Peaceful Transition of Power
Get Peaceful Transition of Power essential facts below. View Videos or join the Peaceful Transition of Power discussion. Add Peaceful Transition of Power to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Peaceful Transition of Power

A peaceful transition or transfer of power is a concept important to democratic governments in which the leadership of a government peacefully hands over control of government to a newly-elected leadership. This may be after elections or during the transition from a different kind of political regime, such as the postcommunist period after the fall of the Soviet Union.[1]

In scholarship examining democratization and emerging democracies, study of the successful transitions of power is used to understand the transition to constitutional democracy and the relative stability of that government.[2][3][4][5] A 2014 study concluded that 68 countries had never had a peaceful transition of power due to an election since 1788.[6][1]

Democratization studies

President-elect Ronald Reagan is sworn in as president of the United States in a symbolic peaceful transfer of power in 1981.

In scholarship examining democratization and emerging democracies, study of the successful transitions of power is used to understand the transition to constitutional democracy and the relative stability of that government (democratic consolidation).[2][3][4][5]

A 2014 study by Adam Przeworski of 3,000 elections from 1788 to 2008, published in the journal Comparative Political Studies concluded that 68 countries (including Russia and China) had never had a peaceful transition of power between parties following an election, making it a "rare and a recent practice."[6][1] The same study found that once a country has an initial peaceful transfer of power (an "alternation"), it is very likely to keep doing so, making the peaceful transition of power a habit-forming activity.[6][1] In a stable institutionalized democracy, a peaceful transition is the expected outcome of an election.[6][1]

Peaceful transitions require a number of strong democratic institutions and norms to exist, such as the willingness of opposition parties to serve as a loyal opposition. Transitions by election put power holders in vulnerable positions, as not only do they risk potential changes in policy and practice and thus their means of power, but they also risk political retribution or retaliation.[7]

21st century

The first peaceful transition of power in a country is often treated as an important stage in a government transition towards democracy such as seen in elections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[8] Successful transitions during tense political moments such as the Velvet Revolution in Armenia in 2018 are interpreted as signs of improved governance within the country, an important milestone in democratization and functioning civil society.[9] Alternately, the lack of peaceful transfers of power, such as in elections in Georgia from 1995 to 2008 in which the only transition between presidents was via the 2003 Rose Revolution, may harm the international reputation of the country as a "democracy".[10]

Africa

Since achieving independence from European colonial powers, Africa has had a mixed record in achieving peaceful transitions of power, with variations among nations.[11]

The first peaceful transition of power between civilians in Nigeria took place in 2007, although the outgoing and incoming presidents were of the same party and the preceding election was characterized by widespread irregularities.[12] In 2018, Liberia had its first electoral transfer of power since 1944.[13] The first peaceful transition of power in the Democratic Republic of the Congo took place in 2019, with outgoing president Joseph Kabila yielding power to opposition leader Felix Tshisekedi.[14] The first transition of power from one democratically elected leader to another in Niger took place in 2021, overcoming the nation's history of four coups d'etat.[15]

Europe

Belarus

During the 2020 Belarusian protests that followed the disputed results of the Belarusian presidential election in August 2020, Belarusians created a Coordination Council and a shadow government, called National Anti-crisis Management (NAM), aiming for a peaceful transfer of power to a freely and fairly elected president.[16][17][18] NAM proposed a "constitutional" option for power transfer, in which the presumed presidential election winner, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, would become Prime Minister and the powers of the de facto president Alexander Lukashenko would be legally transferred to the Prime Minister's position, followed by elections for a new president organised by a newly created electoral commission; and a "legal sovereignty" option, in which Tsikhanouskaya would become President and organise presidential elections within 40-70 days.[19]

Georgia

The transfer of power resulting from the 2012 Georgian parliamentary election was considered an important case of peaceful transfer of power in the post-Soviet political development of Georgia, which, since the Soviet period, had earlier gone through changes such as the Rose Revolution in 2003.[10]

North America

United States

A peaceful transition of power has historically been the norm in United States presidential transitions. The transition from John Adams to Thomas Jefferson in 1801 was considered an important milestone for the United States' fledgling democracy. From then until 2020, the losing party in every presidential election "willingly and peacefully" relinquished power to the opposition.[20][21] The transition is institutionalized through symbolic acts like the presidential inaugurations.[22][23] Outgoing U.S. presidents traditionally attend the inaugurations of their successors, a symbol of the peaceful passage of power from one administration to the next.[24]

