Politics of Tuscany
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Politics of Tuscany

The Politics of Tuscany, Italy takes place in the framework of a semi-presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of the Region is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in the Regional Council of Tuscany, while executive power is exercised by the Regional Government led by the President, who is directly elected by the people. The current Statute, which regulates the functioning of the regional institutions, has been in force since 2005.

Prior to the rise of Fascism, most of the deputies elected in Tuscany were part of the liberal establishment (see Historical Right, Historical Left and Liberals), which governed Italy for decades. Florence and the southern provinces of the region were anyway an early stronghold of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). At the 1924 general election, which opened the way to the Fascist authoritarian rule, Tuscany was one of the regions where the National Fascist Party (PNF) obtained more than 70% of the vote.[1]

After World War II, Tuscany became a stronghold of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), which was especially strong in rural areas. The PCI and its successors have governed the region since 1970. The region is now a stronghold of the "centre-left coalition" led by the Democratic Party (PD), like the other regions of the so-called "Red belt".[2][3][4]

The centre-left coalition has governed the region since 1995, under President Eugenio Giani since 2020.

Legislative branch

Palazzo Capponi-Covoni and Palazzo Panciatichi in Florence are the seats of the Regional Council

The Regional Council of Tuscany is composed of 41 members.

Councillors are elected in provincial constituencies by proportional representation using the D'Hondt method. The Florence constituency is further divided into 4 sub-constituencies. Preferential voting is allowed: a maximum of two preferences can be expressed for candidates of the same party list and provided the two chosen candidates are of different gender. In this system parties are grouped in alliances, supporting a candidate for the post of President of Tuscany. The candidate receiving at least 40% of the votes is elected to the post and his/her list (or the coalition) is awarded a majority bonus in the Regional Council. If no candidate gets more than 40% of the votes, a run-off is held fourteen days after, with only the two top candidates from the first round allowed. The winning candidate is assured a majority in the Regional Council.[5]

The Council is elected for a five-year term, but, if the President suffers a vote of no confidence, resigns or dies, under the simul stabunt, simul cadent clause introduced in 1999 (literally they will stand together or they will fall together), also the Council is dissolved and a snap election is called.

2020-2025 composition

Party Seats Government Tuscany Regional Council 2020.svg
Democratic Party (PD)
In government
League
In opposition
Brothers of Italy (FdI)
In opposition
Italia Viva (IV)
In government
Five Star Movement (M5S)
In opposition
Forza Italia (FI)
In opposition

Executive branch

Palazzo Strozzi-Sacrati in Florence is the seat of the Regional Government

The Regional Government (Giunta Regionale) is presided by the President of the Region (Presidente della Regione), who is elected for a five-year term, and is currently composed by nine members: the President and 8 regional ministers or assessors (Assessori), including a Vice President (Vice Presidente).[6]

Current composition

The current Regional Government was sworn in on 21 October 2020.

Party Members
Democratic Party PD President
and 6 ministers
Italia Viva IV 1 minister
Civic Ecologic Left SCE 1 minister
Minister Party Delegate for
Stefania Saccardi
(vice president)
IV Agriculture, food processing, hunt and fishing
Stefano Baccelli PD Transports, infrastructures and sustainable mobility
Simone Bezzini PD Healthcare
Monia Monni PD Environment, circular economy, soil protection
Serena Spinelli SCE Social policies and public houses
Leonardo Marras PD Economy and tourism
Alessandra Nardini PD Public education, university and scientific research
Stefano Ciuoffo PD Bureaucratic simplification and informatisation

List of presidents

The current President of Tuscany is Eugenio Giani, who is serving his first term after winning the 2020 regional election.

Local government

Provinces

Maps of Provinces of Tuscany

Tuscany is divided in ten provinces, which are a traditional form of local administration in the region.

The three main functions devolved to the provinces are:

  • local planning and zoning;
  • maintenance of public high school buildings;
  • provision of local police and fire services;
  • transportation regulation (car registration, maintenance of local roads, etc.).

From 1945 to 1995 presidents of the provinces were chosen by the members of the Provincial Councils, legislative bodies elected every five years by citizens. From 1995 to 2014, under provisions of the 1993 local administration reform, presidents of the provinces of Tuscany were chosen by popular election, originally every four, then every five years.

