Pantheon, Paris
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Pantheon, Paris
Panthéon
Le Panthéon - The Panthéon (2016).jpg
The Panthéon seen from Tour Montparnasse
Former namesÉglise Sainte-Geneviève
General information
TypeMausoleum
Architectural styleNeoclassicism
LocationPlace du Panthéon
Paris, France
Coordinates48°50?46?N 2°20?45?E / 48.84611°N 2.34583°E / 48.84611; 2.34583Coordinates: 48°50?46?N 2°20?45?E / 48.84611°N 2.34583°E / 48.84611; 2.34583
1758
Completed1790
Design and construction
ArchitectJacques-Germain Soufflot
Jean-Baptiste Rondelet
Designated1920
Reference no.PA00088420

The Panthéon (French: [p.te.], from the Classical Greek word , pántheion, '[temple] to all the gods')[1] is a monument in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France. It stands in the Latin Quarter, atop the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, in the center of the Place du Panthéon, which was named after it. The edifice was built between 1758 and 1790, from designs by Jacques-Germain Soufflot, at the behest of King Louis XV of France; the king intended it as a church dedicated to Saint Genevieve, Paris' patron saint, whose relics were to be housed in the church. Neither Soufflot nor Louis XV lived to see the church completed.

By the time the construction was finished, the French Revolution had started; the National Constituent Assembly voted in 1791 to transform the Church of Saint Genevieve into a mausoleum for the remains of distinguished French citizens, modelled on the Pantheon in Rome which had been used in this way since the 16th century. The first panthéonisé was Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, although his remains were removed from the building a few years later. The Panthéon was twice restored to church usage in the course of the 19th century--although Soufflot's remains were transferred inside it in 1829--until the French Third Republic finally decreed the building's exclusive use as a mausoleum in 1881. The placement of Victor Hugo's remains in the crypt in 1885 was its first entombment in over fifty years.

The successive changes in the Panthéon's purpose resulted in modifications of the pediment's decoration, the capping of the dome by a cross or a flag, and some of the originally existing windows were blocked up with masonry in order to give the interior a darker and more funereal atmosphere,[2] which compromised somewhat Soufflot's initial attempt at combining the lightness and brightness of the Gothic cathedral with classical principles.[3] The architecture of the Panthéon is an early example of Neoclassicism, surmounted by a dome that owes some of its character to Bramante's Tempietto.

In 1851, Léon Foucault conducted a demonstration of diurnal motion at the Panthéon by suspending a pendulum from the ceiling, a copy of which is still visible today.

As of August 2021 the remains of 80 people (75 men and five women) had been transferred to the Panthéon.[4] More than half of all the panthéonisations were made under Napoleon's rule during the First French Empire.

History

Site and earlier buildings

The site of the Panthéon had great significance in Paris history, and was occupied by a series of monuments. It was on Mount Lucotitius, a height on the Left Bank where the forum of the Roman town of Lutetia was located. It was also the original burial site of Saint Genevieve, who had led the resistance to the Huns when they threatened Paris in 451. In 508, Clovis, King of the Franks, constructed a church there, where he and his wife were later buried in 511 and 545. The church, originally dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul, was rededicated to Saint Genevieve, who became the patron saint of Paris. It was at the centre of the Abbey of Saint Genevieve, a centre of religious scholarship in the Middle Ages. Her relics were kept in the church, and were brought out for solemn processions when dangers threatened the city.[5]

Construction

King Louis XV vowed in 1744 that if he recovered from his illness he would replace the dilapidated church of the Abbey of St Genevieve with a grander building worthy of the patron saint of Paris. He did recover, but ten years passed before the reconstruction and enlargement of the church was begun. In 1755 The Director of the King's public works, Abel-François Poisson, marquis de Marigny, chose Jacques-Germain Soufflot to design the church. Soufflot (1713-1780) had studied classical architecture in Rome over 1731-38. Most of his early work was done in Lyon. Saint Genevieve became his life's work; it was not finished until after his death.[6]

His first design was completed in 1755, and was clearly influenced by the work of Bramante he had studied in Italy. It took form of a Greek cross, with four naves of equal length, and monumental dome over the crossing in the centre, and a classical portico with Corinthian columns and a peristyle with a triangular pediment on the main facade.[7] The design was modified five times over the following years, with the addition of a narthex, a choir, and two towers. The design was not finalised until 1777.[8]

The foundations were laid in 1758, but due to economic problems work proceeded slowly. In 1780, Soufflot died and was replaced by his student Jean-Baptiste Rondelet. The re-modelled Abbey of St. Genevieve was finally completed in 1790, shortly after the beginning of the French Revolution.