2020 presidential election

During the 2020 presidential elections, experts described a risk of democratic backsliding in the U.S.,[25][26] as President Donald Trump publicly refused to commit to a peaceful transfer of power if he lost his election bid.[27] In September 2020, after Trump's statements, the U.S. Senate unanimously passed a resolution committing to a peaceful transition of power and opposing any attempt "by the President or any person in power to overturn the will of the people of the United States"; many senators cited the peaceful transition of power's centrality to U.S. democracy.[28] Business leaders also made statements calling for a peaceful transfer.[29]

Trump was defeated in the 2020 election by Joe Biden in both the popular vote and the electoral vote, but refused to accept defeat. Trump falsely claimed election fraud, and engaged in an aggressive and unprecedented,[30] although ultimately unsuccessful, attempt to overturn his election loss.[31][32] Trump's fellow Republicans had varied reactions to Trump's false election-fraud claims.[33][34][35][36] Trump stated on 15 November 2020 that he would accept a peaceful transfer (after a long period of ambiguous answers to the question) while still falsely alleging fraud and waging a legal battle to attempt to overturn the election results.[37]

On 6 January 2021, a pro-Trump mob, inflamed by Trump's false claims, attacked the Capitol in Washington, D.C. in a failed attempt to keep Trump in power. The mob disrupted the counting of the electoral votes by a joint session of Congress for several hours.[38][39][40] Five people died (four from medical causes).[41] Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell noted that "if this election were overturned by mere allegations from the losing side, our democracy would enter a death spiral."[42] On 7 January 2021, Trump condemned the riots and committed to a transition of power,[43] although after leaving office Trump continued to routinely repeat election lies.[44]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Peaceful transitions of power have been rare in modern states, but once the habit has been acquired it sticks". EUROPP. 26 November 2014. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ a b Graham, Emmanuel (July 2017). "The Third Peaceful Transfer of Power and Democratic Consolidation in Ghana" (PDF). Africology: The Journal of Pan African Studies. 10 (5): 99-127. Retrieved 2020.}
  3. ^ a b Tamarkin, M. (1979). "From Kenyatta to Moi: The Anatomy of a Peaceful Transition of Power". Africa Today. 26 (3): 21-37. ISSN 0001-9887. JSTOR 4185874. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ a b Mangu, Andre Mbata B. (1 June 2004). "DR Congo : the long road from war to peace and challenges for peaceful transition and national reconstruction". Africa Insight. 34 (2_3): 31-38. ISSN 0256-2804. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ a b Ahmed, Jasem Mohamad (2012). "Democracy and the problem of peaceful transfer of power". Journal of Al-Frahedis Arts. 04 (10). Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d Przeworski, Adam (1 January 2015). "Acquiring the Habit of Changing Governments Through Elections". Comparative Political Studies. 48 (1): 101-129. doi:10.1177/0010414014543614. ISSN 0010-4140. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ Sutter, Daniel (1995). "Settling Old Scores: Potholes along the Transition from Authoritarian Rule". The Journal of Conflict Resolution. 39 (1): 110-128. doi:10.1177/0022002795039001005. ISSN 0022-0027. JSTOR 174324. Retrieved 2020.
  8. ^ "First peaceful transfer of power possible in the DRC: regional focus - East Africa". Africa Conflict Monitor. 2017 (Feb 2017): 35-39. 1 February 2017. ISSN 2311-6943. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  9. ^ Yayloyan, Diana (28 February 2019). "A Peaceful Transition of Power and Public's Expectations in Armenia". Economic Policy Research Foundation of Turkey. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 2020 – via Think-Asia.
  10. ^ a b "Peaceful transfer of political power and its characteristics in Georgia. The Georgian parliamentary elections of 2012". ibn.idsi.md. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  11. ^ Power transitions in Africa, Brookings Institution (November 27, 2018).
  12. ^ A First in Nigeria: A Peaceful Succession of Power, Associated Press (May 30, 2007).
  13. ^ Tomas F. Husted, Liberia: Background and U.S. Relations, Congressional Research Service (February 14, 2020), p. 5.
  14. ^ Saleh Mwanamilongo, New Congo president marks first peaceful transfer of power, Associated Press (January 24, 2019).
  15. ^ Dalatou Mamane, Niger inaugurates president in 1st democratic power transfer, Associated Press (April 2, 2021).
