Om
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Om

The Om symbol in the Devanagari script.

Om or Aum (About this soundlisten ; ?, ?, IAST: , Tamil: ?, ) is the sound of a sacred spiritual symbol in Indian religions. It signifies the essence of the ultimate reality, consciousness or Atman.[1][2][3] More broadly, it is a syllable that is chanted either independently or before a spiritual recitation in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.[4][5] The meaning and connotations of Om vary between the diverse schools within and across the various traditions. It is also part of the iconography found in ancient and medieval era manuscripts, temples, monasteries and spiritual retreats in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.[6][7]

In Hinduism, Om is one of the most important spiritual symbols.[8][9] It refers to Atman (soul, self within) and Brahman (ultimate reality, entirety of the universe, truth, divine, supreme spirit, cosmic principles, knowledge).[10][11][12] The syllable is often found at the beginning and the end of chapters in the Vedas, the Upanishads, and other Hindu texts.[12] It is a sacred spiritual incantation made before and during the recitation of spiritual texts, during puja and private prayers, in ceremonies of rites of passage (sanskara) such as weddings, and sometimes during meditative and spiritual activities such as Yoga.[13][14]

The syllable Om is also referred to as onkara (, o?k?ra), omkara (, o?k?ra) and pranav/pranava (, pra?ava).[15][16]

Common names and synonyms

The syllable Om (Devanagari: ?, Kannada?, Tamil, Malayalam?, Telugu?, Bengali?, Odia: or , Tibetan) is referred to as pra?ava.[17][18] Other used terms are ak?ara (literally, letter of the alphabet, imperishable, immutable) or ek?k?ara (one letter of the alphabet) and omk?ra (meaning literally "Om-maker" denoting the first source of the sound "Om" and connoting the act of creation).[19][20][21][22] Udg?tha (; song, chant), a word found in Samaveda and bhasya (commentaries) based on it, is also used as a name of the syllable.[23] As o is the gu?a vowel grade of u, the word om can be considered to consist of three phonemes: "?-u-m",[24][25][26][27] though it is often described as trisyllabic despite this being either archaic or the result of translation.

Origin and meaning

The etymological origins of ?m/?um have long been discussed and disputed, with even the Upanishads having proposed multiple Sanskrit etymologies for ?um, including: from "?m" (; "yes"), from "ávam" (?; "that, thus, yes"), and from the Sanskrit roots "?v-" (; "to urge") or "?p-" (; "to attain"). [note 1][28] In 1889, Maurice Blumfield proposed an origin from a Proto-Indo-European introductory particle "*au" with a function similar to the Sanskrit particle "atha" ().[28] However, contemporary Indologist Asko Parpola proposes a borrowing from Dravidian "*?m" meaning "'it is so', 'let it be so', 'yes'", a contraction of "*?kum", cognate with modern Tamil "?m" () meaning "yes".[28][29]

Regardless of its original meaning, the syllable Om evolves to mean many abstract ideas even in the earliest Upanishads. Max Müller and other scholars state that these philosophical texts recommend Om as a "tool for meditation", explain various meanings that the syllable may be in the mind of one meditating, ranging from "artificial and senseless" to "highest concepts such as the cause of the Universe, essence of life, Brahman, Atman, and Self-knowledge".[30][31]

The syllable Om is first mentioned in the Upanishads, the mystical texts associated with the Vedanta philosophy. It has variously been associated with concepts of "cosmic sound" or "mystical syllable" or "affirmation to something divine", or as symbolism for abstract spiritual concepts in the Upanishads.[12] In the Aranyaka and the Brahmana layers of Vedic texts, the syllable is so widespread and linked to knowledge, that it stands for the "whole of Veda".[12] The symbolic foundations of Om are repeatedly discussed in the oldest layers of the early Upanishads.[32][33] The Aitareya Brahmana of Rig Veda, in section 5.32, for example suggests that the three phonetic components of O? (a + u + ?) correspond to the three stages of cosmic creation, and when it is read or said, it celebrates the creative powers of the universe.[12][34] The Brahmana layer of Vedic texts equate Om with Bhur-bhuvah-Svah, the latter symbolizing "the whole Veda". They offer various shades of meaning to Om, such as it being "the universe beyond the sun", or that which is "mysterious and inexhaustible", or "the infinite language, the infinite knowledge", or "essence of breath, life, everything that exists", or that "with which one is liberated".[12] The Samaveda, the poetical Veda, orthographically maps Om to the audible, the musical truths in its numerous variations (Oum, Aum, Ov? Ov? Ov? Um, etc.) and then attempts to extract musical meters from it.[12]

Written representation

South Asia

Phonologically, the syllable represents /aum/, which is regularly monophthongised to [õ:] in Sanskrit phonology. When occurring within spoken Sanskrit, the syllable is subject to the normal rules of sandhi in Sanskrit grammar, however with the additional peculiarity that after preceding a or ?, the au of aum does not form vriddhi (au) but guna (o) per Pini 6.1.95 (i.e. 'om').