The building is 110 metres long by 84 metres wide, and 83 metres high, with the crypt beneath of the same size. The ceiling was supported by isolated columns, which supported an array of barrel vaults and transverse arches. The massive dome was supported by pendentives rested upon four massive pillars. Critics of the plan contended that the pillars could not support such a large dome. Soufflot strengthened the stone structure with a system of iron rods, a predecessor of modern reinforced buildings. The bars had deteriorated by the 21st century, and a major restoration project to replace them is being carried out between 2010 and 2020.[9]

The dome is actually three domes, fitting within each other. The first, lowest dome, has a coffered ceiling with rosettes, and is open in the centre. Looking through this dome, the second dome is visible, decorated with the fresco The Apotheosis of Saint Genevieve by Antoine Gros. The outermost dome, visible from the outside, is built of stone bound together with iron cramps and covered with lead sheathing, rather than of carpentry construction, as was the common French practice of the period. Concealed buttresses inside the walls give additional support to the dome.[10]

The Revolution - The "Temple of the Nation"

The Church of Saint Genevieve was nearly complete, with only the interior decoration unfinished, when the French Revolution began in 1789. In 1790, the Marquis de Vilette proposed that it be made a temple devoted to liberty, on the model of the Pantheon in Rome. "Let us install statues of our great men and lay their ashes to rest in its underground recesses."[11] The idea was formally adopted in April, 1791, after the death of the prominent revolutionary figure, The Comte de Mirabeau, the President of the National Constituent Assembly on April 2, 1791. On April 4, 1791, the Assembly decreed "that this religious church become a temple of the nation, that the tomb of a great man become the altar of liberty." They also approved a new text over the entrance: "A grateful nation honors its great men." On the same day the declaration was approved, the funeral of Mirabeau was held in the church.[11]

The ashes of Voltaire were placed in the Panthéon in a lavish ceremony on 21 July 1791, followed by the remains of several martyred revolutionaries, including Jean-Paul Marat, and of the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In the rapid shifts of power of the Revolutionary period, two of the first men honored in Pantheon, Mirabeau and Marat, were declared enemies of the Revolution, and their remains were removed. Finally, the new government of the French Convention decreed in February, 1795 that no one should be placed in the Pantheon who had not been dead at least ten years.[12]

Soon after the church was transformed into a mausoleum, the Assembly approved architectural changes to make the interior darker and more solemn. The architect Quatremère de Quincy bricked up the lower windows and frosted the glass of the upper windows to reduce the light, and removed most of the ornament from the exterior. The architectural lanterns and bells were removed the facade. All of the religious friezes and statues were destroyed in 1791; it was replaced by statuary and murals on patriotic themes.[12]

Temple to church and back to temple (1806-1830)

Design for the cupola by Antoine-Jean Gros (1812). Napoleon is at the bottom right. (Now in the Carnavalet Museum)

Napoleon Bonaparte, when he became First Consul in 1801, signed a Concordat with the Pope, agreeing to restore former church properties, including the Panthéon. The Panthéon was under the jurisdiction of the canons of the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris. Celebrations of important events, such as the victory of Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz, were held there. However, the crypt of the church kept its official function as the resting place for illustrious Frenchmen. A new entrance directly to the crypt was created via the eastern porch (1809-1811). The artist Antoine-Jean Gros was commissioned to decorate the interior of the cupola. It combined the secular and religious aspects of the church; it showed the Genevieve being conducted to heaven by angels, in the presence of great leaders of France, from Clovis I and Charlemagne to Napoleon and the Empress Josephine.

During the reign of Napoleon, the remains of forty-one illustrious Frenchmen were placed in the crypt. They were mostly military officers, senators and other high officials of the Empire, but also included the explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville and the painter Joseph-Marie Vien, the teacher of Napoleon's official painter, Jacques-Louis David.[13]

Painting on the Pendentive, depicting Death by François Gérard (1821-1837)

During the Bourbon Restoration which followed the fall of Napoleon, in 1816 Louis XVIII of France restored the entire Panthéon, including the crypt, to the Catholic Church. The church was also at last officially consecrated in the presence of the King, a ceremony which had been omitted during the Revolution. The sculpture on the pediment by Jean Guillaume Moitte, called The Fatherland crowning the heroic and civic virtues was replaced by a religious-themed work by David d'Angers. The reliquary of Saint Genevieve had been destroyed during the Revolution, but a few relics were found and restored to the church (They are now in the neighboring Church of Saint-Etienne-du-Mont). In 1822 François Gérard was commissioned to decorate the pendentives of the dome with new works representing Justice, Death, the Nation, and Fame. Jean-Antoine Gros was commissioned to redo his fresco on the inner dome, replacing Napoleon with Louis XVIII, as well as figures of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. The new version of the cupola was inaugurated in 1824 by Charles X. As to the crypt where the tombs were located, it was locked and closed to visitors.[14]

Under Louis Philippe I, the Second Republic and Napoleon III (1830-1871)

Daguerreotype by Alphonse Louis Poitevin, 1842

The French Revolution of 1830 placed Louis Philippe I on the throne. He expressed sympathy for Revolutionary values, and on 26 August 1830, the church once again became the Pantheon. However, the crypt remained closed to the public, and no new remains were added. The only change made was to the main pediment, which had been remade with a radiant cross; it was remade again by D'Angers with a patriotic work called The Nation Distributing Crowns Handed to Her by Liberty, to Great Men, Civil and Military, While History Inscribes Their Names.