  16. ^ "Pavel Latushko Announces Establishment Of People's Anti-Crisis Administration". Belarus Feed. 29 October 2020. Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ Grekowicz, Nikita (15 November 2020). "Bia?oru? ponownie zawrza?a po skatowaniu Ramana Bandarenki. Trwaj? protesty [relacja z Mi?ska]" [Belarus again in shock at the assault on Raman Bandarenka. Protests continue [report from Minsk]]. OKO.press (in Polish). Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  18. ^ Sadouskaya-Komlach, Maryia (6 November 2020). "An Exiled Belarusian Opposition Faces A Credibility Test". Center for European Policy Analysis. Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  19. ^ "National Anti-Crisis Management: Two power transition options have been developed". National Anti-crisis Management. 17 November 2020. Archived from the original on 17 November 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  20. ^ Pruitt, Sarah. "How the Peaceful Transfer of Power Began With John Adams". HISTORY. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  21. ^ "All 10 living former defense secretaries: Involving the military in election disputes would cross into dangerous territory". The Washington Post. 3 January 2021. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  22. ^ "Peaceful Transition of Power". National Archives. 18 November 2016. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  23. ^ Jacey Fortin (19 January 2021). "Trump Is Not the First President to Snub an Inauguration". New York Times.
  24. ^ Joey Garrison, A president hasn't refused to attend the inauguration of his successor in 152 years. Donald Trump will change that, USA Today (January 8, 2021).
  25. ^ "Is the U.S. at Risk of Mirroring Hungary's Democratic Backsliding?". www.worldpoliticsreview.com. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 2020.
  26. ^ Bauer, Michael W; Becker, Stefan (2 March 2020). "Democratic Backsliding, Populism, and Public Administration". Perspectives on Public Management and Governance. 3 (1): 19-31. doi:10.1093/ppmgov/gvz026. ISSN 2398-4910. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 2020.
  27. ^ Breuninger, Kevin (23 September 2020). "Trump won't commit to peaceful transfer of power if he loses the election". CNBC. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  28. ^ "Unanimous Senate commits to peaceful transfer of power after Trump refuses". ABC News. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  29. ^ "US business leaders call for peaceful transfer of power". www.ft.com. 7 November 2020. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 2020.
  30. ^ Multiple sources:
    • Kumar, Anita; Orr, Gabby (21 December 2020). "Inside Trump's pressure campaign to overturn the election". Politico. Trump's efforts to cling to power are unprecedented in American history. While political parties have fought over the results of presidential elections before, no incumbent president has ever made such expansive and individualized pleas to the officials who oversee certification of the election results.
    • Sanger, David E. (19 November 2020). "Trump's Attempts to Overturn the Election Are Unparalleled in U.S. History". The New York Times. President Trump's attempts to overturn the 2020 election are unprecedented in American history and an even more audacious use of brute political force to gain the White House than when Congress gave Rutherford B. Hayes the presidency during Reconstruction.
  31. ^ Multiple sources:
  32. ^ Multiple sources:
  33. ^ "As Trump's Election Pressure Campaign Hits Republican Officials, Some Hit Back". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  34. ^ Phillip Bump, The uncomfortable reality: Even many Republican officials believe false election claims, Washington Post (February 24, 2021).
  35. ^ Paul Kane & Scott Clement, Just 27 congressional Republicans acknowledge Biden's win, Washington Post survey finds, Washington Post (December 24, 2021).
  36. ^ Michael Crowley, Trump's False Election Fraud Claims Split Republicans, New York Times (November 6, 2020).
  37. ^ Alison Main. "Trump says he would accept peaceful transfer of power but casts doubt on election results". CNN. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 2020.
  38. ^ Dmitriy Khavin, Haley Willis, Evan Hill, Natalie Reneau, Drew Jordan, Cora Engelbrecht, Christiaan Triebert, Stella Cooper, Malachy Browne and David Botti (30 June 2021). "Day of Rage: An In-Depth Look at How a Mob Stormed the Capitol". New York Times.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  39. ^ Colleen Long & Michael Balsamo (26 August 2021). "Capitol Police officers sue Trump, allies over insurrection". Associated Press.
  40. ^ Luke Mogelson (15 January 2021). "Capitol Police officers sue Trump, allies over insurrection". The New Yorker.
  41. ^ Levenson, Eric; Vera, Amir; Kallingal, Mallika (7 January 2021). "What we know about the 5 deaths in the pro-Trump mob that stormed the Capitol". CNN. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  42. ^ Axios. "McConnell: "Our democracy would enter a death spiral" if Congress overturned election". Axios. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  43. ^ Martin, Jeffery (7 January 2021). "Full Text of Speech in Which Donald Trump Finally Concedes Election to Biden Without Naming Him". Newsweek.
  44. ^ Dale, Daniel (12 June 2021). "Trump is doing more lying about the election than talking about any other subject". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 June 2021..

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Peaceful_transition_of_power
 



 



 
Music Scenes