North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone
Get North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone essential facts below. View Videos or join the North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone discussion. Add North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone
Cumulative track map of all North Indian Ocean cyclones from 1970 to 2005

In the Indian Ocean north of the equator, tropical cyclones can form throughout the year on either side of India, although most frequently between April and June, and between October and December.

Sub-basins

Very severe cyclonic storms (Luban and Titli) over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in October 2018

The North Indian Ocean is the least active basin, contributing only seven percent of the world's tropical cyclone. However the basin has produced some of the deadliest cyclones in the world, since they strike over very densely populated areas.[1] The Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) is the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and it is responsible to monitor the basin, issues warning and name the storms.[2]

The basin is divided into two sub-basins  – the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.[3]

The Bay of Bengal, located in the northeast of the Indian Ocean. The basin is abbreviated BOB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD).[4] The United States's Joint Typhoon Warning Center unofficially designates as B to classify storms formed in the Bay of Bengal.[5] The Bay of Bengal's coast is shared among India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and western part of Thailand.[6] This sub-basin is the most active and produced one of the deadliest cyclones of all time.[7] The most intense cyclone in the bay was the 1999 Odisha cyclone.[8]

The Arabian Sea is a sea located in the northwest of the Indian Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the basin are abbreviated ARB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD).[4] The United States's Joint Typhoon Warning Center unofficially designates as A to classify storms formed in the Arabian Sea.[9] The Arabian Sea's coast is shared among India, Yemen, Oman, UAE, Iran, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Somalia.[10] Monsoons are characteristic of the Arabian Sea and responsible for the yearly cycling of its waters. In summer, strong winds blow from the southwest to the northeast, bringing rain to the Indian subcontinent. Cyclones are rare in the Arabian Sea, but the basin can produce strong tropical cyclones.[10] Cyclone Gonu was the strongest and the costliest recorded tropical cyclone in the basin.[11]

History of the basin

The systematic scientific studies of tropical systems in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea was started during the 19th century by Henry Piddington.[12] Piddington utilised meteorological logs of vessels that navigated the seas and published a series of memoirs, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal between 1839 and 1858.[12] These memoirs gave accounts and tracks of individual storms in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.[12]

During the 2004 post monsoon season the IMD started to name tropical cyclones within the basin, with the first one named Cyclone Onil during September 2004.[13] During 2015 a modification to the intensity scale took place, with the IMD and WMO calling a system with 3-minute maximum sustained wind speeds between 90 knots (165 km/h; 105 mph) and 120 knots (220 km/h; 140 mph) an extremely severe cyclonic storm.[14]

A study analysing the spring season of tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal found increases in both pre-monsoon precipitation and tropical cyclone intensity as a result of enhanced large-scale monsoon circulation after 1979. The deepened monsoon trough in the Bay of Bengal not only affects cyclone frequency and timing, but also acts to direct more cyclones towards Myanmar. Increased anthropogenic aerosols likely contributed to such a regional climate change.[15]

Climatology

Formation and frequency

On average only five to six tropical cyclones forms in the basin. Tropical cyclones form in the months of March to June and October to December with peaks at May and November. Of which most of these storms form in the Bay of Bengal. These storms either form in the southeastern Bay of Bengal or in the Andaman Sea or a remnant of a typhoon from the South China Sea.[8] High sea surface temperatures and humidity makes the bay more favourable to tropical cyclone development.[16] It also can be said that the frequency of the tropical cyclones in the West Pacific is high, which maybe another reason for increased tropical cyclogenesis in the bay as it share the fair share of increased quota of ACE. Meanwhile, the storms in the Arabian Sea mostly form over south-eastern part of the Arabian Sea or a remnant of a tropical cyclone from the Bay of Bengal, however the frequency of cyclogenesis in the Arabian Sea is generally less due to cooler sea-surface temperature and high wind shear.[8] However a strong positive IOD may cause an increase of tropical cyclogenesis than usual which was seen the 2019 season.[17] Very few tropical cyclone development occurs during the months of June to September (Monsoon months) occurs because of high vertical wind shear. These storms forms and peaks as depression or deep depression intensity before making a landfall in Odisha or West Bengal coast. Another reason is the low life span in the sea which also avoids the intensification of these low-pressure systems.[8]

