Nepali Language
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Nepali Language

Nepali
Nepali word in devanagiri.svg
The word "Nepali" written in Devanagari script
Pronunciation['nepali]
Native toNepal, India and Bhutan
RegionHimalayas[a]
EthnicityKhas people[b][1]
Native speakers
16 million (2011 census)[2]
L2 speakers 9 million (2011 census)[2]
Devanagari
Devanagari Braille
Signed Nepali
Official status
Official language in
   Nepal
 India
Regulated byNepal Academy
Language codes
ne
nep
nep - inclusive code
Individual code:
npi - Nepali
Glottolognepa1254
nepa1252  duplicate code
Linguasphere59-AAF-d
Nepali language map.svg
Map showing distribution of Nepali speakers in South Asia. Dark red is areas with a Nepali-speaking majority or plurality, light red is where Nepali speakers are more than 20% of the population
A Nepali speaker, recorded in Myanmar.

Nepali (;[3] Devanagari: , ['nepali]) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari. It is the official language and lingua franca of Nepal and one of the 22 scheduled languages in India. It is spoken throughout Nepal, India, and by about a quarter of population in Bhutan.[4] It is the most spoken language in the Himalayan Range. In India, Nepali has official status in the state of Sikkim and the Gorkhaland Territorial Region of West Bengal.[5][6] It has a significant number of speakers in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Uttarakhand.[5] It is also spoken in Myanmar by the Burmese Gurkha and by the Nepali diaspora in the Middle East, Brunei and worldwide.[7] Nepali developed proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most significantly to other Pahari languages. The origin of the modern Nepali language is believed to be from Sinja valley of Jumla. An archaic dialect of the language is spoken in Karnali.[8]

Etymology

The initial name of Nepali language was Khas Kura.An archaic dialect of the language is spoken in Karnali.[9] During the Shah dynasty the language was also referred to as Gorakh? bh (Nepali: ?), meaning language of the Gorkhas.[10][11][12][13][14] Gorkha Bhasa Prakashini Samiti (Gorkha Language Publishing Committee), a government institution established in 1913 (B.S. 1970) for advancement of Gorkha Bhasa, renamed itself as Nepali Bhasa Prakashini Samiti (Nepali Language Publishing Committee) in 1933 (B.S. 1990), and is currently known as Sajha Prakashan.[14] The language is also called Parvate Kur? (Nepali: ?), which literally means talks of the hills.[11][15][16][17][18] The name Py? Bol? (Nepali: ?) was also briefly used during the regime of Jung Bahadur Rana.[19] The Tibetan nationalities refer to the language as Khasa Bh.[20][21][22][23] Nepali language is known as Khae Bh?e (Nepal Bhasa: ?‎, ?) in the Newar community,[24] Jy?rd? Gyo? (Tamang: ) or Jy?rt? Gyot (Tamang: ) in the Tamang community,[25][26] Khasanta (Chepang:) in the Chepang community,[27] Ro?akeka (Lhowa:) in the Lhowa community[28] and Khase Puka (Dungmali: ) in Dungmali community.[21] In Bhutan, the language is known as Lhotshamkha in Dzongkha.[29]

History

Earliest discovered inscription in the Khas Language
The Damupal Inscription in Dullu, Dailekh
Copper Inscription by King of Doti, Raika Mandhata Shahi, at Saka Era 1612 (1747 BS) in old Khas language using Devanagari script

The earliest evidence and inscriptions of dialects related to the Nepali language support the theory of a linguistic intrusion from the West or Northwest Himalayas into the Central Himalayas in the present-day regions of Western Nepal during the rule of Khasas, an Indo-Aryan speaking group, who migrated from the northwest.[30] The oldest discovered inscription in the Nepali language is believed to be the Dullu Inscription, believed to have been written around the reign of King Bhupal Damupal around the year 981. Changes of phonological patterns indicate that Nepali is related to other Northwest Indian languages, including Sindhi, Punjabi, and Lahnda. Comparative reconstructions based on vocabulary have substantiated the relations of the Nepali language to proto-Dardic, Pahari, Sindhi, Lahnda, and Punjabi.[31] Archaeological and historical investigations show that modern Nepali descends from the language spoken by the ancient Khasha people. There is some mention of the word khasha in Sanskrit legal, historical, and literary texts like Manusmriti (circa 100 CE), Puranas (350-1500), and the Rajatarangini (1148).[31] The Khashas are documented to have ruled over a vast territory comprising what is now western Nepal, parts of Garhwal and Kumaon in northern India, and some parts of southwestern Tibet. King Ashoka Challa (1255-1278) is believed to have proclaimed himself Khasha-Rajadhiraja (emperor of the Khashas) in a copper-plate inscription found in Bodh Gaya, and several other copper plates in ancient Nepali have been traced back to the king's descendants.[31] The Ashoka Challa inscription of 1255 is the earliest example of modern Nepali. The languages of these early inscriptions are considered to be a dialect of Jumla and West Nepal, rather than a predecessor of the dialect of Gorkha, which became the modern Nepali language.[32]