It is sometimes also written ? (m [o::m]), notably by Arya Samaj, where ? (i.e., the digit "3") is pluta ("three times as long"), indicating a length of three morae (that is, the time it takes to say three syllables) -- an overlong nasalised close-mid back rounded vowel.

The Om symbol, ?, is a ligature in Devanagari, combining ? (au) and chandrabindu (?, ?). In Unicode, the symbol is encoded at DEVANAGARI OM and at 🕉 OM SYMBOL ("generic symbol independent of Devanagari font").

The Om or Aum symbol is found on ancient coins, in regional scripts. In Sri Lanka, Anuradhapura era coins (dated from the 1st to 4th centuries) are embossed with Aum along with other symbols.[35] Nagari or Devanagari representations are found epigraphically on medieval sculpture, such as the dancing Shiva (ca. 10th to 12th century); Joseph Campbell (1949) even argued that the dance posture itself can be taken to represent Om as a symbol of the entirety of "consciousness, universe" and "the message that God is within a person and without".[36]

East and Southeast Asia

The Om symbol, with epigraphical variations, is also found in many Southeast Asian countries.

In Cambodia, the symbol is known as Om, Aom, or Unalaom. In Khmer literature, the symbol is called Komutr (Khmer). The Khmer adopted the symbol since the 1st century during the Kingdom of Funan as seen on artifacts from Angkor Borei, once the capital of Funan. The symbol is seen on numerous Khmer statues from Chenla to Khmer Empire periods and still in used until the present day. This Khmer version of Om symbol is popularly used in Khmer sacred tattoos known as Sak Yant and Khmer Buddhist texts and literatures.[37][38] The Cambodian official seal has similarly incorporated the Aum symbol.[39]

It is also called Unalom or Aum in Thailand and has been a part of various flags and official emblems such as in the Thong Chom Klao of King Rama IV (r. 1851-1868).[40]

In traditional Chinese characters, it is written as ? (pinyin: ?n), and as ? (pinyin: w?ng) in simplified Chinese characters.[]

There have been proposals that the Om syllable may already have had written representations in Brahmi script, dating to before the Common Era. A proposal by Deb (1848) held that the swastika is "a monogrammatic representation of the syllable Om, wherein two Brahmi /o/ characters (𑀑 BRAHMI LETTER O) were superposed crosswise and the 'm' was represented by dot".[41] A commentary in Nature considers this theory questionable and unproven.[42] Roy (2011) proposed that Om was represented using the Brahmi symbols for "A", "U" and "M" (), and that this may have influenced the unusual epigraphical features of the symbol ? for Om.[43][44]

Representation in various scripts

Northern Brahmic

Southern Brahmic

East Asian

Hinduism

Om Symbol at Kanaka Durga Temple, Vijayawada

It is the most sacred syllable symbol and mantra of Brahman, the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality.[45] Om connotes the metaphysical concept of Brahman. The syllable is often chanted either independently or before a mantra;[46][4][5] it signifies the Brahman as the ultimate reality, consciousness or Atma.[1][2][3] The Om sound is the primordial sound and is called the Shabda-Brahman (Brahman as sound).[47] In Hinduism, Om is one of the most important spiritual sounds.[8][9]

Om refers to Atman (soul, self within) and Brahman (ultimate reality, entirety of the universe, truth, divine, supreme spirit, cosmic principles, knowledge).[10][11][12] The syllable is often found at the beginning and the end of chapters in the Vedas, the Upanishads, and other Hindu texts.[12] It is a sacred spiritual incantation made before and during the recitation of spiritual texts, during puja and private prayers, in ceremonies of rites of passages (sanskara) such as weddings, and sometimes during meditative and spiritual activities such as Yoga.[13][14]