Louis Philippe was overthrown in 1848 and replaced by the elected government of the Second French Republic, which valued revolutionary themes. The new government designated the Pantheon "The Temple of Humanity", and proposed to decorate it with sixty new murals honouring human progress in all fields. In 1851 the Foucault Pendulum of astronomer Léon Foucault was hung beneath the dome to illustrate the rotation of the earth. However, on complaints from the Church, it was removed in December of the same year.

Louis Napoléon, nephew of the Emperor, was elected President of France in December 1848, and in 1852 staged a coup-d'état and made himself Emperor. Once again the Pantheon was returned to the church, with the title of "National Basilica". The remaining relics of Saint Genevieve were restored to the church, and two groups of sculpture commemorating events in the life of the Saint were added. The crypt remained closed.

The Third Republic (1871-1939)

The Basilica suffered damage from German shelling during the 1870 Franco-Prussian War. During the brief reign of the Paris Commune in May 1871, it suffered more damage during fighting between the Commune soldiers and the French Army. During the early years of the Third Republic, under conservative governments, it functioned as a church, but the interior walls were largely bare. Beginning in 1874, The interior was redecorated with new murals and sculptural groups linking French history and the history of the church, by notable artists including Puvis de Chavannes and Alexandre Cabanel, and the artist Antoine-Auguste-Ernest Hébert, who made a mosaic under the vault of the apsidal chapel called Christ Showing the Angel of France the Destiny of Her People.[15]

Funeral of Victor Hugo on 1 June 1885

In 1881, a decree was passed to transform the Church of Saint Genevieve into a mausoleum again. Victor Hugo was the first to be placed in the crypt afterwards. The subsequent governments approved the entry of literary figures, including the writer Émile Zola (1908), and, after World War I, leaders of the French socialist movement, including Léon Gambetta (1920) and Jean Jaurès (1924). The Third Republic governments also decreed that the building should be decorated with sculpture representing "the golden ages and great men of France." The principal works remaining from this period include the sculptural group called The National Assembly, commemorating the French Revolution; a statue of Mirabeau, the first man interred in the Pantheon, by Jean-Antoine Ingabert; (1889-1920); and two patriotic murals in the apse Victory Leading the Armies of the Republic to Towards Glory by Édouard Detaille, and Glory Entering the Temple, Followed by Poets, Philosophers, Scientists and Warriors , by Marie-Désiré-Hector d'Espouy (1906).[15]

1945-present

The Panthéon at night

The short-lived Fourth Republic (1948-1958) following World War II pantheonized two physicists, Paul Langevin and Jean Perrin; a leader of the abolitionist movement, Victor Schoelcher; early leader of Free France and colonial administrator Félix Éboué; and Louis Braille, inventor of the Braille writing system, in 1952.

Under the Fifth Republic of President Charles de Gaulle, the first person to be buried in the Panthéon was the Resistance leader Jean Moulin. Modern figures buried in recent years include Nobel Peace Prize winner René Cassin (1987) known for drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Jean Monnet who was a moving force in the creation of the ECSC, the forerunner of the EU, was interred in the 100th anniversary of his birth; Nobel laureates physicists and chemists Marie Curie and Pierre Curie (1995); the writer and culture minister André Malraux (1996); and the lawyer, politician Simone Veil (2018).[16] In 2021 President Emmanuel Macron's administration announced that on November 30 2021 the remains of Josephine Baker would be moved to the Pantheon; she would be the first Black woman buried there.[17]

Architecture and art

Dome

The final plan of the dome was accepted in 1777, and it was completed in 1790. It was designed to rival those of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome and St Paul's Cathedral in London. Unlike the dome of Les Invalides in Paris, which has a wooden framework, the dome is constructed entirely of stone. It is actually three domes, one within the other, with the painted ceiling, visible from below, on the second dome. The dome is 83.0 metres (272 ft) high, compared with the tallest dome in the world, St. Peter's Basilica at 136.57 metres (448.1 ft).

The dome is capped by a cross. However, a statue of Saint Genevieve was initially supposed to sit at the top of the dome. A cross was put temporarily in 1790. After the transformation into a mausoleum in 1791, it was planned that the cross would be replaced by a statue representing Fame. The project was however abandoned. Between 1830 and 1851, a flag was put instead. The cross returned after Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte restored the building to church use. The cross was replaced with a red flag during the Paris Commune in 1871. A cross returned subsequently.

