Palm Springs, California
Downtown Palm Springs
Location within Riverside County
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Native American Reservation (partial)||Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians|
|Incorporated||April 20, 1938|
|o Mayor||Christy Holstege|
|o Total||94.68 sq mi (245.21 km2)|
|o Land||94.54 sq mi (244.85 km2)|
|o Water||0.14 sq mi (0.36 km2) 0.90%|
|Elevation||479 ft (146 m)|
| o Estimate |
|o Density||513.21/sq mi (198.15/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-8 (Pacific)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC-7 (PDT)|
|GNIS feature IDs||1652768, 2411357|
Palm Springs is a desert resort city in Riverside County, California, United States, within the Colorado Desert's Coachella Valley. The city covers approximately 94 square miles (240 km2), making it the largest city in Riverside County by land area. With multiple plots in checkerboard pattern, more than 10% of the city is part of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians reservation land and is the administrative capital of the most populated reservation in California. Traditionally the Cahuilla refer to the Palm Springs area as Sec-he or Se-Khi.
Although the population of Palm Springs was 44,552 as of the 2010 census, because Palm Springs is a retirement location, as well as a winter snowbird destination, the city's population triples between November and March.
The first humans to settle in the area were the Cahuilla people, who arrived 2,000 years ago. Cahuilla Indians lived here in isolation from other cultures for hundreds of years prior to European contact. They spoke Ivilyuat, which is a Uto-Aztecan language. Numerous prominent and powerful Cahuilla leaders were from Palm Springs, including Cahuilla Lion (Chief Juan Antonio). While Palm Canyon was occupied during winter months, they often moved to cooler Chino Canyon during the summer months.
The Cahuilla Indians had several permanent settlements in the canyons of Palm Springs, due to the abundance of water and shade. Various hot springs were used during wintertime. The Cahuilla hunted rabbit, mountain goat and quail, while also trapping fish in nearby lakes and rivers. While men were responsible for hunting, women were responsible for collecting berries, acorns and seeds. They also made tortillas from mesquite beans. While the Cahuillas often spent the summers in Indian Canyons, the current site of Spa Resort Casino in downtown was often used during winter due to its natural hot springs.
Native American petroglyphs can be seen in Tahquitz, Chino, and Indian Canyons. The Cahuilla's irrigation ditches, dams and house pits can also be seen here. Ancient petroglyphs, pictographs and mortar holes can be seen in Andreas Canyon. The mortar holes were used to grind acorns into meals.
The Agua Caliente ("Hot Water") Reservation was established in 1876 and consists of 31,128 acres (12,597 ha). Six thousand seven hundred acres (2,700 ha) are located by Downtown Palm Springs. The Native American land is on long lease land and next to one of California's high-end communities, making the tribe one of the wealthiest in California.
The first name for Palm Springs was given by the native Cahuilla: "Se-Khi" (boiling water). When the Agua Caliente Reservation was established by the United States government in 1876, the reservation land was composed of alternating sections (640 acres or 260 ha) of land laid out across the desert in a checkerboard pattern. The alternating non-reservation sections were granted to the Southern Pacific Railroad as an incentive to bring rail lines through the Sonoran Desert.
A number of streets and areas in Palm Springs are named for Native-American notables, including Andreas, Arenas, Amado, Belardo, Lugo, Patencio, Saturnino and Chino. All of these are common Cahuilla surnames.
Presently the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians are composed of several smaller bands who live in the modern day Coachella Valley and San Gorgonio Pass. The Agua Caliente Reservation occupies 32,000 acres (13,000 ha), of which 6,700 acres (2,700 ha) lie within the city limits, making the Agua Caliente natives the city's largest landowners. (Tribal enrollment as of 2010 was 410 people.)
As of 1821 Mexico was independent of Spain and in March 1823 the Mexican Monarchy ended. That same year (in December) Mexican diarist José María Estudillo and Brevet Captain José Romero were sent to find a route from Sonora to Alta California; on their expedition they first recorded the existence of "Agua Caliente" at Palm Springs, California.:30 With the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo after the Mexican-American war, the region became part of the United States in 1848.
One possible origin of palm in the place name comes from early Spanish explorers who referred to the area as La Palma de la Mano de Dios or "The Palm of God's hand". The earliest use of the name "Palm Springs" is from United States Topographical Engineers who used the term in 1853 maps. According to William Bright, when the word "palm" appears in Californian place names, it usually refers to the native California fan palm, Washingtonia filifera, which is abundant in the Palm Springs area. Other early names were "Palmetto Spring" and "Big Palm Springs".