Om came to be used as a standard utterance at the beginning of mantras, chants or citations taken from the Vedas. For example, the Gayatri mantra, which consists of a verse from the Rigveda Samhita (RV 3.62.10), is prefixed not just by Om but by Om followed by the formula bh?r bhuva? sva?.[48] Such recitations continue to be in use in Hinduism, with many major incantations and ceremonial functions beginning and ending with Om.[5]

Upanishads

The syllable Om is described with various meanings in the Upanishads. Descriptions include "the sacred sound, the Yes!, the Vedas, the Udgitha (song of the universe), the infinite, the all encompassing, the whole world, the truth, the ultimate reality, the finest essence, the cause of the Universe, the essence of life, the Brahman, the Atman, the vehicle of deepest knowledge, and Self-knowledge".[31]

Chandogya Upanishad

Om is a common symbol found in the ancient texts of Hinduism, such as in the first line of Rig veda (top), as well as an icon in temples and spiritual retreats.

The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the oldest Upanishads of Hinduism. It opens with the recommendation that "let a man meditate on Om".[49] It calls the syllable Om as udgitha (; song, chant), and asserts that the significance of the syllable is thus: the essence of all beings is earth, the essence of earth is water, the essence of water are the plants, the essence of plants is man, the essence of man is speech, the essence of speech is the Rig Veda, the essence of the Rig Veda is the Sama Veda, and the essence of Sama Veda is the udgitha (song, Om).[50]

Rik (, ?c) is speech, states the text, and S?man () is breath; they are pairs, and because they have love for each other, speech and breath find themselves together and mate to produce a song.[49][50] The highest song is Om, asserts section 1.1 of Chandogya Upanishad. It is the symbol of awe, of reverence, of threefold knowledge because Adhvaryu invokes it, the Hotr recites it, and Udgatr sings it.[50][51]

The second volume of the first chapter continues its discussion of syllable Om, explaining its use as a struggle between Devas (gods) and Asuras (demons).[52] Max Muller states that this struggle between gods and demons is considered allegorical by ancient Indian scholars, as good and evil inclinations within man, respectively.[53] The legend in section 1.2 of Chandogya Upanishad states that gods took the Udgitha (song of Om) unto themselves, thinking, "with this song we shall overcome the demons".[54] The syllable Om is thus implied as that which inspires the good inclinations within each person.[53][54]

Chandogya Upanishad's exposition of syllable Om in its opening chapter combines etymological speculations, symbolism, metric structure and philosophical themes.[51][55] In the second chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad, the meaning and significance of Om evolves into a philosophical discourse, such as in section 2.10 where Om is linked to the Highest Self,[56] and section 2.23 where the text asserts Om is the essence of three forms of knowledge, Om is Brahman and "Om is all this [observed world]".[57]

Katha Upanishad

The Katha Upanishad is the legendary story of a little boy, Nachiketa - the son of sage Vajasravasa - who meets Yama, the vedic deity of death. Their conversation evolves to a discussion of the nature of man, knowledge, Atman (Soul, Self) and moksha (liberation).[58] In section 1.2, Katha Upanishad characterizes Knowledge/Wisdom as the pursuit of good, and Ignorance/Delusion as the pursuit of pleasant,[59] that the essence of Veda is to make man liberated and free, look past what has happened and what has not happened, free from the past and the future, beyond good and evil, and one word for this essence is the word Om.[60]

The word which all the Vedas proclaim,
That which is expressed in every Tapas (penance, austerity, meditation),
That for which they live the life of a Brahmacharin,
Understand that word in its essence: Om! that is the word.
Yes, this syllable is Brahman,
This syllable is the highest.
He who knows that syllable,
Whatever he desires, is his.

-- Katha Upanishad, 1.2.15-1.2.16[60]

