Nukuma Languages
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Nukuma Languages

The Nukuma languages are a small family of three clearly related languages:[1]

They are generally classified among the Sepik languages of northern Papua New Guinea; Malcolm Ross places them in a Middle Sepik branch of that family.

They are spoken to the north of the Sepik River near Ambunti, and west of the Ambulas-speaking region of Mapr (near Wosera town).[2]


Pronouns in Nukuma languages:[2]

pronoun Kwoma Mende
1sg an an ~ na ~ a
2sg.m m? mi
2sg.f ni ?i
3sg.m r? or ~ ri
3sg.f s? os ~ si
1du si ?i
2du ki ?i
3du p?r fri
1pl no ni
2pl kwo ci
3pl ye li

Vocabulary comparison

The following basic vocabulary words are from Foley (2005)[3] and Laycock (1968),[4] as cited in the Trans-New Guinea database:[5]

gloss Kwoma Mende
head mas?k masiki
ear fu:; mabiya mampla
eye mi:; miyi m?sokome
nose sumoj?; sumwonj miñompo
tooth pu; tar?kwi fu
tongue kwunja; tarekwoy tarple
leg ya:te; yati kumpa
louse n?k?; n?ka nika
dog asa asa
pig buri; poyi
bird apu afi
egg apo; bey; mpei f?la
blood pi fi
bone apo; hapa hapa
skin mamp? maume
breast muk; muku muku
tree me mi
man ma ma
woman mi:ma nog?pie
sun ya ta
moon now?ka; n?w?ka niyaka
water uku uku
fire hi; hi: hi
stone papa sü?kye
name hi
eat a
one pochi
two uprus fri?ip

See also


  1. ^ Ma, New Guinea World
  2. ^ a b Foley, William A. (2018). "The Languages of the Sepik-Ramu Basin and Environs". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 197-432. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  3. ^ Foley, W.A. "Linguistic prehistory in the Sepik-Ramu basin". In Pawley, A., Attenborough, R., Golson, J. and Hide, R. editors, Papuan Pasts: Cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. PL-572:109-144. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 2005.
  4. ^ Laycock, Donald C. 1968. Languages of the Lumi Subdistrict (West Sepik District), New Guinea. Oceanic Linguistics, 7 (1): 36-66.
  5. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). " - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved .
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15-66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.

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