Newton (UK Parliament Constituency)
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Newton UK Parliament Constituency
Newton
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Newton in Lancashire, showing boundaries used from 1974-1983
CountyLancashire
1559-1832
Number of membersTwo
1885-1983
Number of membersOne
Type of constituencyCounty constituency
Replaced byWarrington North, St Helens North, Warrington South, Makerfield, Worsley and Leigh[1]
Created fromSouth West Lancashire

Newton was a parliamentary borough in the county of Lancashire, in England. It was represented by two Members of Parliament in the House of Commons of the Parliament of England from 1559 to 1706 then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 until its abolition in 1832.

In 1885 a county constituency with the same name was created and represented by one Member of Parliament. This seat was abolished in 1983.

Parliamentary borough

The borough consisted of the parish of Newton-le-Willows in the Makerfield district of South Lancashire. It was first enfranchised in 1558 (though the Parliament so summoned did not meet until the following year), and was a rotten borough from its inception: Newton was barely more than a village even at this stage, and so entirely dominated by the local landowner that its first return of members described it bluntly as "the borough of Sir Thomas Langton, knight, baron of Newton within his Fee of Markerfylde". By 1831, just before its abolition, the population of the borough had reached only 2,139, and contained 285 houses.

The right to vote was exercised by all freeholders of property in the borough valued at forty shillings or more, or by one representative of joint tenants of any such freeholds; Newton was the only borough where the forty-shilling freehold franchise (which applied in the counties) was the sole qualification to vote. In 1797, the borough's last contested election, 76 electors cast their votes; by 1831 it was estimated that the electorate had fallen to about 52. (As elsewhere, each elector had as many votes as there were seats to be filled and votes had to be cast by a spoken declaration, in public, at the hustings.)

In practice, however, the townsmen of Newton had no say in choosing their representatives: as the owners of the majority of the qualifying freeholds, the lords of the manor exercised total control. During most of the Elizabethan period, Langton seems to have allowed the Duchy of Lancaster to nominate many of the members, which may have been a quid pro quo for Newton's being enfranchised in the first place, but later patrons could regard its parliamentary seats as their personal property. Langton's heir sold the manor to the Fleetwood family in 1594, the sale explicitly including the right of "the nomination, election and appointment" of the two burgesses representing the borough in Parliament, one of the earliest recorded instances of the right to elect MPs being bought and sold. By the first half of the next century it had passed to the Leghs, who owned it for the rest of its existence.

By the time of the Great Reform Act of 1832, Newton was one of the most notorious of all England's pocket boroughs, mainly because the Legh control was more complete than that of the patrons in most other constituencies. It was one of the 56 boroughs to be totally disenfranchised by the Reform Act.

County constituency

The Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 created a new Newton constituency, as one of twenty-three divisions of the parliamentary county of Lancashire.

Boundaries 1885 - 1918

The constituency, officially designated as South-West Lancashire, Newton Division consisted of a number of townships and parishes around Newton le Willows namely:

The electorate also included the freeholders of the municipal boroughs of St Helens and Warrington who were entitled to vote in the county.[2]

Boundaries 1918 - 1950

The Representation of the People Act 1918 reorganised constituencies throughout the United Kingdom. Boundaries were adjusted and seats were defined in terms of the districts created by the Local Government Act 1894. According to the schedules of the Act, the Lancashire, Newton Division comprised:[3]

Boundaries 1950 - 1983

The Representation of the People Act 1948 redistributed parliamentary seats, with the constituencies first being used in the general election of 1950. The term "county constituency" was introduced in place of "division". Newton County Constituency was redefined as consisting of the following districts:[4]

  • Golborne Urban District
  • Haydock Urban District
  • Irlam Urban District
  • Newton-le-Willows Urban District
  • Warrington Rural District

The changes reflected the fact that Leigh Rural District had been abolished in 1933, Newton in Makerfield Urban district had been renamed Newton le Willows in 1939. Irlam was transferred from the neighbouring Stretford constituency.[5]

The boundaries were unchanged at the next redistribution of seats in 1970.[6] Although local government was reorganised in 1972, boundaries were unchanged until 1983.

Abolition

The constituency was abolished by the Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1983, which reorganised seats on the lines of the 1974 counties and districts, by which time the Newton constituency had become vastly oversized with an electorate of over 80,000 in 1979. The bulk of the seat formed part of the new Makerfield County Constituency. Irlam was included in the Worsley County Constituency, while part of Golborne became part of both Leigh Borough Constituency and Warrington North Borough Constituency. The town of Newton itself, as well as Haydock, were incorporated into the St Helens North Borough Constituency.[7]

Members of Parliament

MPs 1559-1660

MPs 1660-1832

MPs 1885-1983

Elections

Elections in the 1880s

General election 1885: Newton [13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative R. A. Cross 4,414 52.3
Liberal George McCorquodale[14] 4,031 47.7
Majority 383 4.6
Turnout 8,445 90.4
Registered electors 9,344
Conservative win (new seat)
General election 1886: Newton [13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative R. A. Cross 4,302 55.2 +2.9
Liberal George Errington 3,486 44.8 −2.9
Majority 816 10.4 +5.8
Turnout 7,788 83.3 −7.1
Registered electors 9,344
Conservative hold Swing +2.9

Cross was appointed Secretary of state for India and was elevated to the peerage, becoming Viscount Cross, causing a by-election.