Maitri Upanishad

The Maitrayaniya Upanishad in sixth Prapathakas (lesson) discusses the meaning and significance of Om. The text asserts that Om represents Brahman-Atman. The three roots of the syllable, states the Maitri Upanishad, are A + U + M.[61] The sound is the body of Soul, and it repeatedly manifests in three: as gender-endowed body - feminine, masculine, neuter; as light-endowed body - Agni, Vayu and Aditya; as deity-endowed body - Brahma, Rudra[am] and Vishnu; as mouth-endowed body - Garhapatya, Dakshinagni and Ahavaniya;[62] as knowledge-endowed body - Rig, Saman and Yajur;[63] as world-endowed body - Bh?r, Bhuva? and Sva?; as time-endowed body - Past, Present and Future; as heat-endowed body - Breath, Fire and Sun; as growth-endowed body - Food, Water and Moon; as thought-endowed body - intellect, mind and psyche.[61][64] Brahman exists in two forms - the material form, and the immaterial formless.[65] The material form is changing, unreal. The immaterial formless isn't changing, real. The immortal formless is truth, the truth is the Brahman, the Brahman is the light, the light is the Sun which is the syllable Om as the Self.[66][67]

The world is Om, its light is Sun, and the Sun is also the light of the syllable Om, asserts the Upanishad. Meditating on Om, is acknowledging and meditating on the Brahman-Atman (Soul, Self).[61]

Mundaka Upanishad

The Mundaka Upanishad in the second Mundakam (part), suggests the means to knowing the Self and the Brahman to be meditation, self-reflection and introspection, that can be aided by the symbol Om.[68][69]

That which is flaming, which is subtler than the subtle,
on which the worlds are set, and their inhabitants -
That is the indestructible Brahman.[70]
It is life, it is speech, it is mind. That is the real. It is immortal.
It is a mark to be penetrated. Penetrate It, my friend.

Taking as a bow the great weapon of the Upanishad,
one should put upon it an arrow sharpened by meditation,
Stretching it with a thought directed to the essence of That,
Penetrate[71] that Imperishable as the mark, my friend.

Om is the bow, the arrow is the Soul, Brahman the mark,
By the undistracted man is It to be penetrated,
One should come to be in It,
as the arrow becomes one with the mark.

-- Mundaka Upanishad, 2.2.2 - 2.2.4[72][73]

Adi Shankara, in his review of the Mundaka Upanishad, states Om as a symbolism for Atman (soul, self).[74]

Mandukya Upanishad

The Mandukya Upanishad opens by declaring, "Om!, this syllable is this whole world".[75] Thereafter it presents various explanations and theories on what it means and signifies.[76] This discussion is built on a structure of "four fourths" or "fourfold", derived from A + U + M + "silence" (or without an element).[75][76]

Aum as all states of time
In verse 1, the Upanishad states that time is threefold: the past, the present and the future, that these three are "Aum". The four fourth of time is that which transcends time, that too is "Aum" expressed.[76]
Aum as all states of Atman
In verse 2, states the Upanishad, everything is Brahman, but Brahman is Atman (the Soul, Self), and that the Atman is fourfold.[75] Johnston summarizes these four states of Self, respectively, as seeking the physical, seeking inner thought, seeking the causes and spiritual consciousness, and the fourth state is realizing oneness with the Self, the Eternal.[77]
Aum as all states of consciousness
In verses 3 to 6, the Mandukya Upanishad enumerates four states of consciousness: wakeful, dream, deep sleep and the state of ekatma (being one with Self, the oneness of Self).[76] These four are A + U + M + "without an element" respectively.[76]
Aum as all of knowledge
In verses 9 to 12, the Mandukya Upanishad enumerates fourfold etymological roots of the syllable "Aum". It states that the first element of "Aum" is A, which is from Apti (obtaining, reaching) or from Adimatva (being first).[75] The second element is U, which is from Utkarsa (exaltation) or from Ubhayatva (intermediateness).[76] The third element is M, from Miti (erecting, constructing) or from Mi Minati, or ap?ti (annihilation).[75] The fourth is without an element, without development, beyond the expanse of universe. In this way, states the Upanishad, the syllable Om is indeed the Atman (the self).[75][76]

Shvetashvatara Upanishad

The Shvetashvatara Upanishad, in verses 1.14 to 1.16, suggests meditating with the help of syllable Om, where one's perishable body is like one fuel-stick and the syllable Om is the second fuel-stick, which with discipline and diligent rubbing of the sticks unleashes the concealed fire of thought and awareness within. Such knowledge, asserts the Upanishad, is the goal of Upanishads.[78][79] The text asserts that Om is a tool of meditation empowering one to know the God within oneself, to realize one's Atman (Soul, Self).[80]

Ganapati Upanishad

The Hindu deity Ganesha is sometimes referred to as "o?k?rasvar?pa" (Om is his form) and used as the symbol for Upanishadic concept of Brahman.[81][82]

The Ganapati Upanishad asserts that Ganesha is same as Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, all deities, the universe, and Om.[83]

(O Lord Ganapati!) You are (the Trimurti) Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesa. You are Indra. You are fire [Agni] and air [V?yu]. You are the sun [S?rya] and the moon [Chandrama]. You are Brahman. You are (the three worlds) Bhuloka [earth], Antariksha-loka [space], and Swargaloka [heaven]. You are Om. (That is to say, You are all this).

