases, oil spills, and vessel groundings. To fully accomplish this mission, ARD joined with NOAA's General Counsel for Natural Resources and Office of Habitat Conservation to create the Damage Assessment, Remediation and Restoration Program (DARRP). This successful NOAA partnership tackles the challenges of environmental damages to ensure marine natural resources are protected and restored. The Assessment and Restoration Division comprises NOAA biologists, toxicologists, ecologists, policy analysts, information specialists, attorneys, geologists, environmental engineers, and economists. Together, they help assess ecological risk and environmental and economic injury from contamination and ship groundings. In particular, ARD has developed specific expertise in aquatic risk assessment techniques, contaminated sediment issues, and data interpretation.
The ARD publishes the Screening Quick Reference Tables (SQuiRT cards), for rapid evaluation of water, sediment and soil contamination.
Since 2005, the NOAA Marine Debris Program has served as a centralized program within NOAA, coordinating, strengthening, and promoting marine debris activities within the agency and among its partners and the public. The NOAA Marine Debris Program undertakes national and international efforts focused on researching, reducing, and preventing debris in the marine environment. The program continues to support and work closely with various partners across the U.S. to fulfill its mission.
The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) is a national-regional partnership working to understand and predict coastal events - such as storms, wave heights, and sea level change.