Phofsit Daibuun
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Phofsit Daibuun

Phofsit Daibuun (PSDB) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien based on Modern Literal Taiwanese. It is able to use the ASCII character set to indicate the proper variation of pitch without any subsidiary scripts or diacritic symbols.

Phonology

Consonants[1]
    Dental Alveolo-palatal Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless unaspiration     p d k '
aspiration     ph t q  
voiced unaspiration     b   g  
Affricate voiceless unaspiration z c        
aspiration zh ch        
voiced unaspiration   j        
Fricative voiceless unaspiration s si        
aspiration           h
Nasal voiced unaspiration     m/v n ng/v  
Lateral voiced unaspiration       l    

Nasalized syllables are indicated by "v" preceding the syllable nucleus. Except for b, j, l, which do not precede nasalized vowels, and m and n, which are already nasals.

Normal c ch d g h k p ph q s t z zh ø
Nasalized cv chv dv gv hv kv pv phv qv sv tv zv zhv v
Example ?(cvy) ?(chvy) ?(dve) ?(gve) ?(hvi) ?(kvia) ?(pve) ?(phvi) ?(qvii) ?(svi) ?(tvi) ?(zvoa) ?(zhvef) ?(vi)
Vowels[2]
  Front Central Back
Close i   u
Close-mid e   oi(2)
Mid   oi(1)  
Open-mid     o
Open a    

Regarding the pronunciation of "oi":

Tone spellings

  • The table below shows the spelling of the basic tone (7) mid tone, and the four sub-tones (1) high, (5) rising, (3) low falling/low, (2) falling/high falling
  • (') indicates a changed tone
  • (**) indicates a tone that does not exist in standard Taiwanese

Monophthongs

a (ha)? af ? aa (gaa)? ax (pax)? ar (kar)?
i ? y ? ii ? ix ? ie ?
u ? w ? uu (guu)? ux ? uo ?
e ? ef (qef)?(qef) ee ? ex (kex)? ea ?
o ? of ? oo ? ox (tox)? or ?
oi (goi)? oy ? ooi ? oix ? oir ?
ng (hng)? ngf ? ngg ? ngx ? ngr ?
m ? mf' (mfpooi) mm ? mx' (mxsi) mr ?

Diphthongs

ai (dai)? ay ? aai (daai)? aix ? ae ?
au ? aw ? aau ? aux ? ao (kao)?
ia ? iaf ? iaa ? iax ? iar ?
iau ? iaw ? iaau ? iaux (tiaux)? iao (ciao)?
ioi (bioi)? ioy ? iooi ? ioix (kioix)? ioir (cioir)?
iu ? iw ? iuu ? iux ? iuo ?
oa (doa)? oaf (koaf)? oaa (zoaa)? oax (hoax)? oar (zoar)?
oai (hoai)? oay (koay)? oaai (hoaai)? oaix (koaix)? oae (koae)?
oe ? oef ? oee ? oex (hoex)? oea ?
ui ? uy ? uii ? uix ? uie ?

Nasal finals

an (han)? afn ? aan ? axn ? arn (karn)?
ang (bang)? afng ? aang ? axng ? arng (karng)?
am ? afm ? aam ? axm ? arm ?
eng ? efng ? eeng ? exng ? erng ?
iam ? iafm ? iaam ? iaxm ? iarm ?
iang ? iafng ? iaang ? iaxng ? iarng ?
ien ? iefn ? ieen ? iexn ? iern ?
in ? yn ? iin ? ixn ? irn ?
im (dim)? ym ? iim ? ixm ? irm ?
iong ? iofng ? ioong ? ioxng ? iorng ?
oan ? oafn ? oaan ? oaxn ? oarn ?
ong ? ofng ? oong ? oxng ? orng ?
un ? wn ? uun ? uxn ? urn ?
om' ?'? ofm ? oom** oxm (doxm)? orm' (dorm)?'?

Checked syllables

  • # symbol represents characters used for their meaning, rather than their pronunciation
Monophthong
Labial Dental Velar Open
Low ab ? ad ? ag ? aq ?
High ap ? at (bat)? ak (bak)? ah (tah)?
Low ib ? id ? ig** iq (tiq)?
High ip ? it ? ik** ih ?
Low ub** ud ? ug** uq (duq)?
High up** ut (kut)? uk** uh (duh)?
Low eb** ed** eg ? eq (keq)?
High ep** et** ? eh ?
Low ob (lob)#? od** og ? oq (moq)
High op (lop'lob) ot** ok (dok)? oh (moh)?
Low oib** oid** oig** oiq #?
High oip** oit** oik** oih ?
Diphthong
iab # ied ? iag (siag)? iaq ?
iap ? iet ? iak (diak)? iah ?
oad #? iog auq (kauq)?
oat ? iok ? auh (bauh)?
iuq (kiuq)? iauq (hiauq)?
iuh' (kiuh)? iauh (hiauh)?
oaq (koaq)? ioiq #? oeq (hoeq)? uiq (huiq)?
oah ? ioih ? oeh ? uih ?