-- Ga?apatya Atharvar?a 6, [84]

Aranyakas

Aitareya Aranyaka

Aitareya Aranyaka in verse 23.6,[clarification needed] explains Om as "an acknowledgment, melodic confirmation, something that gives momentum and energy to a hymn".[8]

Om (?) is the pratigara (agreement) with a hymn. Likewise is tatha (so be it) with a song. But Om is something divine, and tatha is something human.

-- Aitareya Aranyaka 23.6, [8]

Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita, in the Epic Mahabharata, mentions the meaning and significance of Om in several verses. According to Jeaneane Fowler, verse 9.17 of the Bhagavad Gita synthesizes the competing dualistic and monist streams of thought in Hinduism, by using "Om which is the symbol for the indescribable, impersonal Brahman".[85]

I am the Father of this world, Mother, Ordainer, Grandfather, the Thing to be known, the Purifier, the syllable Om, Rik, Saman and also Yajus.

-- Krishna to Arjuna, Bhagavad Gita 9.17, [85]

The significance of the sacred syllable in the Hindu traditions, is similarly highlighted in other verses of the Gita, such as verse 17.24 where the importance of Om during prayers, charity and meditative practices is explained as follows,[86]

Therefore, uttering Om, the acts of yagna (fire ritual), d?na (charity) and tapas (austerity) as enjoined in the scriptures, are always begun by those who study the Brahman.

-- Bhagavad Gita 17.24, [86][87]

Yoga Sutra

The aphoristic verse 1.27 of Pantanjali's Yogasutra links Om to Yoga practice, as follows,[88]

? ?

His word is Om.

-- Yogasutra 1.27, [88]

Johnston states this verse highlights the importance of Om in the meditative practice of Yoga, where it symbolizes three worlds in the Soul; the three times - past, present and future eternity, the three divine powers - creation, preservation and transformation in one Being; and three essences in one Spirit - immortality, omniscience and joy. It is, asserts Johnston, a symbol for the perfected Spiritual Man (his emphasis).[88]

Puranas

The medieval era texts of Hinduism, such as the Puranas adopt and expand the concept of Om in their own ways, and to their own theistic sects. According to the Vayu Purana, Om is the representation of the Hindu Trimurti, and represents the union of the three gods, viz. A for Brahma, U for Vishnu and M for Shiva. The three sounds also symbolise the three Vedas, namely (Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda).[]

Vaishnava traditions

In Vaishnava traditions Krishna is revered as Svayam Bhagavan and Om is interpretted accordingly; A is said to represent Bhagavan Krishna (avatar of Vishnu), U represents Srimati Radharani (avatar of Mahalakshmi), and M represents jiva, the soul of the devotee. Accordingly, the Vaishnava Garuda Purana equates the recitation of Om with obeisance to Vishnu.[89][90]

Shaiva traditions

In Shaiva traditions, the Shiva Purana highlights the relation between deity Shiva and the Pranava or Om. Shiva is declared to be Om, and that Om is Shiva.[91]

Shakta traditions

In the thealogy of Shakta traditions, Om connotes the female divine energy, Adi Parashakti, represented in the Tridevi: A for the creative energy (the Shakti of Brahma), Mahasaraswati, U for the preservative energy (the Shakti of Vishnu), Mahalakshmi, and M for the destructive energy (the Shakti of Shiva), Mahakali. The 12th book of the Devi-Bhagavata Purana describes the Goddess as the mother of the Vedas, she the Adya Shakti (primal energy, primordial power), and the essence of the Gayatri mantra.[92][93][94]

Jainism

In Jainism, Om is considered a condensed form of reference to the Pañca-Paramehi by their initials A+A+A+U+M (o3m).