The first European resident in Palm Springs itself was Jack Summers, who ran the stagecoach station on the Bradshaw Trail in 1862.:44, 149 Fourteen years later (1876), the Southern Pacific railroad was laid 6 miles (9.5 km) to the north, isolating the station.:17 In 1880, local Indian Pedro Chino was selling parcels near the springs to William Van Slyke and Mathew Bryne in a series of questionable transactions; they in turn brought in W. R. Porter to help market their property through the "Palm City Land and Water Company".:275 By 1885, when San Francisco attorney (later known as "Judge") John Guthrie McCallum began buying property in Palm Springs, the name was already in wide acceptance. The area was named "Palm Valley" when McCallum incorporated the "Palm Valley Land and Water Company" with partners O.C. Miller, H.C. Campbell, and James Adams, M.D.:280
McCallum, who had brought his ill son to the dry climate for health, brought in irrigation advocate Dr. Oliver Wozencroft and engineer J. P. Lippincott to help construct a canal from the Whitewater River to fruit orchards on his property.:276-79 He also asked Dr. Welwood Murray to establish a hotel across the street from his residence. Murray did so in 1886 (he later became a famous horticulturalist).:280 The crops and irrigation systems suffered flooding in 1893 from record rainfall, and then an 11-year drought (1894-1905) caused further damage.:40
The city became a fashionable resort in the 1900s when health tourists arrived with conditions that required dry heat. Because of the heat, however, the population dropped markedly in the summer months. In 1906 naturalist and travel writer George Wharton James's two volume The Wonders of the Colorado Desert described Palm Springs as having "great charms and attractiveness":278-81 and included an account of his stay at Murray's hotel. As James also described, Palm Springs was more comfortable in its microclimate because the area was covered in the shadow of Mount San Jacinto to the west and in the winter the mountains block cold winds from the San Gorgonio pass. Early illustrious visitors included John Muir and his daughters, U.S. Vice President Charles Fairbanks, and Fanny Stevenson, widow of Robert Louis Stevenson; still, Murray's hotel was closed in 1909 and torn down in 1954.:45
Nellie N. Coffman and her physician husband Harry established The Desert Inn as a hotel and sanitarium in 1909. It was expanded as a modern hotel in 1927 and continued on until 1967.:Ch. 13 Coffman herself was a "driving force" in the city's tourism industry until her death in 1950.
James's Wonders of the Colorado Desert (above) was followed in 1920 by J. Smeaton Chase's Our Araby: Palm Springs and the Garden of the Sun, which also promoted the area. In 1924 Pearl McCallum (daughter of Judge McCallum) returned to Palm Springs and built the Oasis Hotel with her husband Austin G. McManus; the Modern/Art Deco resort was designed by Lloyd Wright and featured a 40-foot (12 m) tower.:68-69
The next major hotel was the El Mirador, a large and luxurious resort that attracted the biggest movie stars; opening in 1927, its prominent feature was a 68-foot-tall (21 m) Renaissance style tower.:Ch. 23 Silent film star Fritzi Ridgeway's 100-room Hotel del Tahquitz was built in 1929, next to the "Fool's Folly" mansion built by Chicago heiress Lois Kellogg. Golfing was available at the O'Donnell 9 hole course (1926) and the El Mirador (1929) course (see Golf below). Hollywood movie stars were attracted by the hot dry, sunny weather and seclusion--they built homes and estates in the Warm Sands, The Mesa, and Historic Tennis Club neighborhoods (see Neighborhoods below). About 20,000 visitors came to the area in 1922.
Palm Springs became popular with movie stars in the 1930s and estate building expanded into the Movie Colony neighborhoods, Tahquitz River Estates, and Las Palmas neighborhoods. Actors Charles Farrell and Ralph Bellamy opened the Racquet Club in 1934:Ch. 25 and Pearl McCallum opened the Tennis Club in 1937. Nightclubs were set up as well, with Al Wertheimer opening The Dunes outside of Palm Springs in 1934:254 and the Chi Chi nightclub opening in 1936.:206-07 Besides the gambling available at the Dunes Club, other casinos included The 139 Club and The Cove Club outside of the city.
|Name||City||Year Established||Year Closed/Demolished||Notes and references|
|Agua Caliente Bathhouse||Palm Springs||1880s||Present day||Commercial use since the 1880s; bathhouse constructed 1916; site is now the Agua Caliente Spa Resort Casino, built in 1963:171|
|Southern Pacific Indio depot||Indio||1880s||Burned down in 1966||Contained a "rough resort/hotel":12|
|Hotel and tent houses||Palm Springs||1910s||Unknown||Operated by David Manley Blanchard (tent houses in the late 1800s)|
|Hotel Indio||Indio||1925||2004 (burned)||Opened by E.R. Cooper; had 60 rooms (40 with baths)|
|La Quinta Hotel||La Quinta||1927||Present day||Built by William Morgan; designed by Gordon Kaufmann; now the La Quinta Resort and Club|
|Goff Hotel||Palm Springs||c. 1928||--|||
