Olecko
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Olecko
Olecko
W Olecku - panoramio.jpg
Place of Olecko castle - panoramio.jpg
Olecko - rynek.jpg
Drewniana skocznia w Olecku.jpg
Olecko Ko?ció? ?wi?tego Krzy?a 005.jpg
  • From top, left to right: Freedom Square
  • Technical school
  • Bird's eye view of Olecko
  • Pier and the Great Olecko Lake
  • Exaltation of the Holy Cross church
Flag of Olecko
Coat of arms of Olecko
Olecko is located in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Olecko
Olecko
Olecko is located in Poland
Olecko
Olecko
Coordinates: 54°2?N 22°30?E / 54.033°N 22.500°E / 54.033; 22.500
Country Poland
Voivodeship Warmian-Masurian
CountyOlecko County
GminaGmina Olecko
Established16th century
Town rights1560
Government
 o MayorKarol Sobczak
Area
 o Total11.6 km2 (4.5 sq mi)
Population
(2011)
 o Total22,384
 o Density1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
19-400 to 19-402
Area code(s)+48 87
Car platesNOE, NOG
Websitehttp://www.olecko.pl

Olecko [?'l?t?sk?] (former German: About this soundMarggrabowa  since 1560, colloquially also About this soundOletzko , About this soundTreuburg  since 1928, Lithuanian: Al?cka) is a town in northeastern Poland, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, located in Masuria near E?k and Suwa?ki. It is situated at the mouth of the Lega river which flows into the Great Olecko Lake (Jezioro Oleckie Wielkie) on its south-western shore. Olecko is the seat of Olecko County.

History

Historic houses in the town center

Marggrabowa was founded as a town by Albert, Duke of Prussia, a vassal of Poland, on January 1, 1560, who gave it a Polish rather than German name.[1] The town's first wójt was Adam Wojdowski[2] The town's name was derived from the word Margrabia (Polish for Margrave), the duke's title as the margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach's prince, by adding the suffix "-owa", which is typical in Poland for place names derived from personal names and titles. The town's coat of arms still reflects the Brandenburg red eagle and the Hohenzollern black and white which go back to Duke Albert. The populace became Lutheran-Protestant within the Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The almost entirely Polish population of the town used the Polish name Olecko.[3]

At the same location as the present location of the town there has been a hunting lodge called Olecko since 1544. At a peninsula towards the lake, across the Lega river, in 1619 the Castle of Olecko (Schloss Oletzko) was established as a regional administrative seat for the Dukes of Prussia.

The town remained under Polish suzerainty until 1657 when the Duchy of Prussia became independent. In 1701 it was part of the Kingdom of Prussia, and subsequently, in 1871, a part of German Empire.In 1807 Polish soldiers under command of Jan Henryk D?browski were stationed in the town during Napoleon's campaign against Prussia and developed friendly relations with the inhabitants.It was believed that both the town and most of Masuria region will again be part of Polish state, with local population expressing support against Prussian rule.[4] Between 1818 and 1945, Marggrabowa was the seat of Oletzko County (Kreis Oletzko) in the province of East Prussia. In 1825 half of the inhabitants of the town didn't use the German language, during the second half of the 19th century Germanization made significant encroachments.[5] In 1836 the local priesthood organized a synod in Olecko in which it protested against Germanization measures aimed at local population[6]

20th century

After Poland regained its independence (1918), in 1920 a plebiscite was to be held in the area by the League of Nations according to the Treaty of Versailles, to determine the future of the region and the town. In Olecko German militia has attacked and beaten local Polish activists, while local Polish House was demolished. The Allied representatives didn't react to acts of German terror in the city, only after several pleas they asked for intervention to protect Poles, however to do so they brought a unit of German border guard. On 11th of August 1920 a German mob went through the town chanting anti-Polish slogans, including "destroy Polonia!" and demanding destruction of houses belonging to "Polish agents"; in view of the attacks and overall situation many Polish supporters boycotted the plebiscite considering it a farce[7]The plebiscite resulted in 3,903 votes for Germany and none for Poland.[8] As a result, the town was renamed Treuburg (lit.: loyal castle) in 1928.

After World War II the town was placed under Polish administration, under territorial changes preliminarily agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. The pre-war native populace was displaced.

Sights

Great Olecko Lake

In the northern part of the town's market square, a Catholic church is situated on a tree-covered hill.

Transport

The Train Station in the western part of town is a regional railway junction: there were main lines to Go?dap, E?k and Suwa?ki. The local railway connections to Mieruniszki, Kruklanki and Sulejki are out of service or dismantled. Currently only bus service runs from the train station.

Education

Notable residents

International relations

Twin towns -- sister cities

Olecko is twinned with:

References

  1. ^ Olecko. Z dziejów miasta i powiatu, by Andrzej Wakar,page 75, Pojezierze 1974
  2. ^ Prace Bia?ostockiego Towarzystwa Naukowego, Issue 21 Bia?ostockie Towarzystwo Naukowe Pa?stwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, page 227, 1975
  3. ^ S?ownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów s?owia?skich, Tom VI, Warsaw, 1885, p. 114, 116 (in Polish)
  4. ^ Olecko. Z dziejów miasta i powiatu, by Andrzej Wakar,page 75, Pojezierze 1974
  5. ^ Zabytkowe o?rodki miejskie Warmii i Mazur Lucjan Czubiel, Tadeusz Domaga?a Pojezierze,page 229, 1969
  6. ^ Olecko. Z dziejów miasta i powiatu, by Andrzej Wakar,page 125-127, Pojezierze 1974
  7. ^ Olecko. Z dziejów miasta i powiatu, by Andrzej Wakar,page 151, Pojezierze 1974
  8. ^ Marzian, Herbert; Kenez, Csaba (1970). Selbstbestimmung für Ostdeutschland - Eine Dokumentation zum 50 Jahrestag der ost- und westpreussischen Volksabstimmung am 11. Juli 1920 (in German). p. 65.

External links

Coordinates: 54°02?N 22°30?E / 54.033°N 22.500°E / 54.033; 22.500


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Olecko
 



 



 
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