Movement

Most of the storms move in a north-westerly direction and starts curving either towards southwest or northeast. There's a higher frequency of recurving towards northeast rather going southwest. In the Arabian Sea these storms mostly move in north-westerly direction targeting the Arabian Peninsula, however in some case these storm moves north-eastwards after crossing the 15°N latitude and strikes the Gujarati coast. In the Bay of Bengal, storms generally moves north-westwards until reaching the east coast and then moves north eastwards.[18]

Intensification

Intensification probability is maximum in the month of April, May and November in case of a depression becoming a cyclonic storm and severe cyclonic storm. More than half of the depressions intensify into a storm and a quarter intensify into a cyclone in these months.[19]

Landfall

In the Arabian Sea, most of the storm just dissipates offshore without making landfall, a significant number of tropical cyclone also impacts the west coast particularly the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra . The remaining 11 percent makes landfall in either the Arabian Peninsula, Horn of Africa or Pakistan.[20] In rare cases, some storms makes landfall in the Iran like Cyclone Gonu did back in 2007.[21] Other than Gonu, two storms like Cyclone Yemyin and Kyarr made some or major impact in Iran.[22][23]

In the Bay of Bengal, most of the storms strikes either the state of Odisha or West Bengal and a significant number of storms hit the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. 30 percent of the cyclones strikes foreign countries like Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar while the remaining 13 percent just dissipates off shore without making landfall.[20]

Climate change

After a series of devastating cyclones in 2018, rising number of cyclones in the Arabian Sea in 2019 and rising trend of rapid intensification in 2020 and 2021, many climatologist agrees that climate change have caused these activities. On average five cyclonic storm occurs every year the Arabian Sea, however in 2019 eight cyclonic storms formed becoming the highest tropical cyclones formation in the sub-basin, which was tied with the 1902 season.[24][25] Research found that in recent decades the sea surface temperatures has risen up by 1.2-1.4 °C (34.2-34.5 °F) in the Arabian Sea.[25] During Cyclone Amphan underwent a rapid intensification, sea surface temperatures were as high as 33 °C (91 °F) in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea recorded 32 °C (90 °F) sea surface temperature, before the formation of Cyclone Nisarga.[26] According to the Union Ministry of Earth and Science, the frequency of very severe cyclonic storm has went up by one per decade in last two decades, despite the decrease of overall frequency of the basin in the last two decades.[25] Higher temperatures caused the cyclones to become more powerful and lead to tropical cyclone formation faster. Rising sea level also caused higher storm surge.[26] Researchers also predict that cyclones will be deadlier and stronger as the trend of warming sea surface temperatures continues. Rising sea levels also may cause severe flooding, strong storm surges and will inundate coastal towns.[26]

Seasons

Historical storm formation by month between 1990 and 2020
10
20
30
40
50
60
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
  •   Super Cyclone
  •   Extremely Severe
  •   Very Severe
  •   Severe
  •   Cyclonic Storm
  •   Deep Depression
  •   Depression

Before 1890

1890s

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Notes
1890 10 4 1
1891 13 4 3 Total includes 1 Land Severe Cyclonic Storm
1892 12 7 2
1893 12 10 4
1894 12 6 0
1895 11 5 4
1896 10 8 3
1897 12 6 8
1898 13 7 3
1899 7 3 0
References[27]

1900s

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1900 10 3 1
1901 6 3 2
1902 13 7 5
1903 14 8 2
1904 9 4 0
1905 10 6 0
1906 11 7 1
1907 15 8 4
1908 9 6 1
1909 8 8 4
References[27]

1910s

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1910 6 5 2
1911 7 5 4
1912 9 6 2
1913 10 6 2
1914 8 4 2
1915 9 6 0
1916 14 8 5
1917 10 3 1
1918 11 5 0
1919 11 6 3
References[27]

1920s

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1920 9 5 0
1921 10 4 1
1922 13 6 6
1923 16 4 3
1924 13 6 0
1925 20 7 3
1926 13 10 3
1927 18 7 2
1928 13 7 0
1929 15 6 0
References[27]

