Operation Resolute Support
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Operation Resolute Support
Resolute Support Mission
Resolute Support.svg
Official logo of RSM
FoundedDecember 28, 2014; 6 years ago (2014-12-28)
CountryContributing States: See Below
Allegiance NATO
SizeAbout 4,905 troops as of July 2021[1]
Part ofAllied Joint Force Command Brunssum

HeadquartersKabul, Afghanistan
Motto(s) ? (training, assistance, advice)
EngagementsWar in Afghanistan
Commanders
CommanderVacant
Deputy CommanderLt Gen Nicola Zanelli, Italian Army
Senior Enlisted LeaderCSM Timothy L. Metheny, USA
Insignia
FlagFlag of the Resolute Support Mission.svg
Change of Mission Ceremony from ISAF to Resolute Support, Dec. 28, 2014, in Kabul

Resolute Support Mission or Operation Resolute Support is a NATO-led train, advise and assist mission consisting of about 4,905 coalition forces[1] in Afghanistan, which began on January 1, 2015.[2][3] It is a follow-on mission to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) which was completed on December 28, 2014.[3][4]

On April 14, 2021, NATO announced that RSM will implement a drawdown of troops operating under the mission by May 1.[5]

Legal basis

The operation plan for the Resolute Support Mission (RSM) was approved by foreign ministers of the NATO members in late June 2014 and the corresponding status of forces agreement was signed by President of Afghanistan Ashraf Ghani and NATO Senior Civilian Representative in Afghanistan Maurits Jochems in Kabul on 30 September 2014.[3] The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted United Nations Security Council Resolution 2189 in support of the new international mission in Afghanistan.[4]

Objectives and deployment

The objective of the mission is to provide training, advice and assistance for Afghan security forces and institutions in their conflict with extremist groups such as the Taliban, the Haqqani network, and ISIS-K.[6][7][8]

The Resolute Support Mission consists of approximately 17,000 personnel from NATO and partner nations in Afghanistan with the central hub at Kabul and Bagram Airfield supporting four spokes.[3] The spokes are formed by Train Advise Assist Commands (TAACs), which directly support four of the six Afghan National Army Corps. Train Advise Assist Command - Capital replaces the former Regional Command Capital. TAAC East assists the 201st Corps from FOB Gamberi in Laghman, TAAC South assists the 205th Corps from Kandahar International Airport, TAAC West assists the 207th Corps in Herat and TAAC North covers the 209th Corps from Mazar-i-Sharif.[9]

The 203rd Corps located in the south-eastern part of the country sees advisers from time to time from TAAC East (one source describes this as "fly to advise").[10] The 215th Corps in the south-west is supported by TAAC South.

U.S. President Barack Obama, in an update given from the White House on Wednesday, July 6, 2016, stated that, following General John W. Nicholson's, Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman General Joseph Dunford's, and U.S. Defense Department Secretary Ashton Carter's mutual recommendations, the U.S. would have about 8,400 troops remaining in Afghanistan through the end of his administration in December 2016.[6]

The residual force of 9,800 troops was withdrawn on December 31, 2016, leaving behind 8,400 troops stationed at four garrisons (Kabul, Kandahar, Bagram, and Jalalabad).

The Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) is Congressionally appointed to oversee the $117.26 billion that Congress has provided to implement reconstruction programs in Afghanistan. The SIGAR's "April 30, 2018 Quarterly Report to Congress" says, "[As of January 31, 2018,] 14.5% of the country's total districts [were] under insurgent control or influence [& an additional 29.2% were] contested[.]"[11]

Contributing nations

As of 2019, among the forces contributing to the mission are 8,475 Americans training and helping Afghan forces, approximately 5,500 Americans engaged in counter-terrorism missions, 8,673 allied soldiers and 27,000 military contractors.[12]

A new type of U.S. unit, the Security Force Assistance Brigades, began deploying to Afghanistan in February 2018 to support the mission.[13]

The United Kingdom announced in July 2018 that it was going to send 440 more British personnel to Afghanistan. Around half of the additional personnel were deployed in August 2018 and the other half followed by February 2019. This increased the total number of British personnel in the country from 650 to 1,090 by early 2019.[14]