|Pepper Tree Inn||Palm Springs||1924||--||Also described as the Dr. Reid's Sanitarium/Matthews-Andrea-Pepper Tree Inn|
|Ramona Hotel||Palm Springs||1910s||--||Renamed in 1921 as the Palm Springs Hotel by the Foldesy family, although not related to original Palm Spring Hotel|
|Sunshine Court||Palm Springs||1920s||2000s (razed)||Built by Dr. J. J. Crocker and used by golfers at the O'Donnell Golf Club|
|Hotel La Palma||Palm Springs||1910s||--||Depicted on Palm Canyon Drive in late teens/early 1920s;:118 later became the El Ray Hotel, and then razed when Chi Chi nightclub was built in 1936:143, 166|
|The Orchid Tree Inn||Palm Springs||1934||Present day||45 rooms:247|
|Estrella Resort and Spa||Palm Springs||1933||Present day||Now the Viceroy Palm Springs; 74 rooms:247|
|Ingleside Inn||Palm Springs||1935||Present day||Original estate built in the 1920s, and operated as the Ingleside Inn by Ruth Hardy. It was later owned and operated by Mel Haber, who died on October 25, 2016, and is now owned and managed by PlumpJack Investment Group, started by Gavin Newsom in 1992. It is currently overseen by Newsom's sister Hilary.|
|Palm Springs Tennis Club||Palm Springs||1937||Present day||Area is now the Tennis Club Condominiums|
|La Bella Villas||Palm Springs||1939||Present day||Six Southwest-style villas:247|
|Desert Hot Springs Mineral Bathhouse||Desert Hot Springs||1941||Demolished||Developed by L.W. & Lillian T. Coffee; burned in 1947 and rebuilt|
|The Oasis Hotel||Palm Springs||1925||Present day||Built on grounds owned by the late John Gutherie McCallum; concrete structure designed by Lloyd Wright|
|Hotel del Tahquitz||Palm Springs||1929||1958||Built by movie star Fritzi Ridgeway; had 100 rooms|
|Deep Well Guest Ranch||Palm Springs||1929||1948||Operated by Frank and Melba Bennet; converted to housing development:148|
|Smoke Tree Ranch||Palm Springs||1925||--|||
|Monte Vista Apartments||Palm Springs||1921||2005||Operated as a hotel by John and Freda Miller, and then their sons, Frank and John.|
|El Mirador Hotel||Palm Springs||1927||(converted)||Had 200+ rooms; went bankrupt in 1930, bought by new owners; later taken over and converted into the Army Torney General Hospital in 1942; reopened as a hotel in 1952; became the Desert Regional Medical Center in 1972. Popular destination for Hollywood elite and other celebrities.|
|The Desert Inn||Palm Springs||1909||1967||Built by Nellie Coffman; originally a tent-house resort and sanitarium, developed into 35 buildings and bungalows; owned by actress Marion Davies from 1955 to 1960; original building demolished in 1960; officially closed in 1953. Child actress Shirley Temple was a frequent and publicized guest.|
|Colonial House||Palm Springs||1936||Present day||With 56 rooms, was built by Purple Gang member Al Wertheimer with a reputed speakeasy and brothel; once known as the Howard Manor; now the Colony Palms Hotel|
|Welwood Murray's Palm Springs Hotel||Palm Springs||1886||1909||Demolished in 1954|
Bullock's, a large upscale department store on Broadway in Los Angeles, opened a Spanish Colonial-style "resort store" within the Desert Inn complex in 1930. When Bullock's opened a full department store at 151 Palm Canyon Drive in 1947, J. W. Robinson's, another large L.A. store, took the former Bullock's location and opened its own resort store there.
Southern California's first self-contained shopping center was in Palm Springs, La Plaza (originally Palm Springs Plaza), and on-street, open air center anchored by a small Desmond's department store, in 1936. The three-level parking garage for 141 cars was an innovation and the largest in Riverside County at that time. In the mid-twentieth century across the street on Palm Canyon Drive were department stores like Bullock's/Bullocks Wilshire (No. 151, 1947-1990), J. W. Robinson's (No. 333, 1958-1987), and Saks Fifth Avenue (opened October 16, 1959 at No. 490), forming a large shopping district. In 1967 the Desert Fashion Plaza mall was built, I. Magnin opened there (closed 1992) and Saks closed its previous location and moved into a new larger store in the mall. Joseph Magnin Co. opened a 26,000-square-foot (2,400 m2) department store in the mall in 1969, meaning that together with a Sears at 611 Palm Canyon Dr., for two decades, downtown boasted seven department stores, plus the Palm Springs Mall 1.5 miles (2.5 km) to the east operating from 1959 to 2005.
When the United States entered World War II, Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley were important in the war effort. The original airfield near Palm Springs became a staging area for the Air Corps Ferrying Command's 21st Ferrying Group in November 1941 and a new airfield was built 1⁄2 mile (0.8 km) from the old site. The new airfield,:43 designated Palm Springs Army Airfield, was completed in early 1942. Personnel from the Air Transport Command 560th Army Air Forces Base Unit stayed at the La Paz Guest Ranch and training was conducted at the airfield by the 72nd and 73rd Ferrying Squadrons. Later training was provided by the IV Fighter Command 459th Base Headquarters and Air Base Squadron.
