Parliament of Estonia
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Parliament of Estonia
State Assembly of Estonia

XIV Riigikogu
Coat of arms or logo
Founded23 April 1919
Disbandedsuspended 1940-1991
Jüri Ratas, Centre
since 18 March 2021
First Vice-President of the Riigikogu
Hanno Pevkur, Reform
since 8 February 2021
Second Vice-President of the Riigikogu
Martin Helme, EKRE
since 18 March 2021
Seats101 (list)
Composition of the Parliament of Estonia.svg
Political groups
Government (59)

Opposition (42)

Party-list proportional representation
Modified D'Hondt method
Last election
3 March 2019
Next election
5 March 2023
Meeting place
Toompea Castle, Tallinn
  • ^
    Unaffiliated MP Raimond Kaljulaid votes with SDE.
  • Coordinates: 59°26?08?N 24°44?14?E / 59.4356°N 24.7372°E / 59.4356; 24.7372

    The Riigikogu (Estonian pronunciation: ['ri:?iko?u]; from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia. All important state-related questions pass through the Riigikogu. In addition to approving legislation, the Riigikogu appoints high officials, including the Prime Minister and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and elects (either alone or, if necessary, together with representatives of local government within a broader electoral college) the President. The Riigikogu also ratifies significant foreign treaties that impose military and proprietary obligations, bring about changes in the law, etc.; approves the budget presented by the government as law and monitors the executive power.


    Early elections

    April 23, 1919, the opening session of the Estonian Constituent Assembly is the birthday of the Estonian Parliament.[1] The first elections to the Riigikogu took place in 1920. From 1920 to 1938, there were five more elections to the Riigikogu, but several were on the basis of different constitutions. In 1920-1923 there was a closed list, while from 1926 to 1934 there was an optional open list choice. The basis of election was until 1932 proportional representation. The elections were on a regional basis, without any threshold in the first two elections, but from 1926 a moderate threshold (2%) was used.


    From 1938 to 1940 the National Assembly was divided into two chambers: The Chamber of Deputies (Riigivolikogu) and the National Council (Riiginõukogu).

    It was replaced by the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (August 25, 1940 - 1990) and the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia (May 8, 1990 - October 5, 1992).

    Toompea Castle

    Since 1922, the sessions of the Riigikogu have taken place in the Toompea Castle, where a new building in an unusual Expressionist style was erected in the former courtyard of the medieval castle in 1920-1922. During the subsequent periods of Soviet occupation (1940-41), German occupation (1941-44), and the second Soviet occupation (1944-1991) the Riigikogu was disbanded. The castle and the building of the Riigikogu were used by the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR during the second Soviet occupation.

    Independence from the Soviet Union

    In September 1992, a year after Estonia had regained its independence from the Soviet Union, elections to the Riigikogu took place according to the Constitution of Estonia adopted in the summer of the same year. According to the 1992 constitution, the Riigikogu has 101 members. The present Riigikogu was elected on March 3, 2019. The main differences between this system and a pure political representation, or proportional representation, system are the established 5% national threshold, and the use of a modified D'Hondt formula (the divisor is raised to the power 0.9). This modification makes for more disproportionality than does the usual form of the formula.

    Latest election

    Riigikogu 2019 election.svg
    Estonian Reform Party162,36428.9434+4
    Estonian Centre Party129,61723.1026-1
    Conservative People's Party of Estonia99,67217.7619+12
    Social Democratic Party55,1689.8310-5
    Estonia 20024,4474.360New
    Estonian Greens10,2261.8200
    Estonian Biodiversity Party6,8581.220New
    Estonian Free Party6,4601.150-8
    Estonian United Left Party5100.0900
    Valid votes561,13199.31
    Invalid/blank votes3,8970.69
    Total votes565,028100.00
    Registered voters/turnout887,42063.67
    Source: Valimised

    Current seat allocation

    Parliament building in Toompea Castle: the seat of the Parliament.
    Current seating plan
      EKRE: 19 seats
      Isamaa: 12 seats
      Reform: 34 seats
      Centre: 25 seats
      SDE: 10 seats
      Independent: 1 seat
      Empty seats

