Polabian Language
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Polabian Language
Polabian
Slüvens rec / Vens
Pronunciation/sly'vn.st r?t?s/
Native toPoland, Germany
Extinct1756, with the death of Emerentz Schultze
Language codes
pox
pox
Glottologpola1255
Linguasphere53-AAA-bc
Polabian Slavs.png
Grey: Former settlement area of the Polabian Slavs. Green: Uninhabited forest areas. Darker shade just indicates higher elevation. The map already shows the Saxon (Sasové) invasion into the Veletic/Slavic territory of the Volci (Volcae), Chaci (Chatti) and Chru?ci (Cherusci).

Polabian is an extinct West Slavic language that was spoken by the Polabian Slavs (German: Wenden) in present-day northeastern Germany around the Elbe (?aba/Laba/Labe in Slavic) river, from which its name derives (po Labe - up the Elbe or [living] up to Elbe). It was spoken approximately until the rise to power of Prussia in the mid-18th century, when it was superseded by Low German.

By the 18th century, Lechitic Polabian was in some respects markedly different from other Slavic languages, most notably in having a strong German influence. It was close to Pomeranian and Kashubian, and is attested only in a handful of manuscripts, dictionaries and various writings from the 17th and 18th centuries.

History

About 2800 Polabian words are known; of prose writings, only a few prayers, one wedding song and a few folktales survive. Immediately before the language became extinct, several people started to collect phrases and compile wordlists, and were engaged with folklore of the Polabian Slavs, but only one of them appears to have been a native speaker of Polabian (himself leaving only 13 pages of linguistically relevant material from a 310-page manuscript).[1] The last native speaker of Polabian, Emerentz Schultze, died in 1756 at the age of 88,[2] and the last person who spoke limited Polabian died in 1825.

The most important monument of the language is the so-called Vocabularium Venedicum (1679-1719) by Christian Hennig.

The language left many traces to this day in toponymy; for example, Wustrow (way to the island or place on the island), Ljauchów (Lüchow), ?uków (Luckau), Sagard, Gartow, Krakow (resembling Kraków, Krakov...) etc. The Polabian language is also a likely origin of the name Berlin, from the Polabian stem berl-/birl- (swamp).

Grammar

Phonology

For Polabian the following segments are reconstructable:[3]

Polabian consonant segments
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Post-
palatal
Velar
Plosives p p? t t? k
b b? d d? ?
Affricates t?s t?s?
d?z d?z?
Fricatives f s ? s? x? x
v v? z z?
Nasals m m? n n?
Laterals l l?
Trills r r?
Semi-vowel j

Sample text

The Lord's Prayer in Polabian and related Lechitic languages, compared to Old Church Slavonic, Old High German and English:[4] Germanic loanwords, which are comparatively rare in the other West Slavic languages, are highlighted in bold (loanwords in Germanic versions are highlighted as well).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Kapovi? (2008, p. 109)
  2. ^ Altes Land und Rundlingsdörfer vorgeschlagen - Wer wird Welterbe?, haz.de, 18. June 2012
  3. ^ Cited after Kazimierz (1993, p. 799)
  4. ^ Polabian version quoted after TITUS project
  5. ^ Praying Together Archived 2013-10-29 at the Wayback Machine

References

  • Olesch, Reinhold (1977), "Jezik polapskih Drevana: Stanje i zadaci istra?ivanja", Suvremena Lingvistika (in Serbo-Croatian), Zagreb, 15, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-05-06
  • Kapovi?, Mate (2008), Uvod u indoeuropsku lingvistiku (in Serbo-Croatian), Zagreb: Matica hrvatska, ISBN 978-953-150-847-6
  • Rzetelska-Feleszko, Ewa (2002), "Polabisch" (PDF), Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens (in German), Klagenfurt, archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-27
  • Pola?ski, Kazimierz (1993), "Polabian", in Bernard Comrie and Greville G. Corbett (ed.), The Slavonic languages, London & New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-28078-5
  • S?ownik etymologiczny j?zyka Drzewian po?abskich, Part 1: ed. Tadeusz Lehr-Sp?awi?ski & Kazimierz Pola?ski, Wroc?aw, 1962, from Part 2 on: ed. K. Pola?ski, Wroc?aw, 1971-
  • Kazimierz Pola?ski & Janusz Sehnert: Polabian-English Dictionary. The Hague: Mouton 1967

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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