Looking up from the crossing of the transept beneath the dome, the painting by Jean-Antoine Gros, the Apotheosis of Saint Genevieve (1811-1834), is visible through the opening in the lowest cupola. The triangle in the center symbolizes the Trinity, surrounded by a halo of light. The Hebrew characters spell the name of God. The only character seen in full is Saint Genevieve herself, seated on a rocky promontory. The groups around the painting, made during the Restoration of the Monarchy, represent Kings of France who played an important role in protecting the church. To the left of Saint Genevieve is a group including Clovis, the first King to convert to Christianity. The second group is centred around Charlemagne, who created the first universities. The third group is centred around Louis IX of France, or Saint Louis, with the Crown of Thorns which he brought back from the Holy Land to place in the church of Sainte-Chapelle. The last group is centred around Louis XVIII, the last King of the Restoration, and his niece, looking up into the clouds at the martyred Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette. The angels in the scene are carrying the Chartre, the document by which Louis XVIII re-established the church after the French Revolution.[18]

The four pendentives, or arches, which support the dome are decorated with paintings from the same period by François Gérard depicting Glory, Death, The Nation and Justice (1821-37).

Facade, peristyle and entrance

The facade and peristyle on the east side, modeled after a Greek temple, features Corinthian columns and sculpture by David d'Angers, completed in 1837. The sculpture on this pediment, replacing an early pediment with religious themes, represents "The Nation distributing crowns handed to her by Liberty to great men, civil and military, while history inscribes their names". To the left are figures of distinguished scientists, philosophers, and statesmen, including Rousseau, Voltaire, Lafayette, and Bichat. To the right is Napoleon Bonaparte, along with soldiers from each military service and students in uniform from the École Polytechnique.[19] Below is the inscription: "To the great men, from a grateful nation" ("Aux grands hommes la patrie reconnaissante"). This was added in 1791, when the Panthéon was created. It was removed during the Restoration of the monarchy, then put back in 1830.

Below the peristyle are five sculpted bas-reliefs; the two reliefs over the main doors, commissioned during the Revolution, represent the two main purposes of the building: "Public Education" (left) and "Patriotic Devotion" (right).

The facade originally had large windows, but they were replaced when the church became a mausoleum, to make the interior darker and more somber.

Narthex and naves

The primary decoration of the Western Nave is a series of paintings, beginning in the Narthex, depicting the lives of Saint Denis, the patron saint of Paris, and longer series on the life of Saint Genevieve, by Puvis de Chavannes, Alexandre Cabanel, Jules Eugène Lenepveu and other notable history painters of the 19th century. The paintings of the Southern nave and Northern Nave continue this series on the Christian heroes of France, including scenes from the lives of Charlemagne, Clovis, Louis IX of France and Joan of Arc. From 1906 to 1922 the Panthéon was the site of Auguste Rodin's famous sculpture The Thinker.

Foucault pendulum

In 1851, physicist Léon Foucault demonstrated the rotation of the Earth by constructing a 67-metre (220 ft) pendulum beneath the central dome. The original sphere from the pendulum was temporarily displayed at the Panthéon in the 1990s (starting in 1995) during renovations at the Musée des Arts et Métiers. The original pendulum was later returned to the Musée des Arts et Métiers, and a copy is now displayed at the Panthéon.[20] It has been listed since 1920 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture.[21]

Interment in the crypt

Interment in the crypt of the Panthéon is severely restricted and is allowed only by a parliamentary act for "National Heroes". Similar high honours exist in Les Invalides for historical military leaders such as Napoléon, Turenne and Vauban.

Among those buried in its necropolis are Voltaire, Rousseau, Victor Hugo, Émile Zola, Jean Moulin, Louis Braille, Jean Jaurès and Soufflot, its architect. In 1907 Marcellin Berthelot was buried with his wife Mme Sophie Berthelot. Marie Curie was interred in 1995, the first woman interred on merit. Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz and Germaine Tillion, heroines of the French resistance, were interred in 2015.[22] Simone Veil was interred in 2018, and her husband Antoine Veil was interred alongside her so not to be separated.[23]

The widely repeated story that the remains of Voltaire were stolen by religious fanatics in 1814 and thrown into a garbage heap is false. Such rumours resulted in the coffin being opened in 1897, which confirmed that his remains were still present.[24]

On 30 November 2002, in an elaborate but solemn procession, six Republican Guards carried the coffin of Alexandre Dumas (1802-1870), the author of The Three Musketeers and other famous novels, to the Panthéon. Draped in a blue-velvet cloth inscribed with the Musketeers' motto "Un pour tous, tous pour un" ("One for all, all for one"), the remains had been transported from their original interment site in the Cimetière de Villers-Cotterêts in Aisne, France. In his speech, President Jacques Chirac stated that an injustice was being corrected with the proper honouring of one of France's greatest authors.