The following nations had mission personnel stationed in Afghanistan as of February 2021 (with complete statistics last published prior to withdrawal) and the present (as of July 2021) respectively:[1]

  withdrawn
Country Number of personnel
(Present)
Number of personnel
(February 2021)
Final withdrawal
 United States <3,500 3,500[15] 31 August 2021[16]
 Turkey 600 600
 United Kingdom <375 750
 Azerbaijan 120 specific date unknown[17]
 Greece 11 specific date unknown[17]
 Albania 99 21 June 2021[18]
 Armenia 121 4 March 2021[19]
 Australia 80 1 July 2021[20]
 Austria 16 18 June 2021[21]
 Belgium 72 14 June 2021[22]
66 23 June 2021[23]
 Bulgaria 117 24 June 2021[24]
 Croatia 107 (in February 2020)[25] September 13 2020[26]
 Czech Republic 52 27 June 2021[27]
 Denmark 135 22 June 2021[22]
 Estonia 45 23 June 2021[28]
 Finland 20 8 June 2021[29]
 Georgia 860 28 June 2021[27]
 Germany 1,300 29 June 2021[30]
 Hungary 8 8 June 2021[31]
 Iceland 3 (in June 2019)[32] Specific date unknown,

but withdrawn by

October 2019

 Italy 895 29 June 2021[33]
 Latvia 2 3 July 2021[34][35]
 Lithuania 40 Late June 2021[36][37]
 Luxembourg 2 19 May 2021[38]
 Mongolia 233 17 June 2021[39]
 Netherlands 160 24 June 2021[22]
 New Zealand 6 29 March 2021[40]
 North Macedonia 17 29 June 2021[41]
 Norway 101 26 June 2021[22]
 Poland 290 30 June 2021[42]
 Portugal 174 23 May 2021[43]
 Romania 619 26 June 2021[22]
 Slovakia 25 16 June 2021[44]
 Slovenia 6 20 May 2021[45]
 Spain 24 13 May 2021[46]
 Sweden 16 25 May 2021[47]
 Ukraine 10 5 June 2021[48]
Total 4,475 10,592

List of commanders

No. Commander Term
Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1
John F. Campbell
General
John F. Campbell
(born 1957)
December 28, 2014March 2, 20161 year, 65 days
2
John W. Nicholson Jr.
General
John W. Nicholson Jr.
(born 1957)
March 2, 2016September 2, 20182 years, 184 days
3
Austin S. Miller
General
Austin S. Miller
(born 1957)
September 2, 2018July 12, 20212 years, 313 days
4
Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr.[49]
General
Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr.[49]
(born c. 1956)
July 12, 2021Incumbent11 days