Eight months before Pearl Harbor Day, the El Mirador Hotel was fully booked and adding new facilities. After the war started, the U.S. government bought the hotel from owner Warren Phinney for $750,000, just over $13,000,000 if including inflation in 2020, and converted it into the Torney General Hospital, with Italian prisoners of war serving as kitchen help and orderlies in 1944 and 1945. Through the war it was staffed with 1,500 personnel and treated some 19,000 patients.:55
General Patton's Desert Training Center encompassed the entire region, with its headquarters in Camp Young at the Chiriaco Summit and an equipment depot maintained by the 66th Ordnance in present-day Palm Desert.:40
Architectural modernists flourished with commissions from the stars, using the city to explore architectural innovations, new artistic venues, and an exotic back-to-the-land experiences. Inventive architects designed unique vacation houses, such as steel houses with prefabricated panels and folding roofs, a glass-and-steel house in a boulder-strewn landscape, and a carousel house that turned to avoid the sun's glare.
In 1946, Richard Neutra designed the Kaufmann Desert House. A modernist classic, this mostly glass residence incorporated the latest technological advances in building materials, using natural lighting and floating planes and flowing space for proportion and detail. In recent years an energetic preservation program has protected and enhanced many classic buildings.
Culver (2010) argues that Palm Springs architecture became the model for mass-produced suburban housing, especially in the Southwest. This "Desert Modern" style was a high-end architectural style featuring open-design plans, wall-to-wall carpeting, air-conditioning, swimming pools, and very large windows. As Culver concludes, "While environmentalists might condemn desert modern, the masses would not. Here, it seemed, were houses that fully merged inside and outside, providing spaces for that essential component of Californian--and indeed middle-class American--life: leisure. While not everyone could have a Neutra masterpiece, many families could adopt aspects of Palm Springs modern."
Hollywood values permeated the resort as it combined celebrity, health, new wealth, and sex. As Culver (2010) explains: "The bohemian sexual and marital mores already apparent in Hollywood intersected with the resort atmosphere of Palm Springs, and this new, more open sexuality would gradually appear elsewhere in national tourist culture." During this period, the city government, stimulated by real estate developers systematically removed and excluded poor people and Indians.
Palm Springs was pictured by the French photographer Robert Doisneau in November 1960 as part of an assignment for Fortune on the construction of golf courses in this particularly dry and hot area of the Colorado desert. Doisneau submitted around 300 slides following his ten-day stay depicting the lifestyle of wealthy retirees and Hollywood stars in the 1960s. At the time, Palm Springs counted just 19 courses, which had grown to 125 by 2010.
Similar to the pre-war era, Palm Springs remained popular with the rich and famous of Hollywood, as well as retirees and Canadian tourists. Between 1947 and 1965, the Alexander Construction Company built some 2,200 houses in Palm Springs effectively doubling its housing capacity.
As the 1970s drew to a close, increasing numbers of retirees moved to the Coachella Valley. As a result, Palm Springs began to evolve from a virtual ghost town in the summer to a year-round community. Businesses and hotels that used to close for the months of July and August instead remained open all summer. As commerce grew, so too did the number of families with children.
The recession of 1973-1975 affected Palm Springs as many of the wealthy residents had to cut back on their spending. Later in the 1970s numerous Chicago mobsters invested $50 million in the Palm Springs area, buying houses, land, and businesses. While Palm Springs faced competition from the desert cities to the east in the later 1980s, it has continued to prosper into the 21st century.
Since the early 1950s the city had been a popular spring break resort. Glamorized as a destination in the 1963 movie Palm Springs Weekend, the number of visitors grew and at times the gatherings had problems. In 1969 an estimated 15,000 people had gathered for a concert at the Palm Springs Angel Stadium and 300 were arrested for drunkenness or disturbing the peace. In the 1980s, 10,000 or more college students would visit the city and form crowds and parties--and another rampage occurred in 1986 when Palm Springs Police in riot gear had to put down the rowdy crowd. In 1990, due to complaints by residents, mayor Sonny Bono and the city council closed the city's Palm Canyon Drive to spring breakers and the downtown businesses, normally filled with tourists, lost money.
Tourism is a major factor in the city's economy with 1.6 million visitors in 2011. The city has over 130 hotels and resorts, numerous bed and breakfasts, and over 100 restaurants and dining spots. Events such as the Coachella and Stagecoach Festivals in nearby Indio attract younger people, making greater Palm Springs a more attractive area to retire.
Following the 2008 recession Palm Springs revitalized its Downtown, "the Village". Rebuilding started with the demolition of the Bank of America building in January 2012, with the Desert Fashion Plaza scheduled for demolition in 2013.
The movement behind mid-century modern architecture (1950s/60s era) in Palm Springs is backed by architecture enthusiasts, artistic designers and local historians to preserve many of Central Palm Springs' buildings and houses of famous celebrities, businessmen and politicians.
Palm Springs is located in the Sonoran Desert. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 95.0 square miles (246 km2), of which 94.1 square miles (244 km2) is land and 0.9 square miles (2.3 km2) (1%) is water. Located in the Coachella Valley desert region, Palm Springs is sheltered by the San Bernardino Mountains to the north, the Santa Rosa Mountains to the south, by the San Jacinto Mountains to the west and by the Little San Bernardino Mountains to the east.
Palm Springs has a hot desert climate, with over 300 days of sunshine and 4.93 inches (125.2 mm) of precipitation annually. The winter months are warm, with a majority of days reaching 70 °F (21 °C) and in January and February days often see temperatures of 80 °F (27 °C) and on occasion reach over 90 °F (32 °C), while, on average, there are 17 nights annually dipping to or below 40 °F (4 °C); freezing temperatures occur in less than half of years. The lowest temperature recorded is 19 °F (-7 °C), on January 22, 1937.