In January 2007, President Jacques Chirac unveiled a plaque in the Panthéon to more than 2,600 people recognised as Righteous Among the Nations by the Yad Vashem memorial in Israel for saving the lives of Jews who would otherwise have been deported to concentration camps. The tribute in the Panthéon underlines the fact that around three-quarters of the country's Jewish population survived the war, often thanks to ordinary people who provided help at the risk of their own life. This plaque says:

Sous la chape de haine et de nuit tombée sur la France dans les années d'Occupation, des lumières, par milliers, refusèrent de s'éteindre. Nommés "Justes parmi les nations" ou restés anonymes, des femmes et des hommes, de toutes origines et de toutes conditions, ont sauvé des juifs des persécutions antisémites et des camps d'extermination. Bravant les risques encourus, ils ont incarné l'honneur de la France, ses valeurs de justice, de tolérance et d'humanité.

Under the cloak of hatred and darkness that spread over France during the years of [Nazi] occupation, thousands of lights refused to be extinguished. Named as "Righteous among the Nations" or remaining anonymous, women and men, of all backgrounds and social classes, saved Jews from anti-Semitic persecution and the extermination camps. Braving the risks involved, they embodied the honour of France, and its values of justice, tolerance and humanity.

People interred or commemorated

Year Name Lived Profession Burial Picture Notes
1791 Mirabeau 1749-1791 Revolutionary -- -- First person honoured with burial in the Panthéon, 4 April 1791. Disinterred on 25 November 1794 and buried in an anonymous grave. His remains are yet to be recovered.[25]
1791 Voltaire 1694-1778 Writer and philosopher Entrée Tomb of Voltaire in the Pantheon.jpg
1792 Nicolas-Joseph Beaurepaire 1740-1792 Military officer -- -- Remains since disappeared
1793 Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau 1760-1793 Politician -- -- Assassinated deputy; disinterred from the Panthéon at the request of his family on 14 February 1795.
1793 Augustin-Marie Picot 1756-1793 Military officer -- -- Remains since disappeared
1794 Jean-Paul Marat 1743-1793 Politician -- -- Disinterred from the Panthéon.
1794 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 Writer and Philosopher Entrée JR pantheon.jpg
1806 François Denis Tronchet 1726-1806 Politician and lawyer Crypt V Tomb of François Denis Tronchet in Panthéon.jpg
1806 Claude-Louis Petiet 1749-1806 Politician Crypt V Tombstone of Claude-Louis Petiet in the Pantheon of Paris, Cellar V.jpg
1807 Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis 1746-1807 Politician Crypt V Tombeau de Portalis au Panthéon.JPG
1807 Louis-Pierre-Pantaléon Resnier 1759-1807 Politician Crypt V Tomb of Louis-Pierre-Pantaléon Resnier in Panthéon.jpg
1807 Louis-Joseph-Charles-Amable d'Albert, duc de Luynes [fr] 1748-1807 Politician -- -- Disinterred from the Panthéon in 1862 and returned to his family at their request.
1807 Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Bevière [fr] 1723-1807 Politician Crypt V Tomb of Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Bevière in Panthéon.jpg
1808 François Barthélemy, comte Beguinot [fr] 1747-1808 Military officer Crypt V Tomb of François Barthélemy Beguinot in Panthéon.jpg
1808 Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis 1757-1808 Scientist and philosopher Crypt V Tomb of Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis in Panthéon.jpg
1808 Gabriel-Louis, marquis de Caulaincourt [fr] 1741-1808 Military officer Crypt V Tomb of Gabriel Louis de Caulaincourt in Panthéon.jpg
1808 Jean-Frédéric Perregaux 1744-1808 Banker Crypt IV
1808 Antoine-César de Choiseul, duc de Praslin [fr] 1756-1808 Military officer and politician Crypt V Tomb of Antoine César de Choiseul, Duke of Praslin, in Panthéon.jpg
1808 Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher 1761-1808 Military officer Crypt V Tomb of Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher in Panthéon.jpg Urn with his heart.
1809 Jean Baptiste Papin, comte de Saint-Christau [fr] 1756-1809 Politician and lawyer Crypt V Tomb of Jean-Baptiste Papin in Panthéon.jpg
1809 Joseph-Marie Vien 1716-1809 Painter Crypt III
1809 Pierre Garnier de Laboissière 1755-1809 Military officer Crypt III
