Peter IV Rare%C8%99
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Peter IV Rare%C8%99
Petru Rare?
(Petru IV)
043a - Petru Rares.jpg
Prince of Moldavia
(1st reign)
Reign20 January 1527 - 18 September 1538
PredecessorStephen IV of Moldavia
SuccessorStephen V of Moldavia
Prince of Moldavia
(2nd reign)
Reign19 February 1541 - 3 September 1546
PredecessorAlexandru Cornea
SuccessorIlie II Rare?
Bornca. 1483
Hârl?u
Died3 September 1546
Suceava
DynastyBogdan-Mu?at
FatherStephen the Great
MotherMaria R?re?oaia
ReligionOrthodox

Petru Rare? (pronounced ['petru 'rare?]), sometimes known as Petry?a or Peter IV (Petru IV; ca. 1483 - 3 September 1546), was twice voievod of Moldavia: 20 January 1527 to 18 September 1538 and 19 February 1541 to 3 September 1546. He was an illegitimate child born (probably at Hârl?u) to Stephen the Great. His mother was Maria R?re?oaia of Hârl?u, whose existence is not historically documented but who is said to have been the wife of a wealthy boyar fish-merchant nicknamed Rare? "rare-haired" (i.e., bald). Rare? thus was not Petru's actual name but a nickname of his mother's husband.

In his youth he was a fish merchant, but Prince ?tef?ni, grandson of ?tefan cel Mare, on his deathbed, recommended Petru as a suitable contender to the throne, thus acknowledging Petru's blood lineage from ?tefan cel Mare.

Petru exhibited many of his father's qualities: ambition, daring, bravery, piety, artistic taste. However, he was marked by inconstancy and a lack of political instincts.

First period of rule

Petru Rare?

In the Hungarian battles between Ferdinand Habsburg and John Zápolya, he initially sided with Ferdinand, but when the Ottomans awarded recognition to Zápolya, he switched allegiances. In exchange for the citadel of Bistri?a, he entered Transylvania on Zápolya's side and crushed Ferdinand at Feldioara on 22 June 1529. Zápolya then gave him Ungura?ul but in spite of the efforts made Rare? was unable to occupy Bistri?a. Neither could he subdue Bra?ov, which he besieged again in October for several weeks. Thus he was far from realizing his plan of ruling Transylvania. He had to content himself with Ciceu and Cetatea de Balt?, ruled by his father, and with the bishopric of Vad.

He then shifted his attention to Poland and in 1530 occupied Pokuttya. The Polish general Jan Tarnowski soon reconquered it, but when Petru re-entered Pokuttya, he was defeated by Tarnowski through superior tactics at Obertyn on 22 August 1531.

Events forced him to return to Transylvania. Here, the Ottomans had dispatched an Italian adventurer, Lodovico Gritti, to restore order. Transylvanian voievod István Majláth and the country's nobles forced him to close himself in Media?. Since Petru had received orders from the sultan to free Gritti, he sent his trusted vassal Huru to do the job. However, instead of helping Gritti, Huru lured him out and delivered him to his enemies, who killed him on the spot (1534). Rare? then killed Gritti's sons, who had entered Moldavia. The Ottomans could not presently retaliate, being occupied in Persia, so Petru was free to continue his intrigues between Ferdinand and Zápolya. The Poles tried in vain to have him replaced in 1538, appealing to the sultan to punish him. Then the over-zealous Petru, deserted by his own boyars, his capital Ia?i ablaze, and faced with a Turkish-Tatar-Polish army headed by Suleiman the Magnificent, who was bringing ?tefan L?cust? to the throne, had to flee to his Transylvanian fortress of Ciceu.

The voivoda Petru raised his head in revolt, but my horse's hoofs ground him into the dust, and I conquered the land of Moldovia.[1]

It is said that, during this flight, Rare? wandered for two weeks in the impassable forests of Transylvania, with difficulty making his way through spiny vegetation and ancient bushes and trees. Overcome by hunger, thirst, shock and despair, he was seen by a group of fishermen. Since he himself had been a fisherman, he was recognized and they sheltered and cared for him. Once he had recovered, his hosts garbed him in fishermen's clothes and showed him a shortcut to his citadel.

Second period of rule

A fortress erected by Petru Rare? in Soroca.

It took over two years and various political changes in Transylvania and Moldavia before Petru was able to gain the sultan's forgiveness and regain the Moldavian throne in early 1541. Entering the country, he captured voievod Alexandru Cornea and his faithful boyars and killed them. Now, however, he was no longer trusted to wage wars, especially because he no longer retained his special links with Muntenia, his son-in-law Vlad VII Vintil? having been slain. Nor could he take back the Budjak, occupied by Suleiman, nor even the citadels of Ciceu and Cetatea de Balt?, except as simple fiefdoms (which he did in 1544), for their walls had been razed by George Martinuzzi.

In 1541, Rare? caught Transylvanian voievod István Majláth at F?g?ra?, on the sultan's orders, and sent him to Constantinople.
In 1542 he tried unsuccessfully to take Bistri?a. Another failure was his enthusiastic involvement in plans for a crusade by Christian princes against the Ottomans. He lent the head of the proposed crusade, Joachim II of Brandenburg, 200,000 florins, but the initiative was abandoned when Buda was besieged in 1542 and Rare? died, still a Turkish vassal, on 3 September 1546. He is buried in the monastery that he endowed, Probota Monastery.

On the ecclesiastical and artistic front, he continued the tradition inherited from Stephen the Great. Aided by his wife Jelena, he built and repaired numerous churches, including in Baia, Boto?ani, Hârl?u, Târgu Frumos and Roman. His most beautiful achievement is considered to be Probota Monastery.

Children

Preceded by
?tef?ni
Prince/Voivode of Moldavia
1527-1538
Succeeded by
?tefan L?cust?
Preceded by
Alexandru Cornea
Prince/Voivode of Moldavia
1541-1546
Succeeded by
Ilie II Rare?

Bibliography

References

  1. ^ Halil ?nalc?k (1973). The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300-1600. p. 41.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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