The earliest example of modern Nepali is the literary manuscript Svastanivratakatha, dated 1648. Other such early literary texts in modern Nepali are the anonymous version of the "Khandakhadya" (dated 1649), the "Bajapariksha" (1700) and "Jvarotpatticikitsa" written by Banivilas Jytoirvid (1773) and "Prayascittapradipa" written by Premnidhi Pant (1780).[32] The 1670 Rani Pokhari inscription of King Pratap Malla, another early example of modern Nepali, indicates the significant increment of Nepali speakers in Kathmandu valley.[32] The currently popular variant of Nepali is believed to have originated around 500 years ago with the mass migration of a branch of Khas people from the Karnali-Bheri-Seti eastward to settle in lower valleys of the Karnali and the Gandaki basin that were well-suited to rice cultivation. Over the centuries, different dialects of the Nepali language with distinct influences from Sanskrit, Maithili, Hindi, and Bengali are believed to have emerged across different regions of the current-day Nepal and Uttarakhand, making Khasa the lingua franca.

The institutionalisation of the Nepali language is believed to have started with the Shah kings of Gorkha Kingdom, in the modern day Gorkha district of Nepal. In 1559, a prince of Lamjung, Dravya Shah established himself on the throne of Gorkha with the help of local Khas and Magars. He raised an army of khas people under the command of Bhagirath Panta. Later, in the late 18th century, his descendant, Prithvi Narayan Shah, raised and modernized an army of Chhetri, Thakuri, Magars, Gurung people, and others and set out to conquer and consolidate dozens of small principalities in the Himalayas. Since Gorkha had replaced the original Khas homeland, Khaskura was redubbed Gorkhali "language of the Gorkhas".[]

One of the most notable military achievements of Prithvi Narayan Shah was the conquest of Kathmandu Valley, a region called Nepal at the time. After the overthrowing of the Malla rulers, Kathmandu was established as Prithvi Narayan's new capital. The Khas people originally referred to their language as Khas kur? ("Khas speech"), which was also known as Parbatiya (or Parbattia or Paharia, meaning language of the hill country).[33][34] The Newar people used the term "Gorkhali" as a name for this language, as they identified it with the Gorkhali conquerors.[] The Gorkhalis themselves started using this term to refer to their language at a later stage.[35] The census of India prior to independence used the term Naipali at least from 1901 to 1951, the 1961 census replacing it with Nepali.[36][37]

Historically, Sanskrit has been a significant source of vocabulary for the Nepali language.[38] According to exclusive phonological evidences observed by lexicographer Sir Ralph Turner, Nepali language is closely related to Punjabi, Lahnda, Hindi and Kumaoni while it appears to share some distinguishing features with the other Indo-Aryan languages like Rajasthani, Gujarati and Bangla.[38] Ethnologist Brian Houghton Hodgson stated that the Khas or Parbattia language is an "Indian Prakrit" brought by colonies from south of the Nepalese hills, and the whole structure including the eighth-tenth portion of the vocabulary of it is "substantially Hindee" due to the influences and loanwords it shares with Arabic and Farsi.[39]

Expansion - particularly to the north, west, and south - brought the growing state into conflict with the British and the Chinese. This led to wars that trimmed back the territory to an area roughly corresponding to Nepal's present borders. After the Gorkha conquests, the Kathmandu valley or Nepal became the new center of politics. As the entire conquered territory of the Gorkhas ultimately became Nepal, in the early decades of the 20th century, Gorkha language activists in India, especially Darjeeling and Varanasi, began petitioning Indian universities to adopt the name 'Nepali' for the language.[40] Also in an attempt to disassociate himself with his Khas background, the Rana monarch Jung Bahadur Rana decreed that the term Gorkhali be used instead of Khas kur? to describe the language. Meanwhile, the British Indian administrators had started using the term "Nepal" to refer to the Gorkha kingdom. In the 1930s, Nepal government also adopted this term fully.[] Subsequently, the Khas language came to be known as "Nepali language".[1] The earliest Nepali grammar to have survived was written by Veerendra Keshari Aryal entitled "Nepali Vyakaran" and it is dated around 1891 to 1905. The grammar is based on Panini model and it equates Nepali with Prakrit and labels it as "the mountain Prakrit".[41] However, later the official institution established in 1912 for formalizing Nepali language, the "Gorkha Bhasha Prakashini Samiti", accepted the 1920 grammar text entitled Candrika Gorkha Bhasha Vyakaran by Pandit Hemraj Pandey as the official grammar of the Nepali language.[41]