1809 Jean Pierre, comte Sers [fr] 1746-1809 Politician Crypt III Urn with his heart.
1809 Jérôme-Louis-François-Joseph, comte de Durazzo [fr] 1739-1809 Politician Crypt V Tomb of Girolamo Luigi Durazzo in Panthéon.jpg Urn with his heart.
1809 Justin Bonaventure Morard de Galles 1761-1809 Military officer Crypt III Urn with his heart.
1809 Emmanuel Crétet de Champmol 1747-1809 Politician Crypt III
1810 Cardinal Giovanni Battista Caprara 1733-1810 Clergyman Crypt III Heart buried in Milan Cathedral in 1810. Body disinterred from the Panthéon in 1861 and returned to his family at their request. His remains were transferred from Paris to Rome on 22 August 1861.
1810 Louis Charles Vincent Le Blond de Saint-Hilaire 1766-1809 Military officer Crypt III
1810 Jean-Baptiste Treilhard 1742-1810 Lawyer Crypt III
1810 Jean Lannes de Montebello 1769-1809 Military officer Crypt XXII Tombeau de Lannes.jpg
1810 Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu 1738-1810 Politician Crypt III
1811 Louis Antoine de Bougainville 1729-1811 Navigator Crypt III Tomb of Bougainville at the Pantheon.jpg
1811 Cardinal Charles Erskine de Kellie 1739-1811 Clergyman Crypt III
1811 Alexandre-Antoine Hureau de Sénarmont 1769-1811 Military officer Crypt II Urn with his heart.
1811 Cardinal Ippolito Antonio, cardinal Vincenti Mareri [it] 1738-1811 Clergyman Crypt III Paris September 2016 IMGL0344 (29207845783).jpg
1811 Nicolas Marie Songis des Courbons 1761-1811 Military officer Crypt III
1811 Michel Ordener, 1st Count Ordener[26] 1755-1811 Military officer Crypt II
1812 Jean Marie Pierre Dorsenne 1773-1812 Military officer Crypt II
1812 Jan Willem de Winter 1761-1812 Military officer Crypt IV Heart buried in Kampen, Overijssel, Netherlands, his birthplce.
1813 Hyacinthe-Hugues-Timoléon de Cossé, Comte de Brissac [fr] 1746-1813 Military officer Crypt II
1813 Jean-Ignace Jacqueminot, Comte de Ham [fr] 1758-1813 Lawyer Crypt II
1813 Joseph-Louis Lagrange 1736-1813 Mathematician Crypt II Lagrange's tomb at the Pantheon.jpg
1813 Jean Rousseau [fr] 1738-1813 Politician Crypt II
1813 Justin de Viry [fr] 1737-1813 Politician Crypt II
1814 Frédéric Henri Walther 1761-1813 Military officer Crypt IV
1814 Jean-Nicolas Démeunier 1751-1814 Politician Crypt II
1814 Jean-Louis-Ébénézer Reynier 1771-1814 Military officer Crypt IV
1814 Claude Ambroise Régnier de Massa di Carrara 1746-1814 Politician and lawyer Crypt II
1815 Antoine-Jean-Marie Thévenard 1733-1815 Military officer Crypt II
1815 Claude-Juste-Alexandre Legrand 1762-1815 Military officer Crypt II
1829 Jacques-Germain Soufflot 1713-1780 Architect of the Pantheon Entrée Panthéon Crypte Paris 17.jpg
1885 Victor Hugo 1802-1885 Writer Crypt XXIV Panthéon Crypte Paris 78.jpg
1889 Lazare Carnot 1753-1823 Politician and scientist Crypt XXIII Panthéon Crypte Paris 74 - Lazare Carnot.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon at the centennial of the French Revolution.
1889 Jean-Baptiste Baudin 1811-1851 Politician and doctor Crypt XXIII Transferred to the Panthéon at the centennial of the French Revolution.
1889 Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne 1743-1800 Military officer Crypt XXIII Transferred to the Panthéon at the centennial of the French Revolution.
1889 François Séverin Marceau 1769-1796 Military officer Crypt XXIII Panthéon Crypte Paris 74 - Marceau.jpg Ashes transferred to the Panthéon from Koblenz, Germany, at the centennial of the French Revolution.
1894 Marie François Sadi Carnot 1837-1894 Politician Crypt XXIII Buried in the Panthéon immediately after his assassination.
1907 Marcellin Berthelot 1827-1907 Scientist Crypt XXV Tomb of Marcellin and Sophie Berthelot in Panthéon.jpg Buried with his wife Sophie Berthelot as he refused to be buried apart from her.[27]
1907 Sophie Berthelot 1837-1907 Wife of Marcellin Berthelot Crypt XXV Tomb of Marcellin and Sophie Berthelot in Panthéon.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon with her husband Marcellin Berthelot, who had refused to be buried apart from her. The first woman to be interred in the Panthéon.
1908 Émile Zola 1840-1902 Writer Crypt XXIV Emile Zola tombe.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon from Montmartre Cemetery.
1920 Léon Gambetta 1838-1882 Politician Escalier d'accès Panthéon de Paris 11 Jun 2007 n15.jpg Urn with his heart.