The Dravyasamgraha quotes a Prakrit line:[95]

? "? ?"[an]
Translation: AAAUM (or just "Om") is the one syllable short form of the initials of the five supreme beings (Pañca-Paramehi): "Arihant, Ashiri, Acharya, Upajjhaya, Muni".[96]

By extension, the Om symbol is also used in Jainism to represent the first five lines of the Namokar mantra,[97] the most important part of the daily prayer in the Jain religion, which honours the Pañca-Paramehi. These five lines are (in English): "(1.) veneration to the Arhats, (2.) veneration to the perfect ones, (3.) veneration to the masters, (4.) veneration to the teachers, (5.) veneration to all the monks in the world".[95]

Buddhism

Om is often used in some later schools of Buddhism, for example Tibetan Buddhism, which was influenced by Indian Hinduism and Tantra.[98][99]

In Chinese Buddhism, Om is often transliterated as the Chinese character ? (pinyin ?n) or ? (pinyin w?ng).

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana)

In Tibetan Buddhism, Om is often placed at the beginning of mantras and dharanis. Probably the most well known mantra is "Om mani padme hum", the six syllable mantra of the Bodhisattva of compassion, Avalokite?vara. This mantra is particularly associated with the four-armed Shadakshari form of Avalokite?vara. Moreover, as a seed syllable (bija mantra), Aum is considered sacred and holy in Esoteric Buddhism.[100]

Some scholars interpret the first word of the mantra o? ma?ipadme h to be au?, with a meaning similar to Hinduism - the totality of sound, existence and consciousness.[101][102]

O? has been described by the 14th Dalai Lama as "composed of three pure letters, A, U, and M. These symbolize the impure body, speech, and mind of everyday unenlightened life of a practitioner; they also symbolize the pure exalted body, speech and mind of an enlightened Buddha."[103][104] According to Simpkins, Om is a part of many mantras in Tibetan Buddhism and is a symbolism for "wholeness, perfection and the infinite".[105]

Japanese Buddhism

A-un

The term A-un () is the transliteration in Japanese of the two syllables "a" and "h", written in Devanagari as ?. In Japanese, it is often equated with the syllable Om. The original Sanskrit term is composed of two letters, the first (?) and the last (?) letters of the Devanagari abugida, with diacritics (including Anusvara) on the latter indicating the "-" of "h". Together, they symbolically represent the beginning and the end of all things.[106] In Japanese Mikky? Buddhism, the letters represent the beginning and the end of the universe.[107] This is comparable to Alpha and Omega, the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, similarly adopted by Christianity to symbolize Christ as the beginning and end of all.

The term a-un is used figuratively in some Japanese expressions as "a-un breathing" (, a-un no koky?) or "a-un relationship" (?, a-un no naka), indicating an inherently harmonious relationship or non-verbal communication.

Nio statues in Kyoto prefecture of Japan, are interpreted as saying the start (open mouth) and the end (closed mouth) of syllable "AUM"[108][109]

Ni? guardian kings and Komainu lion-dogs

The term is also used in Buddhist architecture and Shinto to describe the paired statues common in Japanese religious settings, most notably the Ni? () and the komainu ().[106] One (usually on the right) has an open mouth regarded by Buddhists as symbolically speaking the "A" syllable; the other (usually on the left) has a closed mouth, symbolically speaking the "Un" syllable. The two together are regarded as saying "A-un", which is called the vajra-breath. The generic name for statues with an open mouth is agy? (, lit. "a" shape), that for those with a closed mouth ungy? (, lit. "'un' shape").[106]

Ni? statues in Japan, and their equivalent in East Asia, appear in pairs in front of Buddhist temple gates and stupas, in the form of two fierce looking guardian kings (Vajrapani).[108][109]

Komainu, also called lion-dogs, found in Japan, Korea and China, also occur in pairs before Buddhist temples and public spaces, and again, one has an open mouth (Agy?), the other closed (Ungy?).[110][111][112]

Sikhism

Ik Onkar of Sikhism

Ik Onkar, iconically represented as ? in Sikhism are the opening words of the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh scripture.[113] It is the statement that 'there is one God',[114] and that there is 'singularity despite seeming plurality'.[115] Ik Onkar is a phrase, which is a compound of the numeral one (ik) and onkar, states Doniger, canonically understood in Sikhism to refer to "absolute monotheistic unity of God".[113] Ik Onkar is part of the "Mul Mantra" in Sikh teachings and represents "One God", states Gulati.[116]

Onkar is, states Wazir Singh, a "variation of Om (Aum) of the ancient Indian scriptures (with a change in its orthography), implying the unifying seed-force that evolves as the universe".[117] Guru Nanak wrote a poem entitled Onkar in which, states Doniger, he "attributed the origin and sense of speech to the Divinity, who is thus the Om-maker".[113]

Onkar ('the Primal Sound') created Brahma, Onkar fashioned the consciousness,
From Onkar came mountains and ages, Onkar produced the Vedas,
By the grace of Onkar, people were saved through the divine word,
By the grace of Onkar, they were liberated through the teachings of the Guru.