Nepali is spoken indigenously over most of Nepal west of the Gandaki River, then progressively less further to the east.[42]

Literature

Bhanubhakta Acharya, Aadi Kavi in Nepali-language literature

Nepali developed a significant literature within a short period of a hundred years in the 19th century. This literary explosion was fuelled by Adhyatma Ramayana; Sundarananda Bara (1833); Birsikka, an anonymous collection of folk tales; and a version of the ancient Indian epic Ramayana by Bhanubhakta Acharya (d. 1868). The contribution of trio-laureates Lekhnath Paudyal, Laxmi Prasad Devkota, and Balkrishna Sama took Nepali to the level of other world languages. The contribution of expatriate writers outside Nepal, especially in Darjeeling and Varanasi in India, is also notable.

Geographical distribution

According to the 2011 national census, 44.6% of the population of Nepal speaks Nepali as the first language.[43] and 32.8% speak Nepali as a second language.[44] Ethnologue reports 12,300,000 speakers within Nepal (from the 2011 census).[44]

Nepali is traditionally spoken in the hilly regions of Nepal.[45] The language is prominently used in governmental usages in Nepal and is the everyday language of the local population. The exclusive use of Nepali in the court system and by the government of Nepal is being challenged. Gaining recognition for other languages of Nepal was one of the goals of the decades-long Maoist insurgency in Nepal.[46]

In Bhutan, native Nepali speakers, known as Lhotshampa, are estimated at 35% [47] of the population. This number includes displaced Bhutanese refugees, with unofficial estimates of the ethnic Bhutanese refugee population as high as 30 to 40%, constituting a majority in the south (about 242,000 people).[48]

As per the 2011 Census of India, there were a total of 2,926,168 Nepali language speakers in India.[49]

Nepali is the third most spoken language in the Australian territory of Tasmania spoken by 1.3% of its population,[50] and fifth most spoken language in the Northern Territory, Australia, spoken by 1.3 % of its population.[51]

Dialects

Dialects of Nepali include Acchami, Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali, Bheri, Dadeldhuri, Dailekhi, Darchulali, Darchuli, Gandakeli, Humli, Purbeli, and Soradi.[44] These dialects can be distinct from Standard Nepali. Mutual intelligibility between Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali (Bajura), Humli, and Acchami is low.[44] The dialect of Nepali language spoken in Karnali Province is not mutually intelligible with Standard Nepali. The language is known with its old name as Khas Bhasa in Karnali.[9]

Phonology

Vowels and consonants are outlined in the tables below.

Vowels

Monophthongs

Nepali vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i ? u ?
Close-mid e ? o
Open-mid ?
Open a ã

Nepali distinguishes six oral vowels and five nasal vowels. /o/ does not have a phonemic nasal counterpart, although it is often in free variation with [õ].

Diphthongs

Nepali has ten diphthongs: /ui?/, /iu?/, /ei?/, /eu?/, /oi?/, /ou?/, /?i?/, /?u?/, /ai?/, and /au?/.

Consonants

Nepali consonant phonemes
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m ⟨?⟩ n ⟨?/?⟩ (? ⟨?⟩) ? ⟨?⟩
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless unaspirated p ⟨?⟩ t ⟨?⟩ t?s ⟨?⟩ ? ⟨?⟩ k ⟨?⟩
aspirated p? ⟨?⟩ t? ⟨?⟩ t?s? ⟨?⟩ ⟨?⟩ k? ⟨?⟩
voiced unaspirated b ⟨?⟩ d ⟨?⟩ d?z ⟨?⟩ ? ⟨?⟩ ? ⟨?⟩
aspirated b? ⟨?⟩ d? ⟨?⟩ d?z?Devanagari jh old.svg/?⟩ ⟨?⟩ ⟨?⟩
Fricative s ⟨?/?/?⟩ ? ⟨?⟩
Rhotic r ⟨?⟩
Approximant (w ⟨?⟩) l ⟨?⟩ (j ⟨?⟩)

[j] and [w] are nonsyllabic allophones of [i] and [u], respectively. Every consonant except [j], [w], and /?/ has a geminate counterpart between vowels. /?/ and /?/ also exist in some loanwords such as /ba?/ "arrow" and /nare?/ ? "king", but these sounds are sometimes replaced with native Nepali phonemes.