By-election, 16 Aug 1886: Newton [13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Thomas Legh 4,062 54.8 −0.4
Liberal Daniel O'Connell French[15] 3,355 45.2 +0.4
Majority 707 9.6 −0.8
Turnout 7,417 79.4 −3.9
Registered electors 9,344
Conservative hold Swing −0.4

Elections in the 1890s

General election 1892: Newton [13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Thomas Legh 4,713 55.2 0.0
Liberal William Neill[16] 3,819 44.8 0.0
Majority 894 10.4 0.0
Turnout 8,532 85.4 +2.1
Registered electors 9,993
Conservative hold Swing 0.0
General election 1895: Newton [13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Thomas Legh 5,358 58.2 +3.0
Liberal James Moon[17] 3,854 41.8 −3.0
Majority 1,504 16.4 +6.0
Turnout 9,212 83.2 −2.2
Registered electors 11,073
Conservative hold Swing +3.0

Legh is elevated to the peerage, becoming Lord Newton.

By-election, 16 Jan 1899: Newton [13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Richard Pilkington Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1900s

General election 1900: Newton [13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Richard Pilkington Unopposed
Conservative hold
General election 1906: Newton [13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Repr. Cmte. James Seddon 6,434 52.2 New
Conservative Richard Pilkington 5,893 47.8 N/A
Majority 541 4.4 N/A
Turnout 12,327 89.1 N/A
Registered electors 13,837
Labour Repr. Cmte. gain from Conservative Swing N/A

Elections in the 1910s

General election January 1910: Newton [13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour James Seddon 7,256 52.7 +0.5
Liberal Unionist Roundell Palmer 6,504 47.3 −0.5
Majority 752 5.4 +1.0
Turnout 13,760 93.0 +3.9
Registered electors 14,803
Labour hold Swing +0.5
General election December 1910: Newton [13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Roundell Palmer 6,706 50.5 +3.2
Labour James Seddon 6,562 49.5 -3.2
Majority 144 1.0 N/A
Turnout 13,268 89.6 -3.4
Registered electors 14,803
Conservative gain from Labour Swing +3.2
General election 1918: Newton [18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Robert Young 9,808 55.0 +5.5
C Unionist Henry Lygon 8,014 45.0 −5.5
Majority 1,794 10.0 N/A
Turnout 17,822 73.0 −16.6
Registered electors 24,397
Labour gain from Unionist Swing +5.5
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920s

General election 1922: Newton [18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Robert Young 12,312 55.6 +0.6
Unionist Henry Baker Bates 8,214 37.1 −7.9
Independent G.F. Clarke 1,618 7.3 New
Majority 4,098 18.5 +8.5
Turnout 22,144 86.1 +13.1
Registered electors 25,707
Labour hold Swing +4.3
General election 1923: Newton [18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Robert Young 12,492 59.9 +4.3
Unionist Henry Baker Bates 8,375 40.1 +3.0
Majority 4,117 19.8 +1.3
Turnout 20,867 78.5 −7.6
Registered electors 26,572
Labour hold Swing +0.7
General election 1924: Newton [18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Robert Young 12,875 56.1 −3.8
Unionist J.A.W. Watts 10,066 43.9 +3.8
Majority 2,809 12.2 −7.6
Turnout 22,941 84.6 +6.1
Registered electors 27,105
Labour hold Swing −3.8
General election 1929: Newton [18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Robert Young 18,176 60.5 +4.4
Unionist Reginald Essenhigh 11,887 39.5 −4.4
Majority 6,289 21.0 +8.8
Turnout 30,063 84.6 0.0
Registered electors 35,533
Labour hold Swing +4.4

Elections in the 1930s

General election 1931: Newton
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Reginald Essenhigh 16,064 50.60
Labour Robert Young 15,683 49.40
Majority 381 1.20
Turnout 31,747 85.88
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General election 1935: Newton [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Robert Young 19,992 58.5 +9.1
Conservative Reginald Essenhigh 14,201 41.5 -9.1
Majority 5,791 17.0 N/A
Turnout 34,193 84.8 -1.1
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1940s

General election 1945: Newton [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Robert Young 25,197 62.0 +3.5
Conservative Kenneth Lewis 15,465 38.0 -3.5
Majority 9,732 24.0 +7.0
Turnout 40,662 76.2 -8.6
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1950s