Rarely used vowels

Vowel Example
io nio, =nio ?;svio, =sviu ?
iof diofng ?;hviof, =hviw?
ioo nioo, =niuu ?,?;hioong affectionate, cruel
iox cioxng ?,?;hioxng ?
ior nior, =niuo ?;bioir ?
ioq hioq ? (interrogative)
oaiq voaiq
oaih' vih'voaih'kioix
mq hmq, =hmr strike down forcefully
mh hmh insidious, silent; hmq'hmh
ngq hngq (expression of agreement)
ngh dngh ?, ;hngh (expression of disapproval)

PSDB examples

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

PSDB English
Lienhabkog seakaix jinqoaan soangieen

De id diaau

Sofu ee laang cit zhutsix doixsi zuxiuu ee, jichviar di zungiaam kab qoanli siong itlut pengderng. Langlaang tiensefng doi u lysexng kab liongsym, erngkay aix kafnnar hviadi kaxngqoarn laai hoxsiong duietai.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

PSDB Greetings

PSDB Translation Remarks
Ciaqpar`boe? Greetings. ("Have you eaten?")
Sitlea! Sorry for my impoliteness! (lit., "Disrespect")
Goar tviaf booi. I don't understand. (lit., "I hear not")
Piexnsor di doyui? Where's the bathroom? (lit., "bathroom is where?")
Loflat! Kafmsia! Thank you
Ho daf `lax! Cheers! (lit., Let it [the cup/glass] be dry [empty]!)
Lie karm korng Engguo? Do you speak English?
Siensvy korng, hagsefng diaxmdiam tviaf. The teacher talks, the students quietly listen. About this soundlisten 
Kin'afjit hit'ee zabor-gyn'ar laai goarn daw qvoax goar. Today that girl came to my house to see me. About this soundlisten 
Kin'axm larn beq qix Suxliim Iaxchi'ar. Tonight, we want to go to Shilin Night Market.

Comparison chart

Vowels
IPA a ap at ak a? ã ? ?k ? o e ? i i?n i
Pe?h-?e-j? a ap at ak ah a? o? ok o? o o e e? i ian eng
Revised TLPA a ap at ak ah aN oo ok ooN o o e eN i ian ing
TLPA a ap at ak ah ann oo ok oonn o o e enn i ian ing
BP a ap at ak ah na oo ok noo o o e ne i ian ing
MLT a ab/ap ad/at ag/ak aq/ah va o og/ok vo ø ø e ve i ien eng
DT a ?p/ap ?t/at ?k/ak ?h/ah ann/a? o ok onn/o? or or e enn/e? i ian/en ing
Taiwanese kana
Extended bopomofo ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Tâi-lô a ap at ak ah ann oo ok onn o o e enn i ian ing
Example (traditional Chinese) ?
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Example (simplified Chinese) ?
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Vowels
IPA i?k ? ai a? au am ?m m? u ua ue uai uan ? (i)?
Pe?h-?e-j? ek i? ai ai? au am om m ong ng u oa oe oai oan i (i)u?
Revised TLPA ik iN ai aiN au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir (i)uN
TLPA ik inn ai ainn au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir (i)unn
BP ik ni ai nai au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan i n(i)u
MLT eg/ek vi ai vai au am om m ong ng u oa oe oai oan i v(i)u
DT ik inn/i? ai ainn/ai? au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan i (i)unn/u?
Taiwanese kana ? ?
Extended bopomofo ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Tâi-lô ik inn ai ainn au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir (i)unn
Example (traditional Chinese) ?
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Example (simplified Chinese) ?
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Consonants
IPA p b p? m t t? n n? l k ? k? h t?i ?i ti ?i ts dz ts? s
Pe?h-?e-j? p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h chi ji chhi si ch j chh s
Revised TLPA p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h zi ji ci si z j c s
TLPA p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h zi ji ci si z j c s
BP b bb p bb d t n lng l g gg k h zi li ci si z l c s
MLT p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h ci ji chi si z j zh s
DT b bh p m d t n nng l g gh k h zi r ci si z r c s
Taiwanese kana ?? ?
Extended bopomofo ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Tâi-lô p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h tsi ji tshi si ts j tsh s
Example (traditional Chinese) ?
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Example (simplified Chinese) ?
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Tones
Tone name Yin level
(1)
Yin rising
(2)
Yin departing
(3)
Yin entering
(4)
Yang level
(5)
Yang rising
(6)
Yang departing
(7)
Yang entering
(8)
High rising
(9)
Neutral tone
(0)
IPA a? a a ap?
at?
ak?
a
a a? ap?
at?
ak?
a
a a?
Pe?h-?e-j? a á à ap
at
ak
ah
â ? a?p
a?t
a?k
a?h
  --a
Revised
TLPA,
TLPA
a1 a2 a3 ap4
at4
ak4
ah4
a5 a6 a7 ap8
at8
ak8
ah8
a9 a0
BP ? ? à ?p
?t
?k
?h
á â áp
át
ák
áh
   
MLT
af ar ax ab
ad
ag
aq
aa aar a ap
at
ak
ah
  ~a
DT a à â ?p
?t
?k
?h
? ? ap
at
ak
ah
á å
Taiwanese kana
(normal vowels)
Taiwanese kana normal tone 2.png Taiwanese kana normal tone 3.png Taiwanese kana normal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 5.png Taiwanese kana normal tone 7.png Taiwanese kana normal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 8.png
   
Taiwanese kana
(nasal vowels)
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 1.png Taiwanese kana nasal tone 2.png Taiwanese kana nasal tone 3.png Taiwanese kana nasal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 5.png Taiwanese kana nasal tone 7.png Taiwanese kana nasal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 8.png
   
Extended bopomofo ? ?`





   
Tâi-lô a á à ah â ? ? a?h a? --ah
Example
(traditional Chinese)
?? ?? ?? ??
??
??
??
?? ?? ??
??
??
??
??
Example
(simplified Chinese)
?? ?? ?? ??
??
??
??
?? ?? ??
??
??
??
??


Notes

External links



  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Phofsit_Daibuun
 



 



 
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