Final schwas may or may not be preserved in speech. The following rules can be followed to figure out whether or not Nepali words retain the final schwa.

1) Schwa is retained if the final syllable is a conjunct consonant. ? (anta, 'end'), ? (sambandha, 'relation'), ? (?reha, 'greatest'/a last name).
Exceptions: conjuncts such as in ? (mañc, 'stage') ? (gañj, 'city') and occasionally the last name ? (panta/pant).

2) For any verb form the final schwa is always retained unless the schwa-cancelling halanta is present. (huncha, 'it happens'), (bhaera, 'in happening so; therefore'), (gaecha, 'he apparently went'), but (chan, 'they are'), ? (gain, 'she went').

Meanings may change with the wrong orthography: (gaina, 'she didn't go') vs ? (gain, 'she went').

3) Adverbs, onomatopoeia and postpositions usually maintain the schwa and if they don't, halanta is acquired: (aba 'now'), (tira, 'towards'), (?ja, 'today') ? (simsim 'drizzle') vs (jhan, 'more').

4) Few exceptional nouns retain the schwa such as: (dukha, 'suffering'), (sukha, 'pleasure').

Note: Schwas are often retained in music and poetry to facilitate singing and recitation.

Grammar

Nepali is a highly fusional language with relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is SOV (subject-object-verb). There are three major levels or gradations of honorific: low, medium and high. Low honorific is used where no respect is due, medium honorific is used to signify equal status or neutrality, and high honorific signifies respect. There is also a separate highest level honorific, which was used to refer to members of the royal family, and by the royals among themselves.[52] Like all modern Indo-Aryan languages, Nepali grammar has syncretized heavily, losing much of the complex declensional system present in the older languages. Instead, it relies heavily on periphrasis, a marginal verbal feature of older Indo-Aryan languages.[53]

Writing system

Nepali is written in Devanagari script.

In the section below Nepali is represented in Latin transliteration using the IAST scheme and IPA. The chief features are: subscript dots for retroflex consonants; macrons for etymologically, contrastively long vowels; h denoting aspirated plosives. Tildes denote nasalised vowels.

Consonants

Devanagari k.svg /k?/ Devanagari kh.svg /k/ Devanagari g.svg // Devanagari gh.svg // Devanagari ng.svg //
Devanagari c.svg /t?s?/ Devanagari ch.svg /t?s/ Devanagari j.svg /d?z?/ Devanagari jh old.svg/Devanagari jh.svg /d?z/ Devanagari ny.svg /n?/
Devanagari tt.svg // Devanagari tth.svg // Devanagari dd.svg // Devanagari ddh.svg // Devanagari nn.svg //
Devanagari t.svg /t?/ Devanagari th.svg /t/ Devanagari d.svg /d?/ Devanagari dh.svg /d/ Devanagari n.svg /n?/
Devanagari p.svg /p?/ Devanagari ph.svg /p/ Devanagari b.svg /b?/ Devanagari bh.svg /b/ Devanagari m.svg /m?/
Devanagari y.svg /j?/ Devanagari r.svg /r?/ Devanagari l old.svg /l?/ Devanagari v.svg /w?/
Devanagari sh.svg /s?/ Devanagari ss.svg /s?/ Devanagari s.svg /s?/ Devanagari h.svg //
Devanagari ligature Kssa.svg /t?s?j?, ks?/ Devanagari Conjunct TRa.svg /tr?/ Devanagari Conjunct JNya.svg /?j?/ Devanagari ri.svg /ri/

Vowels

Orthography ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
IAST a ? i ? u ? e ai o au a? a? am?/ã
IPA ? a i i u u e ?i? o ?u? ???
Vowel mark indicated on consonant b ?