-- Ramakali Dakkhani, Adi Granth 929-930, Translated by Pashaura Singh[118]

Ik Aumkara appears at the start of Mul Mantra, states Kohli, and it occurs as "Aum" in the Upanishads and in Gurbani.[119]

According to Pashaura Singh, Onkar is a foundational word (shabad, Mul Mantar), the seed of Sikh scripture, and the basis of the "whole creation of time and space".[118] It is interpreted differently than other Indian religions, and is used frequently as invocation in Sikh scripture, and is central to Sikhism.[118]

Thelema

For both symbolic and numerological reasons, Aleister Crowley adapted aum into a Thelemic magical formula, AUMGN, adding a silent 'g' (as in the word 'gnosis') and a nasal 'n' to the m to form the compound letter 'MGN'; the 'g' makes explicit the silence previously only implied by the terminal 'm' while the 'n' indicates nasal vocalisation connoting the breath of life and together they connote knowledge and generation. Om appears in this extended form throughout Crowley's magical and philosophical writings, notably appearing in his Gnostic Mass. Crowley discusses its symbolism briefly in section F of Liber Samekh and in detail in chapter 7 of Magick (Book 4).[120][121][122][123]

Modern reception

The Brahmic script om-ligature has become widely recognized in Western counterculture since the 1960s, mostly in its standard Devanagari form (?), but the Tibetan alphabet om (?) has also gained limited currency in popular culture.[124]

Notes

  1. ^ Pra?ava Upani?ad in Gopatha Br?hma?a 1.1.26 and Udis?tra 1.141/1.142
  1. ^ (U+0993 & U+0981)
  2. ^ ? (U+0950)
  3. ^ ? (U+0AD0)
  4. ^ ? (U+0A74)
  5. ^ ? (U+A8FD)
  6. ^ (U+1C23 & U+1C28 & U+1C35)
  7. ^ (U+1900 & U+1925 & U+1931)
  8. ^ ? (U+AAF2)
  9. ^ (U+1160C) & (U+1163D)
  10. ^ (U+0B13 & U+0B01)
  11. ^ (U+0B13 & U+200D & U+0B01)
  12. ^ ? (U+11449)
  13. ^ ? (U+111C4)
  14. ^ (U+1158C & U+115BC)
  15. ^ (U+11A50 & U+11A55 & U+11A96)
  16. ^ (U+11688) & (U+116AB)
  17. ^ ? (U+0F00)
  18. ^ ? (U+114C7
  19. ^ (U+1B12 & U+1B01)
  20. ^ (U+1025 & U+102F & U+1036)
  21. ^ (U+11103 & U+1112E & U+11100)
  22. ^ ? (U+AA00 & U+AA2F & U+AA31 & U+AA4C)
  23. ^ ? (U+11350)
  24. ^ (U+A98E & U+A980 & U+A9B4)
  25. ^ (U+0C93 & U+0C82)
  26. ^ (U+17B1 & U+17C6)
  27. ^ / (U+17DA)
  28. ^ (U+0EAD & U+0EC2 & U+0ECD)
  29. ^ (U+0D13 & U+0D02)
  30. ^ (U+0D95) & (U+0D82)
  31. ^ ? (U+0BD0)
  32. ^ (U+0C13 & U+0C02)
  33. ^ (U+0E2D & U+0E42 & U+0E4D)
  34. ^ ? (U+0E5B)
  35. ^ ? (U+5535)
  36. ^ ? (U+110B & U+1169 & U+1106)
  37. ^ (U+30AA & U+30FC & U+30E0)
  38. ^ ? (U+1826 & U+1838 & U+1820 & U+1880)
  39. ^ later called Shiva
  40. ^ oma ek?k?ara pañca-paramehi-n?m?-dipam tatkathamiti cheta "arihat? asar?r? ?yariy? taha uvajjh?y? mu?iy?"

