|Founded||27 April 1991|
|Dissolved||11 January 2014|
|Split from||Public Against Violence|
|Headquarters||Tomá?ikova 32/A, Bratislava|
|European affiliation||European Democratic Party|
|International affiliation||None (member of the Alliance of Democrats)[a]|
|European Parliament group||Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (2009-2014)|
|Colours||White, Blue, Red|
Founded in 1991, its leader is Vladimír Me?iar, who, as Prime Minister, led Slovakia through the Velvet Divorce. The party has been a member of the Slovak government three times: twice as the leading partner with Me?iar as Prime Minister (1992-94, 1994-98) and from 2006 - 2010 as the junior partner under Robert Fico of Direction - Social Democracy, and was the largest party from 1991 to 2006.
Founded in opposition to privatisation, the party's ideology has shifted repeatedly, with the only constants being Me?iar's leadership and a populism that alienated it from other parties in Slovakia and abroad. To overcome its previous reputation as a 'pariah', the party has touted its support of European integration. It was a member of the integrationist European Democratic Party, despite not sharing the liberal ideology of that organisation. Me?iar's rule is commonly described as authoritarian.
The party was created as a Slovak nationalist faction of Public Against Violence (VPN), from which it seceded at an extraordinary VPN congress on 27 April 1991. Called 'Movement for a Democratic Slovakia' (HZDS), it was led by Vladimír Me?iar, who had been deposed as Slovak Prime Minister a month earlier, and composed mostly of the VPN's cabinet members. The HZDS claimed to represent Slovak national interest, and demanded a more decentralised Czechoslovak confederation. On 7 May 1992, the HZDS voted for a declaration of independence, but this was defeated 73-57.
At the first election in which it took part, on 5-6 June, the HZDS won an overwhelming victory, with 74 seats on the National Council: two short of an absolute majority. Me?iar was appointed Prime Minister on 24 June. Whereas the HZDS wanted a confederation, the Czech elections on the same day were won by Civic Democratic Party, which preferred a tighter federation. Recognising that these positions were irreconcilable, the National Council voted for Slovakia's Declaration of Independence by 113 votes to 24, and Me?iar concluded formal negotiations over the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.
Originally designating itself as a centre-left party, the party moved towards the mainstream right and, in March 2000, renamed itself the 'People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia' (?S-HZDS) to try to achieve membership of the European People's Party (EPP). However, lingering memories of former anti-Europeanism, conflicting rhetoric, and the presence of three Slovak parties already in the EPP prevented this. The ?S-HZDS then looked to the Euro-integrationist European Democratic Party, which it joined in 2009.
The build-up to the 2002 election saw Me?iar exclude a number of prominent members from the party's list of candidates. Several of the excluded members, led by Ivan Ga?parovi?, split from the party and founded the similarly titled Movement for Democracy (HZD). The new party won 3.3% of the vote, eating significantly into the ?S-HZDS's position, and contributing to it winning only 36 seats. By 2006, further divisions and splits had reduced it to only 21 MPs.
In the parliamentary election of 17 June 2006, the party won 8.8% of the popular vote and 15 out of 150 seats.
Two ?S-HZDS ministers were sworn in with the Robert Fico government on July 4, 2006:
In the 2010 election the party lost all its seats, after its share of the vote halved to below the 5% threshold for entering parliament.