1924 Jean Jaurès 1859-1914 Politician Crypt XXVI Jean Jaurès tombe.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon ten years after his assassination
1933 Paul Painlevé 1863-1933 Mathematician and politician Crypt XXV Tomb of Paul Painlevé in Panthéon.jpg
1948 Paul Langevin 1872-1946 Scientist Crypt XXV Tomb of Paul Langevin in Panthéon.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon the same day as Jean Perrin.
1948 Jean Perrin
Nobel Laureate
1870-1942 Scientist Crypt XXV Tomb of Jean Perrin in Panthéon.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon the same day as Paul Langevin. Repatriated from New York City, USA.
1949 Victor Schoelcher 1804-1893 Politician Crypt XXVI Paris - Panthéon Schoelcher.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon the same day as Félix Éboué. Transferred from Père Lachaise Cemetery. Victor Schoelcher had wanted to be buried with his father Marc, who was therefore also interred in the Panthéon.
1949 Marc Schoelcher 1766-1832 Father of Victor Schoelcher Crypt XXVI Paris - Panthéon Schoelcher.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon the same day as Victor Schoelcher. Transferred from Père Lachaise Cemetery. Victor had wanted to be buried with his father who was therefore is also interred in the Panthéon.
1949 Félix Éboué 1884-1944 Politician Crypt XXVI Panthéon Crypte Paris 96.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon the same day as Victor Schoelcher.
1952 Louis Braille 1809-1852 Educator Crypt XXV
Braille's tomb in the Pantheon.jpg
Transferred to the Panthéon on the centenary of his death.
1964 Jean Moulin 1899-1943 Résistant Crypt VI Jean Moulin Panthéon.jpg Ashes transferred to the Panthéon from Père Lachaise Cemetery on 19 December 1964.
1967 Antoine de Saint-Exupéry 1900-1944 Writer -- Paris September 2016 IMGL0304 (29541488520) Antoine de Saint-Exupéry.jpg Commemorated with an inscription in November 1967, as his body was never found.
1987 René Cassin
Nobel Laureate
1887-1976 Human rights activist Crypt VI Bastet cat in a tomb in the Panthéon, Paris, France.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon on the centenary of his birth. Transferred from Montparnasse Cemetery.
1988 Jean Monnet 1888-1979 Economist Crypt VI Bastet cat in a tomb in the Panthéon, Paris, France.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon on the centenary of his birth.
1989 Abbé Henri Grégoire 1750-1831 Clergyman Crypt VII Tomb of Henri Grégoire in Panthéon.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon at the bicentennial of the French Revolution.
1989 Gaspard Monge 1746-1818 Mathematician Crypt VII Panthéon Crypte Paris 36.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon at the bicentennial of the French Revolution.
1989 Nicolas de Condorcet 1743-1794 Politician Crypt VII Paris - Panthéon Condorcet.jpg Symbolic interment at the bicentennial of the French Revolution. His coffin at the Panthéon empty, his remains having been lost.
1995 Pierre Curie
Nobel Laureate (1903)
1859-1906 Scientist Crypt VIII
Pierre et Marie Curie tombes.jpg
Transferred to the Panthéon in April 1995 with his wife and fellow physicist Marie Curie.
1995 Marie Sk?odowska Curie
Nobel Laureate (1903 and 1911)
1867-1934 Scientist Crypt VIII
Pierre & Marie Curie.jpg
Second woman to be buried in the Panthéon, but the first to be honoured on her own merit.
1996 André Malraux 1901-1976 Writer and politician Crypt VI André Malraux au Pantheon.jpg Ashes transferred to the Panthéon from Verrières-le-Buisson (Essonne) Cemetery on 23 November 1996 on the 20th anniversary of his death.
1998 Toussaint Louverture 1743-1803 Military officer -- Inscription Toussaint Louverture.jpg Commemorative plaque installed on same day as that for Louis Delgrès.
1998 Louis Delgrès 1766-1802 Politician -- Inscription Louis Delgrès.jpg Commemorative plaque installed on same day as that for Toussaint Louverture.
2002 Alexandre Dumas 1802-1870 Writer Crypt XXIV Paris September 2016 IMGL0351 (29207769813).jpg Transferred to the Panthéon 132 years after his death.
2011 Aimé Césaire 1913-2008 Writer and politician -- Panthéon hommage à Aimé Césaire.JPG Commemorative plaque installed 6 April 2011; Césaire is buried in Martinique.[28]
2015 Jean Zay 1904-1944 Politician Crypt IX Panthéon Crypte Paris 49.jpg Murdered at Molles in Allier and previously buried in Orléans in 1948.