1930s

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1930 14 10 1
1931 11 5 1
1932 14 6 2
1933 16 8 3
1934 16 5 0
1935 15 6 2
1936 17 6 3
1937 19 6 2
1938 10 4 4
1939 19 7 3
References[27]

1940s

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1940 16 8 5
1941 19 8 4
1942 14 5 2
1943 14 7 1
1944 19 8 2
1945 15 3 2
1946 17 5 1
1947 18 4 2
1948 18 6 3
1949 12 1 1
References[27]

1950s

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1950 16 4 0
1951 15 4 2
1952 17 4 2
1953 10 1 1
1954 14 1 0
1955 13 6 2
1956 14 4 2
1957 7 4 2
1958 12 5 2
1959 16 6 3
References[27]

1960s

This ESSA 3 satellite image was taken on November 3, 1966, at 0819 UTC of a tropical cyclone striking Madras, India
Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1960 15 5 3 Ten 20,299 >$9.4 million Vast majority of the fatalities resulted from two cyclones striking East Pakistan three weeks apart
1961 18 5 4 Three 11,525 Unknown Three land depressions developed this season
1962 13 5 3 Twelve 769 $34.5 million Deadliest storm, Harriet, crossed over from the Western Pacific
1963 17 6 4 Three 11,735 Unknown Strongest storm was equivalent to a super cyclonic storm; had the lowest measured pressure in the basin at the time at 919.9 mbar (hPa; 27.16 inHg)
1964 16 7 5 Sixteen >1,827 >$150 million Strongest storm was equivalent to a super cyclonic storm
1965 14 6 4
1966 18 8 6
1967 15 6 4
1968 13 7 4
1969 14 6 1
References[27]

1970s

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1970 15 7 3 Thirteen 300,000-500,000 86.4 million The Bhola Cyclone is the deadliest tropical cyclone recorded worldwide
1971 15 7 6
1972 18 7 6
1973 16 6 3
1974 12 7 3
1975 20 7 4
1976 14 10 7
1977 18 5 5 06B up to 50,000 192 million US$ US$ of 1977. Devastated Krishna Delta area in Andhra Pradesh
1978 14 5 3
1979 11 5 4
References[27]

1980s

Year D DD CS SCS VSCS ESCS SuCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1980 14 14 5 0 0 0 0
1981 12 12 5 3 3 0 0
1982 19 11 8 5 3 3 0
1983 7 4 2 1 1 1 0
1984 7 7 4 3 3 2 0
1985 15 15 6 1 1 0 0
1986 8 3 1 0 0 0 0
1987 9 8 5 3 1 0 0
1988 9 5 5 3 2 2 0 04B 6,740 13 million
1989 10 5 3 2 1 1 1 Gay 1,785 25.27 Million Gay crossed over from the West Pacific Basin
References[27]

1990s

Year D DD CS SCS VSCS ESCS SuCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes and
References
1990 11 6 2 2 1 1 1 BOB 01 967 $600 million [28][29]
1991 9 4 3 1 1 1 1 BOB 01 >138,000 $1.5 billion [29]
1992 13 11 7 2 1 1 0 Forrest 189 $69 million Forrest crossed over from the West Pacific Basin
1993 5 4 2 2 2 0 0 BOB 03 714 $216 million
1994 5 5 4 2 2 1 0 BOB 02 315 $12.5 million
1995 8 6 3 2 2 1 0 BOB 07 554 $46.3 million
1996 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 BOB 05 2,075 $1.9 billion
1997 9 7 3 2 1 1 0 BOB 01 117 Unknown
1998 13 10 6 5 3 1 0 ARB 02 >10,212 $3 billion
1999 10 8 5 3 3 2 1 BOB 06 15,780 $5 billion The Odisha cyclone is the strongest cyclone recorded in the Northern Indian Ocean.
References[27]