Summers are extremely hot, with daytime temperatures consistently surpassing 110 °F (43 °C) while overnight temperatures often remain above 80 °F (27 °C). The mean annual temperature is 75.6 °F (24.2 °C). There are on average 180 days with a high reaching 90 °F (32 °C), and 100 °F (38 °C) can be seen on 116 days. The highest temperature on record in Palm Springs is 123 °F (51 °C), most recently achieved on June 17, 2021. The climate year-round is suitable for many palm trees in this area of California due to the amount of sunny days annually, the average high temperatures, and daily low temperatures.
|Climate data for Palm Springs, CA (1991-2020 Normals)|
|Record high °F (°C)||95
|Average high °F (°C)||70.5
|Daily mean °F (°C)||59.0
|Average low °F (°C)||47.6
|Record low °F (°C)||19
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.16
|Average precipitation days||3.8||3.5||2.4||0.7||0.4||0.2||0.7||1.1||1.0||0.8||1.0||2.6||18.2|
The Movie Colony is just east of Palm Canyon Drive. The Movie Colony East neighborhood extends further east from the Ruth Hardy Park. These areas started growing in the 1930s as Hollywood movie stars built their smaller getaways from their Los Angeles area estates. Bob Hope, Frank Sinatra, Estée Lauder, Carmen Miranda and Bing Crosby built homes in these neighborhoods.
In the 1960s, Robert Fey built 70 homes designed by Donald Wexler and Ric Harrison in the El Rancho Vista Estates. Noted residents included Jack LaLanne and comic Andy Dick.
Historic homes in the Warm Sands area date from the 1920s and many were built from adobe. It also includes small resorts and the Ramon Mobile Home Park. Noted residents have included screenwriter Walter Koch, artist Paul Grimm, activist Cleve Jones and actor Wesley Eure.
The Mesa started off as a gated community developed in the 1920s near the Indian Canyons. Noted residents have included King Gillette, Zane Grey, Clark Gable, Carole Lombard, Suzanne Somers, Herman Wouk, Henry Fernandez, Barry Manilow and Trina Turk. Distinctive homes include Donald Wexler's "butterfly houses" and the "Streamline Moderne Ship of the Desert".
Some of the homes in this neighborhood date from the 1930s. The area was owned by Pearl McCallum McManus and she started building homes in the neighborhood after World War II ended. Dr. William Scholl (Dr. Scholl's foot products) owned a 10-acre (4.0 ha) estate here. Today the neighborhood is the largest neighborhood organization with 600 homes and businesses within its boundaries.
During World War II, the original Sunmor Estates area was the western portion the Palm Springs Army Airfield. Homes here were developed by Robert Higgins and the Alexander Construction Company. Actor and former mayor Frank Bogert bought his home for $16,000 and lived there for more than 50 years.
Impoverished artist Carl Eytel first set up his cabin on what would become the Tennis Club in 1937. Another artist in the neighborhood, who built his Moroccan-style "Dar Marrac" estate in 1924, was Gordon Coutts. Other estates include Samuel Untermyer's Mediterranean style villa (now the Willows Historic Palm Springs Inn), the Casa Cody Inn, built by Harriet and Harold William Cody (cousin of Buffalo Bill Cody) and the Ingleside Inn, built in the 1920s by the Humphrey Birge family. The neighborhood now has about 400 homes, condos, apartments, inns and restaurants.
To the west of Palm Canyon Drive are the Vista Las Palmas, Old Las Palmas, and Little Tuscany neighborhoods. These areas also feature distinctive homes, celebrity estates, and Albert Frey's private residential complex Villa Hermosa.
Historic Racquet Club Estates, located north of Vista Chino, is home to over five hundred mid-century modern homes from the Alexander Construction Company. "Meiselman" homes, and the famed Donald Wexler steel homes (having Class One historic designation) are also prominent in the area. Racquet Club Estates was Palm Springs' first middle income neighborhood and became popular with Hollywood's elite in the 1950's and 60's.:41
Deepwell Estates, the eastern portion of the square mile (2.6 km2) defined by South/East Palm Canyon, Mesquite, and Sunrise, contains around 370 homes, including notable homes architecturally and of celebrity figures. Among the celebrities who lived in the neighborhood are Jerry Lewis, Loretta Young, Liberace, and William Holden.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Palm Springs had a population of 44,552. The population density was 469.1 inhabitants per square mile (181.1/km2). The racial makeup of Palm Springs was 33,720 (75.7%) White (63.6% Non-Hispanic White), 1,982 (4.4%) African American, 467 (1.0%) Native American, 1,971 (4.4%) Asian, 71 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 4,949 (11.1%) from other races, and 1,392 (3.1%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11,286 persons (25.3%).
The Census reported that 44,013 people (98.8% of the population) lived in households, 343 (0.8%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 196 (0.4%) were institutionalized.