General election 1950: Newton [21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Frederick Lee 31,832 59.1 -2.9
Conservative Kenneth Lewis 22,068 40.1 +2.1
Majority 9,764 18.0 -6.0
Turnout 53,900 88.0 +11.8
Labour hold Swing
General election 1951: Newton [22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Frederick Lee 31,374 58.3 -0.8
Conservative Herbert W Jones 22,476 41.7 +1.6
Majority 8,898 16.6 -1.4
Turnout 53,850 87.2 -0.8
Labour hold Swing
General election 1955: Newton [23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Frederick Lee 29,299 57.9 -0.4
Conservative Norman Miscampbell 21,344 42.2 +0.5
Majority 7,955 15.7 -0.9
Turnout 50,643 81.8 -5.4
Labour hold Swing
General election 1959: Newton [24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Frederick Lee 31,041 57.4 -0.5
Conservative Norman Miscampbell 23,065 42.6 +0.4
Majority 7,976 14.8 -0.9
Turnout 54,106 83.1 +1.3
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s

General election 1964: Newton [25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Frederick Lee 32,932 56.0 -1.4
Conservative David C Stanley 17,980 30.6 -12.0
Liberal Clifford L Jones 7,919 13.5 New
Majority 14,952 25.4 +10.7
Turnout 58,831 82.0 -1.1
Labour hold Swing
General election 1966: Newton [26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Frederick Lee 36,901 62.8 +6.8
Conservative Peter H Craig 21,845 37.2 +6.6
Majority 15,056 25.6 +0.2
Turnout 58,746 78.0 -4.0
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1970s

General election 1970: Newton [27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Frederick Lee 34,873 52.5 -10.3
Conservative John Stanley 25,863 39.0 +1.8
Liberal Robert Magee 5,678 8.6 New
Majority 9,010 13.5 -12.1
Turnout 66,414 74.0 -4.0
Labour hold Swing
General election February 1974: Newton[28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour John Evans 38,369 49.3 -3.2
Conservative Barry Porter 23,599 30.3 +8.7
Liberal Neveille Leather 15,939 20.5 +11.9
Majority 14,770 19.0 +5.5
Turnout 77,907 82.5 +8.5
Labour hold Swing
General election October 1974: Newton[29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour John Evans 38,956 53.3 +4.0
Conservative Roger Baldwin 22,484 30.7 +0.4
Liberal Neveille Leather 11,738 16.0 -4.5
Majority 16,472 22.6 +3.6
Turnout 73,178 76.8 -5.7
Labour hold Swing
General election 1979: Newton[30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour John Evans 41,466 51.4 -1.9
Conservative T Huntley 30,125 37.3 +6.6
Liberal R Smith 8,471 10.5 -5.5
National Front A Fishwick 641 0.8 New
Majority 11,341 14.1 -8.5
Turnout 80,703 78.4 +1.6
Labour hold Swing

See also

References

  1. ^ "'Newton', Feb 1974 - May 1983". ElectionWeb Project. Cognitive Computing Limited. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ Seventh Schedule: Counties at Large: Number of Members and Names and Contents of Divisions, Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, (1885 c.23)
  3. ^ Ninth Schedule - Part II, Parliamentary Counties: England, excluding Monmouthshire, Representation of the People Act 1918 (1918 c.64)
  4. ^ First Schedule: Parliamentary Constituencies, Representation of The People Act 1948, (1948 c.65)
  5. ^ F A Youngs Jr., Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol.II: Northern England, London, 1991
  6. ^ The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1970 (S.I. 1970 No. 1674)
  7. ^ Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1983 (S.I. 1983 No. 417)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". Retrieved .
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "The Parliamentary representation of Lancashire". Retrieved .
  10. ^ Knighted, June 1783
  11. ^ "BROOKE, Thomas (?1755-1820), of Ashton Hayes and Church Minshull, Cheshire". History of Parliament Online.
  12. ^ On petition, Brooke's election was declared void and Patten was declared to have been duly elected
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9781349022984.
  14. ^ "Liberal Meeting at Rainhill". Wigan Observer and District Advertiser. 1 July 1885. p. 5. Retrieved 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  15. ^ "Newton Election". Kilburn Times. 20 August 1886. p. 2. Retrieved 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  16. ^ "Newton Division Polling". Wigan Observer and District Advertiser. 15 Jul 1892. p. 2. Retrieved 2017.
  17. ^ "Mr James Moon adopted as the Liberal candidate". Leigh Chronicle and Weekly District Advertiser. 5 Jul 1895. p. 8. Retrieved 2017.
  18. ^ a b c d e British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, FWS Craig
  19. ^ UK General Election results: November 1935 Archived 2015-03-09 at the Wayback Machine Politics Resources
  20. ^ UK General Election results: July 1945 Politics Resources
  21. ^ UK General Election results: February 1950 Politics Resources
  22. ^ UK General Election results: October 1951 Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine Politics Resources
  23. ^ UK General Election results: May 1955 Archived 2013-12-11 at the Wayback Machine Politics Resources
  24. ^ UK General Election results: October 1959 Politics Resources
  25. ^ UK General Election results: October 1964 Politics Resources
  26. ^ UK General Election results: March 1966 Politics Resources
  27. ^ UK General Election results: June 1970 Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine Politics Resources
  28. ^ UK General Election results: February 1974 Politics Resources
  29. ^ UK General Election results: October 1974 Politics Resources
  30. ^ UK General Election results: May 1979 Politics Resources

Sources

External links


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Newton_(UK_Parliament_constituency)
 



 



 
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