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Side effects when given by injection may include pain at the site of injection. Severe allergic reactions may occur when it is injected into a vein or muscle, but this has mainly happened when large doses of a certain type of supplement containing castor oil were given intravenously.  Use during pregnancy is considered safe, use is also likely okay during breastfeeding. It works by supplying a required component for making a number of blood clotting factors. Found sources include green vegetables, vegetable oil, and some fruit.
The best-known function of vitamin K in animals is as a cofactor in the formation of coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X by the liver. It is also required for the formation of anticoagulant factors protein C and S. It is commonly used to treat warfarin toxicity, and as an antidote for coumatetralyl.
Vitamin K is required for bone protein formation.
The biosynthesis of vitamin K1 via the transformation of chorismate occurs in nine steps.
Vitamin K1 is synthesized from chorismate, a compound produced from shikimate via the shikimate pathway. The conversion of chorismate to vitamin K1 comprises a series of nine steps:
Chorismate is isomerized to isochorismate by isochorismate synthase, or MenF (menaquinone enzyme).
Addition of 2-oxoglutarate to isochorismate by PHYLLO, a multifunctional protein comprising three different enzymatic activities (MenD, H, and C).
^Riegert-Johnson DL, Volcheck GW (October 2002). "The incidence of anaphylaxis following intravenous phytonadione (vitamin K1): a 5-year retrospective review". Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 89 (4): 400-6. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62042-X. PMID12392385.
^Bailey B (February 2003). "Are there teratogenic risks associated with antidotes used in the acute management of poisoned pregnant women?". Birth Defects Res a Clin Mol Teratol. 67 (2): 133-40. doi:10.1002/bdra.10007. PMID12769509.
^World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
^Reumann S (2013). "Biosynthesis of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) by plant peroxisomes and its integration into signaling molecule synthesis pathways". Peroxisomes and their Key Role in Cellular Signaling and Metabolism. Subcellular Biochemistry. 69. Springer Netherlands. pp. 213-29. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6889-5_12. ISBN9789400768888. PMID23821151.