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|SOV||"She him loves."||45%||Ancient Greek, Bengali, Hindi, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Latin, Malayalam, Persian, Sanskrit, Urdu, etc|
|SVO||"She loves him."||42%||Chinese, English, French, German, Hausa, Hungarian, Italian, Malay, Russian, Spanish, Thai, Vietnamese, etc|
|VSO||"Loves she him."||9%||Biblical Hebrew, Classical Arabic, Irish, Filipino, Tuareg-Berber, Welsh|
|VOS||"Loves him she."||3%||Malagasy, Baure, Car|
|OVS||"Him loves she."||1%||Apalaí, Hixkaryana, Klingon|
|OSV||"Him she loves."||0%||Warao|
In linguistic typology, object-subject-verb (OSV) or object-agent-verb (OAV) is a classification of languages, based on whether the structure predominates in pragmatically-neutral expressions. An example of this would be "Oranges Sam ate."
OSV is rarely used in unmarked sentences, those using a normal word order without emphasis. Most languages that use OSV as their default word order come from the Amazon basin, such as Xavante, Jamamadi, Apurinã, Kayabí and Nadëb. An exception to this is Mizo and its sister languages, of Kuki-Chin-Mizo languages in the Tibeto-Burman family of languages. Here is an example from Apurinã:
|I fetch a pineapple|
Various languages allow OSV word order but only in marked sentences, those that emphasise part or all of the sentence.
Arabic also allows OSV in marked sentences:
|Iyy?ka na?budu wa-iyy?ka nastan|
|You alone we worship, and You alone we ask for help.|
Passive constructions in Chinese follow an OSV (OAV) pattern through the use of the particle ?:
In Modern Hebrew, OSV is often used instead of the normal SVO to emphasise the object: while ? ? would mean "I love her", "? ?" would mean "It is she whom I love". Possibly an influence of Germanic (via Yiddish), as Jewish English uses a similar construction ("You, I like, kid")--see above --much more than many other varieties of English, and often with the "but" left implicit.
In Hungarian, OSV emphasises the subject:
A szócikket én szerkesztettem = The article/I/edited (It was I, not somebody else, who edited the article).
|Sentence||? ? ?? ?.|
|Gloss||the/that||apple||(topic marker)||I (polite)||(sub. marker)||eat||(past)||(declarative)||(polite)|
|Translation||It is I who ate that apple. (or) As for the apple, I ate it. (or) The apple was eaten by me.|
An almost identical syntax is possible in Japanese:
OSV is one of two permissible word orders in Malayalam, the other being SOV
|(indicative marker)||women||(topicalization marker)||I-them-love|
|women I love them|
|It is the women whom I love.|
OSV is possible in Brazilian Portuguese to emphasize the object.
|Sentence||De maçã eu não gosto|
|Word||De maçã||eu||não gosto|
|Gloss||(of) apple||I||Do not like|
|Translation||I do not like apple|
OSV is used in Turkish to emphasise the subject:
Yeme?i ben pi?irdim = The meal/I/cooked (It was I, not somebody else, who cooked the meal).