There were 22,746 households, out of which 3,337 (14.7%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,812 (25.6%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,985 (8.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 868 (3.8%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,031 (4.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 2,307 (10.1%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 10,006 households (44.0%) were made up of individuals, and 4,295 (18.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.93. There were 8,665 families (38.1% of all households); the average family size was 2.82.
The population was spread out, with 6,125 people (13.7%) under the age of 18, 2,572 people (5.8%) aged 18 to 24, 8,625 people (19.4%) aged 25 to 44, 15,419 people (34.6%) aged 45 to 64, and 11,811 people (26.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 129.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 133.8 males.
There were 34,794 housing units at an average density of 366.3 per square mile (141.4/km2), of which 13,349 (58.7%) were owner-occupied, and 9,397 (41.3%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 6.7%; the rental vacancy rate was 15.5%. 24,948 people (56.0% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 19,065 people (42.8%) lived in rental housing units.
During 2009-2013, Palm Springs had a median household income of $45,198, with 18.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line.
As of the census of 2000, there were 42,807 people, 20,516 households, and 9,457 families residing in the city. The population density was 454.2 inhabitants per square mile (175.4/km2). There were 30,823 housing units at an average density of 327.0 per square mile (126.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 78.3% White, 3.9% African American, 0.9% Native American, 3.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.8% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.7% of the population.
There were 20,516 out of which 16.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 53.9% were non-families. 41.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 18.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.1 and the average family size was 2.9.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 17.0% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 26.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,973 and the median income for a family was $45,318. Males had a median income of $33,999 versus $27,461 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,957. About 11.2% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.2% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.
Palm Springs has one of the highest concentrations of same-sex couples of any community in the United States. In 2010, 10.1% (2,307) of the city's households belong to same-sex married couples or partnerships, compared to the national average of 1%. Palm Springs has the fifth-highest percentage of same-sex households in the nation.:27 Former mayor Ron Oden estimated that about a third of Palm Springs is gay. Over various times, the city has catered to LGBT tourists with an increasing number of clothing-optional resorts and events. Palm Springs is host to the Greater Palm Springs Pride Celebration. This celebration, held every year in November, includes events such as the Palm Springs Pride Golf Classic, the Stonewall Equality Concert, and a Broadway in Drag Pageant. The city also held same-sex wedding ceremonies at the iconic Forever Marilyn statue located downtown, before its relocation in 2014. In January 2018, Palm Springs ushered in America's first all-LGBTQ city government.
Though celebrities still retreat to Palm Springs, many today establish residences in other areas of the Coachella Valley. The city's economy now relies on tourism, and local government is largely supported by related retail sales taxes and the TOT (transient occupancy tax). It is a city of numerous festivals, conventions, and international events including the Palm Springs International Film Festival.
The world's largest rotating aerial tramcars (cable cars) can be found at the Palm Springs Aerial Tramway. These cars, built by Von Roll Tramways, ascend from Chino Canyon two and a half miles (4 km) up a steep incline to the station at 8,516 feet (2,596 m). The San Jacinto Wilderness is accessible from the top of the tram and there is a restaurant with notable views.
The Palm Springs Convention Center underwent a multimillion-dollar expansion and renovation under Mayor Will Kleindienst. The City Council Sub-Committee of Mayor Kleindienst and City Council Member Chris Mills selected Fentress Bradburn Architects from Denver, Colorado for the redesign.
Numerous hotels, restaurants and attractions cater to tourists, while shoppers can find a variety of high-end boutiques in downtown and uptown Palm Springs. The city is home to 20 clothing-optional resorts including many catering to gay men. Downtown Palm Springs shopping is anchored by historic La Plaza, built in 1936.
The following three parades, held on Palm Canyon Drive, were created by former Mayor Will Kleindienst:
For many years, The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies was a stage-show at the historic Plaza Theatre featuring performers over the age of 55. Still Kicking: The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies is a 1997 Mel Damski short documentary film about the Follies. The Palm Springs Follies closed for good after the 2013-14 season.
Starting in 2004, the city worked with downtown businesses to develop the weekly Palm Springs VillageFest. The downtown street fair has been a regular Thursday evening event, drawing tourists and locals alike to Palm Canyon Drive to stroll amid the food and craft vendors.
Numerous galleries and studios are located in the city and region. The California Art Club has a chapter in Palm Springs. The Desert Art Center of Coachella Valley was established in Palm Springs in 1950.
Palm Springs is home to the Palm Springs POWER, a semi-pro collegiate league baseball team composed of college all-stars of the Southern California Collegiate Baseball Association. It has a winter league baseball team, the POWER winter team and Palm Springs Chill of the California Winter League (2010) consists of 12 other teams as of 2016. The League plays its games in Palm Springs Stadium and also on the baseball field in nearby Palm Springs High School. Both sites feature 6 teams of the Palm Springs Collegiate League in the summer.
The Palm Springs stadium was once the spring training site of the Major League Baseball California Angels (now the Los Angeles Angels) of the American League from 1961 to 1993. The stadium also hosted spring training of the Chicago White Sox in the late 1940s-1950s, the Oakland A's in the 1970s, and the 1950s minor league Seattle Rainiers of the Pacific Coast League also trained there.