2000s

Year D DD CS SCS VSCS ESCS SuCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
2000 7 6 5 2 2 2 0 BOB 05 238 $185 million
2001 6 5 4 1 1 1 0 ARB 01 108 $104 million
2002 7 7 4 1 0 0 0 BOB 04 182 $25 million
2003 7 5 3 3 1 0 0 ARB 06 358 $163 million
2004 10 7 4 4 1 1 0 BOB 01 587 $130 million
2005 12 7 3 0 0 0 0 Pyarr 273 $21.4 million
2006 12 6 3 2 1 1 0 Mala 623 $6.7 million
2007 11 8 4 2 2 2 1 Gonu 16,248 $6.4 billion First time category 5-equivalent cyclones existed in both Arabian Sea (Gonu) and Bay of Bengal (Sidr)
2008 10 7 4 1 1 1 0 Nargis >138,927 $15.4 billion The deadliest cyclone season since 1970
Second-costliest cyclone season on record
2009 8 6 4 1 0 0 0 Aila 421 $618 million
References[27]

2010s

Year D DD CS SCS VSCS ESCS SuCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
2010 8 6 5 4 2 1 0 Giri 402 $2.99 billion The most active season since 1998
2011 10 6 2 1 1 0 0 Thane 360 $277 million
2012 5 5 2 0 0 0 0 Nilam 128 $56.7 million The first depression of the year did not develop until October 10
2013 10 6 5 4 3 1 0 Phailin 323 $1.5 billion Featured Phailin, the first Category 5-equivalent cyclone since Sidr in 2007
2014 8 5 3 2 2 2 0 Nilofar 183 $3.4 billion
2015 12 9 4 2 2 2 0 Chapala 363 $358 million
2016 10 5 4 1 1 0 0 Vardah 401 $5.4 billion
2017 10 6 3 2 1 0 0 Ockhi 834 $3.65 billion
2018 14 9 7 5 3 1 0 Mekunu 343 $4.33 billion The most active season since 1992
First simultaneous cyclonic storms in Arabian Sea (Luban) and Bay of Bengal (Titli) since reliable records began
2019 12 11 8 6 6 3 1 Kyarr 173 $11.5 billion Earliest cyclonic storm in the basin
First Super Cyclonic Storm since 2007
99 68 43 27 21 10 1 Kyarr 3510 >=$33.5 billion
References[27]

2020s

Year D DD CS SCS VSCS ESCS SuCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
2020 9 6 5 4 3 1 1 Amphan 269 $15.8 billion First super cyclonic storm in the Bay of Bengal since 1999
Featured the costliest cyclone ever recorded in the basin, Amphan
Costliest North Indian cyclone season on record
2021 3 2 2 2 2 1 0 Tauktae 194 $4.94 billion
Total 12 8 7 6 5 2 1 Amphan 463 $20.74 billion

Records

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Each column refers to how many Storms developed during the season with D=Depressions, DD=Deep Depressions, CS=Cyclonic Storms, SCS=Severe Cyclonic Storm, VSCS=Very Severe Cyclonic Storm, ESCS=Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm, SUCS=Super Cyclonic Storm. For further details please refer to Tropical cyclone scales