Sample text

The following is a sample text in Nepali, of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Nepali

? ?. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? [54]

Transliteration (IAST)
Dh?r? 1. Sabai vyaktihar? janmaj?t svatantra hun t? sabaiko sam?n adhik?r ra mahatva cha. Nijhar?m? vic?r ?akti ra sadvic?r bhaekole nijhar?le ?pasm? bhat?tvako bh?vanaba vyavah?r garnu parcha.
Transcription (IPA)
[d?a?a ek s?b?i? bektiu d?z?nm?d?zat sot?nt ?un ti s?b?i?ko s?man ?d(?)ika? r? m?:t:o t?s nid?zuma bit?sa? s?kti s?dbit?sar bekole nid?zule ap?sma b?at?it:oko b?aw?naba beba:r nu pt?s]
Gloss (word-to-word)
Article 1. All human-beings from-birth independent are their all equal right and importance is. In themselves, intellect and conscience endowed therefore they one another brotherhood's spirit treatment with do must.
Translation (grammatical)
Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Vocabulary

Nepali numbers
Numeral Written IAST IPA Etymology
0 ? / ?unya [sun:e] Sanskrit nya ()
1 ? ek /ek/ Sanskrit eka ()
2 ? du? /d?ui?/ Sanskrit dvi (?)
3 ? t?n /t?in/ Sanskrit tri (?)
4 ? c?r /t?sar/ Sanskrit catúr ()
5 ? ? p?m?c /pãt?s/ Sanskrit pañca (?)
6 ? ? cha /t?s/ Sanskrit ?á? ()
7 ? s?t /sat?/ Sanskrit saptá (?)
8 ? h /a/ Sanskrit (?)
9 ? nau /n?u?/ Sanskrit náva ()
10 da? /ds/ Sanskrit dá?a
11 ? egh?ra [eä]
12 b?hra /bar?/ [bä]
20 b?s /bis/
21 ? ekk?is /ek:ai?s/
22 ? b?is /bai?s/
100 ek saya [ek s?e?]
1 000 ?, ? ek haj?r /ek d?zar/
10 000 , ? da? haj?r [ds d?zär]
100 000 ?,, ek l?kh /ek lak?/ See lakh
1 000 000 ,, da? l?kh [ds läk?]
10 000 000 ?,,, ? ek karo? [ek ko?] See crore
100 000 000 ,,, ? da? karo? [ds ko?]
1 000 000 000 ?,,,, ek arab [ek b]
10 000 000 000 ,,,, da? arab [ds b]
1012 ek kharab [ek k?b]
1014 ek n?l /ek nil/
1016 ? ek padma /ek p?d?m?/
1018 ek ?a?kha /ek sk/