    Structure of former legislatures

    Estonian Parliament 1992-1995

    Estonian Parliament 1995-1999

    Estonian Parliament 1999-2003

    Estonian Parliament 2003-2007

    Estonian Parliament 2007-2011

    Estonian Parliament 2011-2015

    33 26 23 19
    Reform Centre IRL SDE

    Estonian Parliament 2015-2019

    30 27 15 14 8 7
    Reform Centre SDE IRL EVA EKRE

    Estonian Parliament 2019-present

    34 26 19 12 10
    Reform Centre EKRE Isamaa SDE

    Speakers of the Riigikogu

    The salary of the speaker is EUR5,288 per month.[2]


    Name Period Legislature
    Otto Strandman January 4, 1921 - November 18, 1921 I Riigikogu[3]
    Juhan Kukk November 18, 1921 - November 20, 1922 I Riigikogu[3]
    Konstantin Päts November 20, 1922 - June 7, 1923 I Riigikogu[3]
    Jaan Tõnisson June 7, 1923 - May 27, 1925 II Riigikogu[3]
    August Rei June 9, 1925 - June 22, 1926 II Riigikogu[3]
    Karl Einbund June 22, 1926 - July 19, 1932 III Riigikogu, IV Riigikogu, V Riigikogu[3]
    Jaan Tõnisson July 19, 1932 - May 18, 1933 V Riigikogu[3]
    Karl Einbund May 18, 1933 - August 29, 1934 V Riigikogu[3]
    Rudolf Penno September 28, 1934 - December 31, 1937 V Riigikogu[3]

    Speakers of the Riigivolikogu (lower chamber)

    Name Period Legislature
    Jüri Uluots April 21, 1938 - October 12, 1939 VI Riigikogu[3]
    Otto Pukk October 17, 1939 - July 5, 1940 VI Riigikogu[3]
    Arnold Veimer July 21, 1940 - August 25, 1940

    Speaker of the Riiginõukogu (upper chamber)

    Name Period Legislature
    Mihkel Pung April 21, 1938 - July 5, 1940 VI Riigikogu[3]

    Chairman of the Supreme Council (1990-1992)

    Name Period
    Arnold Rüütel March 29, 1990 - October 5, 1992

    Speaker of the Supreme Council (1990-1992)

    Name Period
    Ülo Nugis March 29, 1990 - October 5, 1992

    Since 1992

    Name Period Legislature
    Ülo Nugis October 21, 1992 - March 21, 1995 VII Riigikogu[3]
    Toomas Savi March 21, 1995 - March 31, 2003 VIII Riigikogu, IX Riigikogu[3]
    Ene Ergma March 31, 2003 - March 23, 2006 X Riigikogu[3]
    Toomas Varek March 23, 2006 - April 2, 2007 X Riigikogu[3]
    Ene Ergma April 2, 2007 - March 20, 2014 XI Riigikogu, XII Riigikogu[3]
    Eiki Nestor March 20, 2014 - April 4, 2019 XII Riigikogu, XIII Riigikogu[3]
    Henn Põlluaas April 4, 2019 - March 18, 2021 XIV Riigikogu[3]
    Jüri Ratas March 18, 2021 XIV Riigikogu[3]

    Structure of Riigikogu

    At Riigikogu there is working Chancellery of the Riigikogu (Estonian: Riigikogu Kantselei). The most important task for Chancellery of the Riigikogu is to provide the conditions which are necessary for the Riigikogu to perform its constitutional functions.[4]

    See also


    1. ^ "Riigikogu". Riigikogu.
    2. ^ "Riigikogu liikmete ja teiste kõrgemate riigiteenijate palk ei muutu". Postimees. 15 March 2017.
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Riigikogu juhatus". Riigikogu.
    4. ^ "Chancellery of the Riigikogu". Riigikogu (in Estonian). Retrieved 2020.

    External links

      This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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