2015 Pierre Brossolette 1903-1944 Résistant Crypt IX Panthéon Crypte Paris 47.jpg Ashes transferred to the Panthéon from Père Lachaise Cemetery on 27 May 2015.
2015 Germaine Tillion 1907-2008 Résistant Crypt IX Panthéon Crypte Paris 52.jpg Symbolic interment. The coffin of Germaine Tillion at the Panthéon does not contain her remains but soil from her gravesite, because her family did not want the body itself moved.[29]
2015 Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz 1920-2002 Résistant Crypt IX Tombstone of Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz in the Pantheon of Paris, Cellar IX.jpg Symbolic interment. The coffin of Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz at the Panthéon does not contain her remains but soil from her gravesite, because her family did not want the body itself moved.[29]
2018 Simone Veil 1927-2017 Politician Crypt VI Panthéon - Les époux Veil au fond.jpg Originally buried at Montparnasse Cemetery following her death in 2017.[30][31]
2018 Antoine Veil 1926-2013 Husband of Simone Veil Crypt VI Panthéon - Les époux Veil au fond.jpg Transferred to the Panthéon with his wife Simone Veil. Originally buried at Montparnasse Cemetery following his death in 2013.[30][31]
2020 Maurice Genevoix 1890-1980 Writer Crypt XIII Originally buried at Passy Cemetery following his death in 1980.
2021 Josephine Baker 1906-1975 Performing artist TBD Originally buried at Monaco's Cimetière de Monaco following her death in 1975.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Pantheon definitions". definitions.net. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Conlin, Jonathan (2013). Tales of Two Cities: Paris, London and the Birth of the Modern City. ISBN 978-1782390190.
  3. ^ Eisenman, Stephen; Crow, Thomas E. (2007). Nineteenth Century Art: A Critical History. p. 163. ISBN 978-0500286500.
  4. ^ https://theguardian.com/world/2021/aug/22/josephine-baker-to-become-first-black-woman-to-enter-frances-pantheon: "Of the 80 figures in the Panthéon, only five are women"
  5. ^ Lebeurre 2000, p. 3
  6. ^ Patroness of Paris: Rituals of Devotion in Early Modern France. Brill. 1998. ISBN 9004108513.
  7. ^ Oudin 1994, p. 479
  8. ^ Lebeurre 2000, p. 9
  9. ^ Lebeurre 2000, pp. 9-10
  10. ^ Lebeurre 2000, pp. 12-13
  11. ^ a b Lebeurre 2000, p. 16
  12. ^ a b Lebeurre 2000, p. 17
  13. ^ Lebeurre 2000, pp. 26-27
  14. ^ Lebeurre 2000, pp. 26-29
  15. ^ a b Lebeurre 2000, pp. 33-35
  16. ^ Lebeurre 2000, pp. 58-59
  17. ^ https://theguardian.com/world/2021/aug/22/josephine-baker-to-become-first-black-woman-to-enter-frances-pantheon: "The remains of Josephine Baker...will be moved to the Panthéon...according to an aide to President Emmanuel Macron. It will make Baker, who was born in Missouri in 1906 and buried in Monaco in 1975, the first Black woman to be laid to rest in the hallowed Parisian monument...The ceremony will take place on 30 November"
  18. ^ Lebeurre 2000, p. 56
  19. ^ Lebeurre 2000, pp. 43-45
  20. ^ "Foucault's Pendulum: Interesting Thing of the Day". Itotd.com. 2004-11-08. Retrieved .
  21. ^ Base Mérimée: PA00088420, Ministère français de la Culture. (in French) Ancienne église Sainte-Geneviève, devenue Le Panthéon
  22. ^ Angelique Chrisafis (1970-01-01). "France president Francois Hollande adds resistance heroines to Panthéon | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved .
  23. ^ Willsher, Kim (2018-06-30). "France pays tribute to Simone Veil with hero's burial in the Panthéon". the Guardian. Retrieved .
  24. ^ Voltaire (1976). Candide. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1105311604.[self-published source]
  25. ^ Doyle, William (2002). The Oxford History of the French Revolution. UK: Oxford University Press. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-19-925298-5.
  26. ^ Mullié, Charles (1852). "Michel Ordener". Biographie des célébrités militaires des armées de terre et de mer de 1789 à 1850 (in French). Paris.
  27. ^ The New York Times
  28. ^ France Guide (2011). "Aimé Césaire joins Voltaire and Rousseau at the Panthéon in Paris". French Government Tourist Office. Archived from the original on 2013-04-29. Retrieved .
  29. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ a b Roe, David (2017-07-05). "France buries women's rights icon Simone Veil". en.rfi.fr.
  31. ^ a b Katz, Brigit. "France's Simone Veil Will Become the Fifth Woman Buried in the Panthéon". Retrieved 2017.

Sources

External links


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