In 2019, Palm Springs was approved to become the home to an expansion team in the American Hockey League announced to begin play in the 2022-23 season. The team is the affiliate of the Seattle Kraken and will play in a privately funded arena in nearby Palm Desert, California.
The Palm Springs area features numerous major sports events, including the annual BNP Paribas Open in March, voted by professional players over several years in the early 21st century as the premier mandatory Tournament of the Year. The Easter Bowl, sponsored by the United States Tennis Association is a showcase tournament for junior tennis players (girls and boys aged 12 to 18 years) held annually in March among several tennis centers of the Palm Springs area.
With more golf courses than any other region in California, Coachella Valley is the most popular golf vacation destination in California. Early golf courses in Palm Springs were the O'Donnell Golf Club (built by oil magnate Thomas A. O'Donnell) and the El Mirador Hotel course, both of which opened in the 1920s.:120 After the Cochran-Odlum (Indio) and Shadow Mountain pitch and putt courses were built after World II, the first 18-hole golf course in the area was the Thunderbird Country Club, established 1951 in Rancho Mirage. Thunderbird was designed by golf course architects Lawrence Hughes and Johnny Dawson and in 1955 it hosted the 11th Ryder Cup championship.
In the 1970s the area had over 40 courses and in 2001 the 100th course was opened.:121 The area is also home to the PGA Tour's Humana Challenge in partnership with the Clinton Foundation (formerly the Bob Hope Chrysler Classic), the LPGA's ANA Inspiration and the Canadian Tour's Desert Dunes Classic.
In 1931 the Desert Riders was established. Starting off as a social organization for the cream of Palm Springs society, the group sponsors horseback riding and trail building for equestrians, hikers, and bicyclists. The Desert Riders were also significant in providing combination chuckwagon meals and rides through nearby canyons to hotel guests as Palm Springs developed its tourist industry.
Business owners in the village first established a Palm Springs Board of Trade in 1918, followed by a chamber of commerce; the city itself was established by election in 1938 and converted to a charter city, with a charter adopted by the voters in 1994.
Presently the city has a council-manager type government, with a five-person city council that hires a city manager and city attorney. The mayor is directly elected and serves a four-year term. The other four council members also serve four-year terms, with staggered elections. The city is considered a full-service city, in that it staffs and manages its own police and fire departments including parks and recreation programs, public library, sewer system and wastewater treatment plant, international airport, and planning and building services.
The current mayor is Christy Holstege, who took office in December, 2020. Holstege is the first female and the first openly bisexual mayor in the city's history, and the first openly bisexual mayor in American history.
Palm Springs is the seat of government and the administrative capital for the tribal council of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians. The tribal government governs over parts of the city where reservation jurisdictions overlap.
Public education in Palm Springs is under the jurisdiction of the Palm Springs Unified School District, an independent district with five board members. The Palm Springs High School is the oldest school in the district, built in 1938. Originally it was a K-12 school in the 1920s and had the College of the Desert campus from 1958 to 1964. And Raymond Cree Middle School in its current site since the mid 1960s.
Elementary schools in Palm Springs include:
Private schools in Palm Springs and nearby communities include Desert Chapel Christian School (K-12), Desert Adventist Academy (K-8), Sacred Heart School (PS-8), St. Theresa (PreK-8), King's School - formerly known as Palm Valley School (K-8), Desert Christian (K-12), Marywood-Palm Valley School, and The Academy.
The Desert Community College District, headquartered with its main campus, College of the Desert, is located in Palm Desert. California State University, San Bernardino and University of California, Riverside used to have satellite campuses available within the College of the Desert campus, but now have their own buildings in Palm Desert.
Private post-secondary education institutions include Brandman University (branch in Palm Desert), California Desert Trial Academy College of Law (in Indio), Kaplan College (Palm Springs), University of Phoenix (Palm Desert), Mayfield College (Cathedral City), and California Nurses Educational Institute (Palm Springs).
Palm Springs is the 144th largest TV market as defined by AC Nielsen. The Palm Springs DMA is unique among TV markets as it is entirely located within only a small portion of Riverside County. Also, while most areas received their first local television stations during the 1950s, Palm Springs did not receive its first TV stations until October 1968 when stations KPLM-TV (now KESQ) and KMIR-TV debuted. Prior to that time, Palm Springs was served by TV stations from the Los Angeles market, which were carried on the local cable system that began operations in the 1950s and which predated the emergence of local broadcast stations by more than a decade.
TV stations serving the Palm Springs and Coachella Valley area include:
Additionally, Palm Springs and the surrounding area are served by AM and FM radio stations including the following:
The city's library was started in 1924 and financed by Martha Hitchcock. It expanded in 1940 on land donated to the newly incorporated city by Dr. Welwood Murray and was financed through the efforts of Thomas O'Donnell. The present site now operates as a branch library, research library for the Palm Springs Historical Society, and tourism office for the Palm Springs Bureau of Tourism.