References

  1. ^ "Cyclone Tauktae Strikes India". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. May 17, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  2. ^ "Activities of RSMC, New Delhi". www.rsmcnewdelhi.imd.gov.in. Retrieved 2021.
  3. ^ "2021 North Indian Ocean Cyclone Season". disasterphilanthropy.org. Retrieved 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Acronyms". www.rsmcnewdelhi.imd.gov.in. Retrieved 2021.
  5. ^ "TROPICAL CYCLONE 02B (TWO) WARNING NR 001". www.metoc.navy.mil. Pearl Harbour, Hawaii: Joint Typhoon Warning Center. May 24, 2021. Archived from the original on May 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  6. ^ "Bay of Bengal | bay, Indian Ocean". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2021.
  7. ^ "Why Bay of Bengal is hotbed of worst tropical cyclones? As Yaas hits Odisha, here's all you need to know". The Financial Express. May 26, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Frequently Asked Questions on Tropical Cyclones" (PDF). IMD. Retrieved 2021.
  9. ^ "TROPICAL CYCLONE 01A (ONE) WARNING NR 001". www.metoc.navy.mil. Pearl Harbour, Hawaii: Joint Typhoon Warning Center. May 14, 2021. Archived from the original on May 14, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  10. ^ a b "History of cyclones in the Arabian sea". Pakistan Weather Portal (PWP). April 10, 2011. Retrieved 2021.
  11. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Gonu". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. June 7, 2007. Retrieved 2021.
  12. ^ a b c Best track data of tropical cyclonic disturbances over the north Indian Ocean (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. July 14, 2009. Retrieved 2015.
  13. ^ RSMC -- Tropical Cyclones New Delhi (January 2005). Report on Cyclonic Disturbances over North Indian Ocean during 2014 (PDF) (Report). p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 2, 2015.
  14. ^ Third Joint Session of Panel on Tropical Cyclones & Typhoon Committee February 9-13, 2015 (PDF). Bangkok, Thailand: World Meteorological Organization. p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 19, 2016.
  15. ^ Wang, Shih-Yu; Buckley, Brendan M.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Fosu, Boniface (2013). "Intensification of premonsoon tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and its impacts on Myanmar". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 118 (10): 4373-4384. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50396. ISSN 2169-8996.
  16. ^ "Why Bay of Bengal is hotbed of world's worst tropical cyclones?". Get Bengal. Retrieved 2021.
  17. ^ "What is the Indian Ocean Dipole? Explain its connection with the Indian monsoons - Civilsdaily". Retrieved 2021.
  18. ^ "Movement". www.rsmcnewdelhi.imd.gov.in. Retrieved 2021.
  19. ^ "Intensification". www.rsmcnewdelhi.imd.gov.in. Retrieved 2021.
  20. ^ a b "Landfall". www.rsmcnewdelhi.imd.gov.in. Retrieved 2021.
  21. ^ "WHO EMRO | Experience of cyclone Gonu in the Islamic Republic of Iran: lessons learned | Volume 16, issue 12 | EMHJ volume 16, 2010". www.emro.who.int. Retrieved 2021.
  22. ^ "MODIS Web". modis.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2021.
  23. ^ "NASA - Hurricane Season 2007: Tropical Cyclone 3B". www.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2021.
  24. ^ "Statement on Climate of India during 2019" (PDF). IMD. January 6, 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  25. ^ a b c "Cyclone Tauktae shows why north Indian Ocean is now whacky". www.downtoearth.org.in. Retrieved 2021.
  26. ^ a b c Sarkar, Soumya (June 5, 2020). "Cyclones rise as climate change heats up Indian Ocean". India Climate Dialogue. Retrieved 2021.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Unattributed (August 31, 2010). "Annual frequency of cyclonic disturbances (Maximum sustained windspeeds of 17 knots or more), Cyclones (34 knots or more) and Severe Cyclones (48 knots or more) over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), Arabian Sea (AS) and land surface of India" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 5, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  28. ^ Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) - Tropical Cyclones, New Delhi (January 1992). Report on Cyclonic Disturbances (Depressions and Tropical Cyclones) over North Indian Ocean in 1990 (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 15, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  29. ^ a b Unattributed (June 26, 2008). "Historical records of Severe Cyclones which formed in the Bay of Bengal and made landfall at the eastern coast of India during the period from 1970-1999". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on September 25, 2014. Retrieved 2011.
  30. ^ "Cyclone Fani: How 2019 was different from 1999 super cyclone". The Indian Express. May 12, 2019. Retrieved 2021.
  31. ^ "Cyclone Nargis cost Burma $4bn, says UN report". the Guardian. July 21, 2008. Retrieved 2021.
  32. ^ "Fifty Years of the Cyclone That Triggered a Civil War and Created Bangladesh". The Wire. Retrieved 2021.
  33. ^ "Hurricanes: Science and Society: 1970- The Great Bhola Cyclone". www.hurricanescience.org. Retrieved 2021.
  34. ^ "REPORT ON CYCLONIC DISTURBANCES OVER NORTH INDIAN OCEAN DURING 2006" (PDF). IMD. January 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2013. Retrieved 2021.
  35. ^ "Anemometer Failed to Read Wind Speed of 1999 Cyclone". www.outlookindia.com/. Retrieved 2021.
  36. ^ "Alarming Rise in the Number and Intensity of Extreme Point Rainfall Events over the Indian Region under Climate Change Scenario" (PDF). Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology: 19. August 2009.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

North_Indian_Ocean_tropical_cyclone
 



 



 
Music Scenes