The numbering system has roots in Vedic numbering system, found in the ancient scripture of Ramayana.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Richard Burghart 1984, pp. 118-119.
  2. ^ a b Nepali at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Nepali at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  3. ^ "Nepali | Definition of Nepali by Oxford Dictionary on Lexico.com also meaning of Nepali". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Archived from the original on 23 July 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ Language Gulper: Languages and Ethnic Groups of Bhutan (2014).
  5. ^ a b "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 2022.
  6. ^ "Official Nepali language in Sikkim & Darjeeling" (PDF). CensusIndia.gov.in.
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  8. ^ "Brief Introduction". Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ a b "5 features of Nepali, Nepal's lingua franca, that you are unaware of". Online Khabar. Online Khabar. 3 October 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  10. ^ Lienhard, Siegfried (1992). Songs of Nepal: An Anthology of Nevar Folksongs and Hymns. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas. ISBN 81-208-0963-7. Page 3.
  11. ^ a b Maharjan, Rajendra. " ?-? ". EKantipur. Kantipur Publication Limited. Retrieved 2021.? ? '' , -- ? '' ?
  12. ^ Clark, T. W. (1973). "Nepali and Pahari". Current Trends in Linguistics. Walter de Gruyter. p. 252.
  13. ^ "The kings song". Himal Southasian. June 2003. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  14. ^ a b "? ? ". Sajha Prakashan. Retrieved 2021.
  15. ^ "() ". Nepal Patra. Retrieved 2021. ? ? ? ? ? ?, ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?, ? ?, ? ?
  16. ^ Baniya, Karnabahadur.  ? ?. Palpa: Tribhuvan Multiple Campus. pp. 3-4. Retrieved 2021.ISSN:2616-017x
  17. ^ "Nepali". Harvard University. Department of South Asian Studies. Retrieved 2021. long-established language dating back to the 1200s, it was previously known as Khas Kura and later Gorkha bhasa and also Parbate ('the language of the mountain people').
  18. ^ Shrestha, Shiva Raj. Khaptad Region in Mythology (PDF). p. 10. Retrieved 2021.
  19. ^ Vasistha, Kedar. "' ?' ". Gorakhapatra Online. Retrieved 2021. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? (?) ? ?
  20. ^ Thapa, Lekh Bahadur (1 November 2013). "Roots: A Khas story". The Kathmandu Post. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  21. ^ a b Kapali, Rukshana H. "- ? ? ?". Saino Khabar. " ?" "? ?", " " " ", "?", "", ? ?
  22. ^ " ?". Hamra Kura. '?' '' '' ? '' '' ? ? ?  ! ? ? '' '' ?
  23. ^ Hodgson, B. H. (1841). "Illustrations of the literature and religion of the Buddhists". Serampore. Retrieved 2012.
  24. ^ " ? ?  ?". . 26 July 2019. ? ? ? ? ? ' ?' ?
  25. ^ "? ?". SIL Nepal. ? [dzjarti gjot] - ?
  26. ^ "?, ? ? ? ?". ?.
  27. ^ "?". ?. [kh?s.n.t?] ?.. adv Nepali (esp. in reference to the Nepali language)
  28. ^ "". Lhowa Dictionary. SIL International. Retrieved 2021. [?ro?kek] . ? Nepali language (sem. domains: 9.7.1.5 - .)
  29. ^ Bhutan, Tourism Council of. "Language". www.bhutan.travel. Retrieved 2022.
  30. ^ Jain & Cardona 2007, p. 543.
  31. ^ a b c "Nepali language | Britannica".
  32. ^ a b c Jain & Cardona 2007, p. 544.
  33. ^ Balfour, Edward (1871). Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial, Industrial and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures. Scottish & Adelphi presses. p. 529 – via Google Books.
  34. ^ Cust, Robert N. (1878). A Sketch of the Modern Languages of the East Indies. Routledge. p. 51. ISBN 9781136384691 – via Google Books.
  35. ^ Richard Burghart 1984, p. 118.
  36. ^ General, India Office of the Registrar (1967). Census of India, 1961: Tripura. Manager of Publications. p. 336 – via Google Books. Nepali (Naipali in 1951)
  37. ^ Commissioner, India Census; Gait, Edward Albert (1902). Census of India, 1901. Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India. p. 91 – via Internet Archive. Naipali is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the upper classes in Nepal, whereas the minor Nepalese languages, such as Gurung, Magar, Jimdar, Yakha, etc., are members of the Tibeto-Burman family
  38. ^ a b Jain & Cardona 2007, p. 545.
  39. ^ Hodgson 2013, pp. 1-2.
  40. ^ Onta, Pratyoush (1996) "Creating a Brave Nepali Nation in British India: The Rhetoric of Jati Improvement, Rediscovery of Bhanubhakta and the Writing of Bir History" in Studies in Nepali History and Society 1(1), p. 37-76.
  41. ^ a b Jain & Cardona 2007, p. 548.
  42. ^ "Nepal". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2015.
  43. ^ "Major highlights" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics. 2013. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  44. ^ a b c d "Nepali (npi)". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2016.
  45. ^ "Languages in Nepal".
  46. ^ Gurung, Harka (20 January 2005). Social Exclusion and Maoist Insurgency. p. 5. Retrieved 2012 – via Google Books.
  47. ^ "Background Note: Bhutan". U.S. Department of State. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  48. ^ Worden, Robert L.; Savada, Andrea Matles (1991). "Chapter 6: Bhutan - Ethnic Groups". Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies (3rd ed.). Federal Research Division, United States Library of Congress. pp. 424. ISBN 978-0-8444-0777-7. Retrieved 2010.
  49. ^ "Language - India, States And Union Territories (Table C-16)" (PDF). census.gov.in. Retrieved 2020.
  50. ^ "Snapshot of Tasmania". abs.gov.au. 28 June 2022. Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  51. ^ "Snapshot Northern Territory, Housing and Population Census 2021". abs.gov.au. 28 June 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  52. ^ Jain & Cardona 2007, p. 571.
  53. ^ Jain & Cardona 2007, p. 596.
  54. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Nepali language" (PDF). ohchr.org. Retrieved 2021.

Footnotes

  1. ^ historically spoken in just the Karnali Province, now spoken as the lingua franca in all of Nepal
  2. ^ historically spoken just by the Karnali Khas people, now spoken as the lingua franca in Nepal

Bibliography

Further reading

External links


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