One of the first transportation routes for Palm Springs was on the Bradshaw Trail, an historic overland stage coach route from San Bernardino to La Paz, Arizona. The Bradshaw Trail operated from 1862 to 1877. In the 1870s the Southern Pacific Railroad expanded its lines into the Coachella Valley.
Modern transportation services include:
The Welwood Murray Cemetery was started by hotel operator Welwood Murray in 1894 when his son died.:46 It is maintained by the Palm Springs Cemetery District, which also maintains the Desert Memorial Park in Cathedral City.
Over 400 Palm Springs and Coachella Valley residents have been recognized on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars.
Besides its tradition of mid-century modern architecture, Palm Springs and the region features numerous noted architects. Other (non-Mid-Century Modern) include Edward H. Fickett, Haralamb H. Georgescu, Howard Lapham, and Karim Rashid.
The fauna of Palm Springs is mostly species adapted to desert, temperature extremes and to lack of moisture. It is located within the Nearctic faunistic realm in a region containing an assemblage of species similar to Northern Africa. Native fauna includes pronghorns, desert bighorn sheep, desert tortoise, kit fox, desert iguanas, horned lizards, chuckwalla, bobcats, mountain lions and Gila monsters. Other animals include ground squirrels, rock squirrels, porcupines, skunks, cactus mice, kangaroo rats, pocket gophers and raccoons. Desert birds here include the iconic roadrunner, which can run at speeds exceeding 15 mph (24 km/h). Other avifauna includes the ladder-backed woodpecker, flycatchers, elf owls, great horned owls, sparrow hawks and a variety of raptors.
The Sonoran Desert has more species of rattlesnakes (11) than anywhere else in the world. The most common species is the extremely venomous Mojave rattler, which is considered the world's most dangerous rattlesnake. The largest rattle snake species here is the western diamondback rattlesnake, while other species include the black-tailed rattlesnake, tiger rattler and sidewinder rattler. Palm Springs is home to tarantulas and various scorpion species, including the vinegaroon.
'The fine large trees which mark the course of the run have furnished the name ...' (Whipple 1849:7-8). The place is shown as Big Palm Springs on the von Leicht-Craven map of 1874.
Just beyond [the Indian village] was Palm Springs settlement itself, with lots of tents, several houses, a store and [Dr. Murray's Hotel]....They visited the funny little cottages with their roofs and sides all covered with big palm leaves instead of boards. Then they went up to the hot springs.
This elaborate treatise is a distinct contribution to the literature of the natural wonders of our country.
He has written admirably and knowingly ... and this ... is in line with his previous works.
County of Riverside Historical Marker No. 044; 123 North Palm Canyon (image of marker with 1908 date)
WorldCat note: sponsored and distributed by the four leading hotels of Palm Springs: the Desert Inn, El Mirador, the Oasis, Deep Well Guest Ranch; OCLC 29907656, 228699240
In 1917 the new crop of war millionaires looked afield for vacation places, and came to Palm Springs....But the flu epidemic filled the place up.
Before President Eisenhower went to Palm Springs...in 1954, [it] was only a regional resort. Overnight it became a winter resort with national drawing power.
It is Hollywood without the wood. Beverly Hills without the hills and Los Angeles without the--well, freeways.
One finds 21 golf courses sprinkled across the golden sands of the desert. More than 3,650 swimming pools dot the landscape.
Moonlight steak [horseback] rides, breakfast rides and group rides are a way of life in the...desert resort.
This desert town...with 5,000 private swimming pools, 38 golf courses and homes selling for 'only $250,000 down' is probably the most wealthy retirement community in the world. Yet it is an area of 37 mobile home parks and senior citizens, 32 per cent of whom...reported an income of less than $4,000 a year.
...it has long been a haven for the rich and famous....it [also] offers a wide choice of moderately-priced accommodations....
The whole place is flamboyant, bold, obscenely rich,....It's so utterly un-Canadian that Canadian [tourists] can't resist it, even when they can't afford it.
The metropolitan area, which includes nine cities, has 187,000 year-round residents and plays host to 2 million visitors each year. It has 7,645 swimming pools, more than 100 tennis courts and 101 golf courses ....
[Palm Springs] has become Our Town for such Chicago luminaries as Anthony "Big Tuna" Accardo, Joey "The Dove" Aiuppa, James "The Turk" Torello, and Frank "The Horse" Buccieri.Also, Vincent Dominic Caci bought a home in Palm Springs.
Now, big spenders, tourists and developers are sidestepping this 50-year-old resort community, gravitating instead toward the towns that have blossomed east of here in the Coachella Valley over the last 10 years.
But while the city of Palm Springs has won national recognition as a resort area, the lower Coachella Valley cities...have benefited most from the new hotels.
For 40 years, this desert city endured an Easter week invasion of student revelers...
There are spas, golf courses, famed hotels and resorts, tennis, swimming, sunning, shopping, museums, restaurants and an extensive list of amenities and attractions.
...bungalow is created specifically for the Sci Fi channel and Morongo Casino.
This is the story of the Coachella Valley--home of Palm Springs, Rancho Mirage, Palm Desert, La Quinta, Indio, and other desert cities--as experienced by the average tourist who vacationed here from the 1910s through the 1960s.