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In Advaita Vedanta and Jnana Yoga Nididhyasana (Sanskrit) is profound and repeated meditation[1] on the mahavakyas, great Upanishadic statements such as "That art Thou", to realize the identity of Atman and Brahman. It is the fourth step in the training of a sisya (disciple), consisting of preparatory practices, listening to the teachings as contained in the sruti, reflection on the teachings, and nididhyasana.

Four stages of practice

Nididhyasana is the final step in the correct understanding of the meaning of the Mahavakyas. Classical Advaita Vedanta emphasises the path of Jnana Yoga, a progression of study and training to attain moksha. It consists of four stages:[2][web 1]

  • Samanyasa or Sampattis,[3] the "fourfold discipline" (s?dhana-catustaya), cultivating the following four qualities:[2][web 1]
    • Nity?nitya vastu viveka ( ?) -- The ability (viveka) to correctly discriminate between the eternal (nitya) substance (Brahman) and the substance that is transitory existence (anitya).
    • Ih?mutr?rtha phala bhoga vir?ga (? ?) -- The renunciation (vir?ga) of enjoyments of objects (artha phala bhoga) in this world (iha) and the other worlds (amutra) like heaven etc.
    • ?am?di ?atka sampatti ( ? ) -- the sixfold qualities,
      • ?ama (control of the antahkara?a).[web 2]
      • Dama (the control of external sense organs).
      • Uparati (the cessation of these external organs so restrained, from the pursuit of objects other than that, or it may mean the abandonment of the prescribed works according to scriptural injunctions).[note 1]
      • Titik?a (the tolerating of t?patraya).
      • ?raddh? (the faith in Guru and Vedas).
      • Sam?dh?na (the concentrating of the mind on God and Guru).
    • Mumuk?utva (?) -- The firm conviction that the nature of the world is misery and the intense longing for moksha (release from the cycle of births and deaths).
  • Sravana, listening to the teachings of the sages on the Upanishads and Advaita Vedanta, and studying the Vedantic texts, such as the Brahma Sutras. In this stage the student learns about the reality of Brahman and the identity of atman;
  • Manana, the stage of reflection on the teachings;
  • Nididhy?sana, the stage of meditation on the truth "that art Thou".[web 1][web 3]

Nididhyasana is a rational and cognitive process, which differs from dhyana (meditation). It is necessary for gaining Brahmajnana:[4]

By a thorough analysis of "Atman is Brahman" the direct knowledge "I am Brahman" is achieved (Panchadasi VII.58).[5]

Nididhyasana done independently of sravana does not lead to the realization of the Atman.[6]


Advaita Vedanta

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (II.iv.5) defines Nididhyasana as the meditation for the sake of direct vision.[7] Yajnavalkya tells his wife -

? ,
? ? ? ? ||
"The Self, my dear Maitreyi, should be realized - should be heard of, reflected on and meditated upon;
by the realization of the Self, my dear, through hearing, reflection and meditation, all this is known." - (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad St.II.iv.5)

Sankara explains Nididhyasana as meditation with determination. Sankara states:-

? ? |
? ? ||
"Reflection (manana) is hundred times superior to listening (sravana);
meditation (nididhyasana) is hundred times superior to reflection; nirvikalpaka samadhi is infinitely superior."[8]

According to Suresvara, Nididhyasana is the culmination of the practice of sravana and manana, which is an indirect intuition of Brahman and does not mean meditation but knowledge (vijnana) i.e. understanding the meaning of the Sruti on the basis of vacya-vacaka relation underlying the mahavakya. Suresvara states:-

"Nididhyasana is so called when, instruction about the uniqueness of the Atman is justified
by (proper) reasons viz. the Sruti, (the instructions of) teachers and (one's own) experience (of the same)."

Nididhyasana consists in acquisition of vakyarthajnana and this verse explains the purport of sunisnata.[9]

According to Vacaspati, sravana, manana and nidihyasana are a chain of causes contributory to the knowledge of the oneness of Brahman. The Vivarna school considers sravana as the principal cause but Suresvara treats sravana and manana to be co-existent, these two culminate into nididhyasana.[10]

Dvaita Vedanta

According to Madhva the knowledge acquired by study ('sravana') and stabilized by reflection ('manana') is made the basis of steady contemplation ('nididhyasana'); these are the three stages of inquiry that take the form of Dhyana.[11] Radhakrishnan has defined Nididhyasana as "the process by which intellectual conscience is transformed into a vital one there is stillness, a calm in which the soul lays itself open to the Divine".[12]


According to Michael James, who gives an Advaita Vedanta interpretation of Ramana Maharshi, Ramana's self-enquiry is the same as Nididhyasana and atma-vichara.[web 4]

See also


  1. ^ nivartit?n?mete tadvyatiriktavi?ayebhya uparama?amuparatirathav? vihit?n karma vidhin? parity?ga?[Ved?ntas?ra, 21]


  1. ^ "Spokensanskrit Dictionary".
  2. ^ a b Puligandla 1997, p. 251-254.
  3. ^ Adi Shankara, Tattva bodha (1.2)
  4. ^ Rambachan 1991, p. 108.
  5. ^ Swami Swahananda. Pancadasi of Sri Vidyaranya Swami. Sri Ramakrishna Math. p. 256. ASIN 8171205070.
  6. ^ Swami Parmeshwaranand (2000). Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Upanisads, Vol.3. Sarup&Sons. pp. 314-317. ISBN 9788176251488.
  7. ^ Swami Satchidanandendra (1997). The Method of the Vedanta: A Critical account of the Advaita Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 372. ISBN 9788120813588.
  8. ^ Sri Candrasekhara Bharati of Sringeri. Sri Samkara's Vivekacudamani. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 365. ASIN 8172764200. Verse 365
  9. ^ Suresvaracarya (1988). Suresvara's vartika on Madhu Brahmana (Brhadaranyaka-Upanishad). Motilal Banarsi Dass. p. 8. ISBN 9788120804388.
  10. ^ Shoun Hino (1991). Suresvara's Vartika on Yajnavalkya's Maitreyi Dialogue. Motilal Banarsi Dass. p. 24. ISBN 9788120807297.
  11. ^ B.N.Krishnamurti Sharma (1986). Philosophy of Sri Madhvacarya. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 408. ISBN 9788120800687.
  12. ^ Sohan Singh (October 2004). The Seeker's Path. Orient Blackswan. p. 18. ISBN 9788125027379.


Printed sources

  • Puligandla, Ramakrishna (1997), Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy, New Delhi: D.K. Printworld (P) Ltd.
  • Rambachan, Anantanand (1991), Accomplishing the Accomplished, University of Hawaii Press


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