References

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  2. ^ a b Barbara A. Holdrege (1996). Veda and Torah: Transcending the Textuality of Scripture. SUNY Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-7914-1640-2.
  3. ^ a b "Om". Merriam-Webster (2013), Pronounced: \'?m\
  4. ^ a b Jan Gonda (1963), The Indian Mantra, Oriens, Vol. 16, pp. 244-297
  5. ^ a b c Julius Lipner (2010), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415456760, pp. 66-67
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  8. ^ a b c d Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus (2011), Sound and Communication: An Aesthetic Cultural History of Sanskrit Hinduism, De Gruyter, ISBN 978-3110181593, page 435
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  35. ^ Henry Parker, Ancient Ceylon (1909), p. 490.
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  56. ^ Max Muller, Chandogya Upanishad, The Upanishads, Part I, Oxford University Press, page 28 with footnote 1
  57. ^ Max Muller, Chandogya Upanishad, The Upanishads, Part I, Oxford University Press, page 35
  58. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 269-273
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  61. ^ a b c Max Muller, The Upanishads, Part 2, Maitrayana-Brahmana Upanishad, Oxford University Press, pages 307-308
  62. ^ this is a reference to the three major Vedic fire rituals
  63. ^ this is a reference to the three major Vedas
  64. ^ Maitri Upanishad - Sanskrit Text with English Translation[permanent dead link] EB Cowell (Translator), Cambridge University, Bibliotheca Indica, page 258-260
  65. ^ Max Muller, The Upanishads, Part 2, Maitrayana-Brahmana Upanishad, Oxford University Press, pages 306-307 verse 6.3
  66. ^ Sanskrit Original ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? | Maitrayani Upanishad Wikisource;
    English Translation: Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, page 347
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  69. ^ Eduard Roer, Mundaka Upanishad[permanent dead link] Bibliotheca Indica, Vol. XV, No. 41 and 50, Asiatic Society of Bengal, page 144
  70. ^ Hume translates this as "imperishable Brahma", Max Muller translates it as "indestructible Brahman"; see: Max Muller, The Upanishads, Part 2, Mundaka Upanishad, Oxford University Press, page 36
  71. ^ The Sanskrit word used is Vyadh, which means both "penetrate" and "know"; Robert Hume uses penetrate, but mentions the second meaning; see: Robert Hume, Mundaka Upanishad, Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, page 372 with footnote 1
  72. ^ Robert Hume, Mundaka Upanishad, Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pages 372-373
  73. ^ Charles Johnston, The Mukhya Upanishads: Books of Hidden Wisdom, (1920-1931), The Mukhya Upanishads, Kshetra Books, ISBN 978-1495946530 (Reprinted in 2014), Archive of Mundaka Upanishad, pages 310-311 from Theosophical Quarterly journal
  74. ^ Mundaka Upanishad, in Upanishads and Sri Sankara's commentary - Volume 1: The Isa Kena and Mundaka, SS Sastri (Translator), University of Toronto Archives, page 144 with section in 138-152
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  115. ^ Singh, Wazir (1969). Aspects of Guru Nanak's philosophy. Lahore Book Shop. p. 20. Retrieved 2015. the 'a,' 'u,' and 'm' of aum have also been explained as signifying the three principles of creation, sustenance and annihilation. ... aumk?r in relation to existence implies plurality, ... but its substitute Ik Onkar definitely implies singularity in spite of the seeming multiplicity of existence. ...
  116. ^ Mahinder Gulati (2008), Comparative Religious And Philosophies : Anthropomorphlsm And Divinity, Atlantic, ISBN 978-8126909025, pages 284-285; Quote: "While Ek literally means One, Onkar is the equivalent of the Hindu "Om" (Aum), the one syllable sound representing the holy trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva - the God in His entirety."
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  118. ^ a b c Pashaura Singh (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 227
  119. ^ SS Kohli (1993), The Sikh and Sikhism, Atlantic, ISBN 81-71563368, page 35, Quote: "Ik Aumkara is a significant name in Guru Granth Sahib and appears in the very beginning of Mul Mantra. It occurs as Aum in the Upanishads and in Gurbani, the Onam Akshara (the letter Aum) has been considered as the abstract of three worlds (p. 930). According to Brihadaranyaka Upanishad "Aum" connotes both the transcendent and immanent Brahman.
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Sources

Further reading

External links

  • Media related to Aum at Wikimedia Commons

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