On 3 April 2014, the Italian Chamber of Deputies gave its final approval to the Law n.56/2014 which involved the transformation of the Italian provinces into "institutional bodies of second level". According to the 2014 reform, now each province is headed by a President (or Commissioner) assisted by a legislative body, the Provincial Council, and an executive body, the Provincial Executive. President (Commissioner) and members of Council are elected together by mayors and city councillors of each municipality of the province respectively every four and two years. The Executive is chaired by the President (Commissioner) who appoint others members, called assessori. Since 2015, the President (Commissioner) and other members of the Council do not receive a salary.

Socialist and communist ideas had an early diffusion in quite all the provinces around World War I. After the Fascist parenthesis, left-wing parties found their strongholds in eastern rural provinces, especially Siena and Arezzo, while Christian Democracy used to be strong in the north-western part of the Region.

The Province of Florence is now one of the major national strongholds of Democratic Party. The Province of Siena is also called the "red province of Italy", because the Italian Communist Party has always governed it with the 60% of the votes since 1945 to the dissolution of the party in 1991.

Municipalities

Tuscany is also divided in 287 comuni (municipalities), which have even more history, having been established in the Middle Ages when they were the main places of government. 18 comuni (10 provincial capitals) have more than 45,000 inhabitants, a large majority of which are ruled by the centre-left coalition.

Provincial capitals:

Other municipalities with more than 45,000 inhabitants:

Municipality Inhabitants Mayor Party Election
Carrara 65,612 Francesco De Pasquale Five Star Movement 2017
Viareggio 64,564 Giorgio Del Ghingaro Democratic Party 2020
Scandicci 50,304 Sandro Fallani Democratic Party 2019
Sesto Fiorentino 48,780 Lorenzo Falchi Italian Left 2016
Empoli 47,997 Brenda Barnini Democratic Party 2019
Capannori 46,355 Luca Menesini Democratic Party 2019
Campi Bisenzio 45,325 Emiliano Fossi Democratic Party 2018
Cascina 45,143 Michelangelo Betti Democratic Party 2020

Parties and elections

Latest regional election

In the latest regional election, which took place on 20-21 September 2020, Eugenio Giani of the Democratic Party (PD) was elected President, by beating Susanna Ceccardi of Lega Nord 48.6% to 40.5%. The PD was by far the largest party with 34% of the vote.

Tuscany Regional Council 2020.svg
Candidates Votes % Seats Parties Votes % Seats
Eugenio Giani 864,310 48.62 1 Democratic Party 563,116 34.69 22
Italia Viva - More Europe 72,649 4.48 2
Civic Ecologist Left 48,410 2.98 -
Proud Tuscany for Giani 47,778 2.94 -
Green Europe 26,924 1.66 -
Svolta! 5,246 0.32 -
Total 764,123 47.08 24
Susanna Ceccardi 719,266 40.46 2 Lega per Salvini Premier 353,514 21.78 7
Brothers of Italy 219,165 13.50 4
Forza Italia - UDC 69,456 4.28 1
Civic Tuscany for Change 16,923 1.04 -
Total 659,058 40.60 12
Irene Galletti 113,796 6.40 1 Five Star Movement 113,836 7.01 1
Tommaso Fattori 39,684 2.23 - Tuscany to the Left 46,514 2.87 -
Salvatore Catello 17,007 0.96 - Communist Party 17,032 1.05 -
Marco Barzanti 16,078 0.90 - Italian Communist Party 15,617 0.96 -
Tiziana Vigni 7,668 0.43 - 3V Movement 6,974 0.43 -
Total candidates 1,777,809 100.00 4 Total parties 1,623,154 100.00 37
Source: Tuscany Region - Electoral Services


References

  1. ^ Piergiorgio Corbetta; Maria Serena Piretti, Atlante storico-elettorale d'Italia, Zanichelli, Bologna 2009
  2. ^ Ceccarini, Luigi; Newell, James L. (2019). The Italian General Election of 2018: Italy in Uncharted Territory. Springer. p. 252. ISBN 9783030136178. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ Newell, James L. (2010). The Politics of Italy: Governance in a Normal Country. Cambridge University Press. p. 229. ISBN 9781139788892. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ Barbieri, Giovanni (2012). "The Northern League in the 'Red Belt' of Italy" (PDF). Bulletin of Italian Politics. University of Glasgow. 4 (2): 277-294. ISSN 1759-3077. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ http://raccoltanormativa.consiglio.regione.toscana.it/articolo?urndoc=urn:nir:regione.toscana:legge:2014-09-26;51
  6. ^ http://www.regione.toscana.it/regione/giunta

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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