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c "Resolute Support Mission: Key Facts and Figures" (PDF). NATO. February 2021.
  2. ^ "NATO chief, Afghan president welcome "new phase" as combat role ends". DPA. DPA. 2 December 2014. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d "NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan". NATO. 27 November 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  4. ^ a b "Afghanistan: Security Council backs agreement on new non-combat NATO mission". United Nations News Centre. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 2021.
  5. ^ "NATO RESOLUTE SUPPORT Mission Is Ending". April 14, 2021.
  6. ^ a b "An Update On Our Mission in Afghanistan". whitehouse.gov. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 2016 – via National Archives.
  7. ^ Rosenberg, Matthew (October 15, 2015). "In Reversal, Obama Says U.S. Soldiers Will Stay in Afghanistan to 2017". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017.
  8. ^ Velloso, Sophie (2020-06-07). "US launches airstrikes against Taliban in Afghanistan". International Insider. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Operation Resolute Support, TAAC North Archived 2015-01-01 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Resolute Support". Afghan War News. Afghan War News. Retrieved 2015.
  11. ^ "April 30, 2018 Quarterly Report to Congress" (PDF).
  12. ^ "Operation Freedom's Sentinel: Lead Inspector General Report to the United States Congress, April 1, 2019 - June 30, 2019" (PDF). Department of Defense Office of the Inspector General. 20 August 2019. p. 47-48. Retrieved 2019.
  13. ^ "First troops among new front-line adviser brigade arrive in Afghanistan". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved .
  14. ^ "Afghanistan: UK to send 440 more non-combat troops".
  15. ^ Gibbons-Neff, Thomas; Cooper, Helene; Schmitt, Eric (March 14, 2021). "U.S. Has 1,000 More Troops in Afghanistan Than It Disclosed" – via NYTimes.com.
  16. ^ "Biden defends decision to end Afghan military operation". July 8, 2021 – via www.bbc.com.
  17. ^ a b Gibbons-Neff, Thomas; Schmitt, Eric (June 29, 2021). "Security in Afghanistan Is Decaying, U.S. General Says as Forces Leave" – via NYTimes.com.
  18. ^ "Kthehen në atdhe pas misionit në Kabul e Afganistan kontingjentet "Resolute Support Mission"". Ministry of Defence (in Albanian). 21 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  19. ^ "Armenian Peacekeepers Left Afghanistan in March". hetq.am.
  20. ^ "'It's really hard to say it was worth it': Final Australian troops leave Afghanistan, 20 years after mission began". www.abc.net.au. June 30, 2021.
  21. ^ "Letzter österreichischer Soldat verlässt Afghanistan". ORF (in German). 16 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  22. ^ a b c d e "Last German, Italian troops leave Afghanistan after nearly 20 years". euronews. June 29, 2021.
  23. ^ "Bh. vojnici vratili se iz Afganistana, pogledajte emotivne susrete s porodicama". Klix.ba (in Bosnian). 23 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  24. ^ "The Bulgarian military return from Afghanistan". bnr.bg.
  25. ^ "Resolute Support Mission (RSM): Key Facts and Figures-Feb 2020" (PDF).
  26. ^ "Last Croatian troops in NATO leave Afghanistan". The Frontier Post. 2020-09-13. Retrieved .
  27. ^ a b "Czech, Georgia complete troops withdrawal from Afghanistan". menafn.com.
  28. ^ "Ceremony marks end of Estonia's 18 year Afghanistan presence". www.news.err.ee. 2 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  29. ^ "Viimeiset suomalaissotilaat palasivat Afganistanista kotimaahan". Maavoimat. 9 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  30. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Germany pulls last troops from Afghanistan, ending nearly 20-year mission | DW | 29.06.2021". DW.COM.
  31. ^ "Last Hungarian Afghanistan Mission Soldiers Arrive Back - with PHOTOS!". June 9, 2021.
  32. ^ "Resolute Support Mission (RSM): Key Facts and Figures-June 2019" (PDF).
  33. ^ "L'Italia si è ritirata dall'Afghanistan Ammainato il tricolore a Herat, finisce dopo 20 anni la missione più difficile". Corriere della Sera. 8 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  34. ^ "Latvija izvedusi visus karav?rus no Afganist?nas". delfi.lv. July 3, 2021.
  35. ^ "Latvia has withdrawn all troops from Afghanistan". July 4, 2021.
  36. ^ "Lithuania completes withdrawal from Afghanistan, troops to receive awards in Vilnius". lrt.lt. July 9, 2021.
  37. ^ "The last of Lithuanian soldiers returned home from Afghanistan, ending a 19-year involvement in the country". July 10, 2021.
  38. ^ "Two Luxembourgish soldiers return from Afghanistan". RTL Today. 20 May 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  39. ^ "? ? ?.? ? ? ? ? ? ". General Staff of the Mongolian Armed Forces (in Mongolian). 17 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  40. ^ "New Zealand Defence Force withdraws remaining personnel from Afghanistan". Army Technology. 29 March 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  41. ^ "European Troops Return Home From Afghanistan As U.S. 'Days Away' From Completing Pullout". RFE/RL.
  42. ^ "European troops quietly return from Afghanistan". Associated Press. June 30, 2021.
  43. ^ Portugal has completed withdrawal of its troops.
  44. ^ "SVK Armed Forces end their 20-year-long engagement in Afghanistan". Ministry of Defence of the Slovak Republic. 17 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  45. ^ "Slovenian soldiers already pulled out of Afghanistan". STAnews. 26 May 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  46. ^ "Most European troops exit Afghanistan quietly after 20 years". AP NEWS. 2021-06-30. Retrieved .
  47. ^ "Most European troops exit Afghanistan quietly after 20 years". AP NEWS. 2021-06-30. Retrieved .
  48. ^ "Ukraine withdraws its troops from Afghanistan". Kyiv Post. 9 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  49. ^ De facto authority only, does not have official title of Commander, Resolute Support Mission/U.S. Forces - Afghanistan

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