The Architecture Portal
Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ? arkhitekton "architect", from ?- "chief" and "creator") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
The practice, which began in the prehistoric era, has been used as a way of expressing culture for civilizations on all seven continents. For this reason, architecture is considered to be a form of art. Texts on architecture have been written since ancient time. The earliest surviving text on architectural theory is the 1st century AD treatise De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius, according to whom a good building embodies firmitas, utilitas, and venustas (durability, utility, and beauty). Centuries later, Leon Battista Alberti developed his ideas further, seeing beauty as an objective quality of buildings to be found in their proportions. Giorgio Vasari wrote Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects and put forward the idea of style in the Western arts in the 16th century. In the 19th century, Louis Sullivan declared that "form follows function". "Function" began to replace the classical "utility" and was understood to include not only practical but also aesthetic, psychological and cultural dimensions. The idea of sustainable architecture was introduced in the late 20th century.
Architecture began as rural, oral vernacular architecture that developed from trial and error to successful replication. Ancient urban architecture was preoccupied with building religious structures and buildings symbolizing the political power of rulers until Greek and Roman architecture shifted focus to civic virtues. Indian and Chinese architecture influenced forms all over Asia and Buddhist architecture in particular took diverse local flavors. During the European Middle Ages, pan-European styles of Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals and abbeys emerged while the Renaissance favored Classical forms implemented by architects known by name. Later, the roles of architects and engineers became separated. Modern architecture began after World War I as an avant-garde movement that sought to develop a completely new style appropriate for a new post-war social and economic order focused on meeting the needs of the middle and working classes. Emphasis was put on modern techniques, materials, and simplified geometric forms, paving the way for high-rise superstructures. Many architects became disillusioned with modernism which they perceived as ahistorical and anti-aesthetic, and postmodern and contemporary architecture developed.
Over the years, the field of architectural construction has branched out to include everything from ship design to interior decorating. (Full article...)
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Japanese castles (?, shiro) are fortresses constructed primarily of wood and stone. They evolved from the wooden stockades of earlier centuries, and came into their best-known form in the 16th century. Castles in Japan were built to guard important or strategic sites, such as ports, river crossings, or crossroads, and almost always incorporated the landscape into their defenses.
Though they were built to last and used more stone in their construction than most Japanese buildings, castles were still constructed primarily of wood
, and many were destroyed over the years. This was especially true during the Sengoku period
(1467-1603), when many of these castles were first built. However, many were rebuilt, either later in the Sengoku period, in the Edo period
(1603-1867) that followed, or more recently, as national heritage sites or museums. Today there are more than one hundred castles extant, or partially extant, in Japan
; it is estimated that once there were five thousand. Some castles, such as the ones at Matsue
, both built in 1611, remain extant in their original forms, not having suffered any damage from sieges or other threats. Hiroshima Castle
, on the opposite end of the spectrum, was destroyed in the atomic bombing
, and was rebuilt in 1958 as a museum. (Full article...
Architects: Matthew Brettingham, William Bruce, William Burges, John Douglas, Charles Holden, El Lissitzky, Benjamin Mountfort, I. M. Pei, Albert Speer, Rudolf Wolters.
Buildings: 7 World Trade Center, Angkor Wat, Baden-Powell House, Belton House, Borobudur, BP Pedestrian Bridge, Bramall Hall, Buckingham Palace, Buildings and architecture of Bristol, Buildings of Jesus College, Oxford, Buildings of Nuffield College, Oxford, Building of the World Trade Center, Castell Coch, Catherine de' Medici's building projects, Chartwell, Chicago Board of Trade Building, Cragside, Heian Palace, Holkham Hall, IG Farben Building, House with Chimaeras, Hoysala architecture, City of Manchester Stadium, Monnow Bridge, Mosque, Michigan State Capitol, New Orleans Mint, Oregon State Capitol, Oriel College, Oxford, Palazzo Pitti, Palladian architecture, Pennsylvania State Capitol, Round Church, Preslav, Sandringham House, Sanssouci, Santa Maria de Ovila, Scottish Parliament building, Sicilian Baroque, St Donat's Castle, St. Michael's Cathedral, Qingdao, St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery, St Nicholas, Blakeney, Vkhutemas, The Tower House, West Wycombe Park
Chicago Landmarks, National Treasures of Japan (castles), National Treasures of Japan (shrines), Pritzker Prize, New churches by John Douglas, Church restorations, amendments and furniture by John Douglas, Houses and associated buildings by John Douglas, Non-ecclesiastical and non-residential works by John Douglas, Scheduled monuments in Maidstone, Works by Charles Holden, Grade I listed buildings in: Bath and North East Somerset, Maidstone, Mendip, North Somerset, Sedgemoor, South Somerset, Taunton Deane, West Somerset, List of tallest buildings in: Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Dubai, Hong Kong, Las Vegas, London, Los Angeles, Manchester, Miami, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Providence, San Francisco, Shanghai, Singapore, Tokyo, Toronto, Tulsa, Vancouver, Listed buildings in: Runcorn (urban area), Runcorn (rural area), Widnes
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Architects: William Adam, Eustace Balfour, Antoni Gaudí, Thomas Harrison, Zvi Hecker, Bjarke Ingels, E. G. Paley, Timothy L. Pflueger, Antonin Raymond, Kenzo Tange.
Buildings: 108 North State Street, 5th Avenue Theatre, Algonquin Hotel, Andriyivskyy Descent, AT&T Corporate Center, Ballard Carnegie Library, Baths of Zeuxippus, Beaumont House, Benjaminville Friends Meeting House and Burial Ground, Blackstone Library, Boughton Monchelsea Place, The Casbah Coffee Club, Central Troy Historic District, Chana School, Chester Rows, Chicago Spire, Chicago Theatre, Chrysler Building, Churche's Mansion, Clinton Presidential Center, Crown Fountain, Dolphinarium, Eaton Hall, Cheshire, Édifice Price, Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier, Ellwood House, The Exchange, Bristol, Forbidden City, Harold Washington Cultural Center, Heller House, Historic Michigan Boulevard District, Hull House, Imbrex and tegula, Imperial War Museum North, Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Joffrey Tower, Joseph F. Glidden House, Linton Park, Liverpool Town Hall, Louvre, Manila Hotel, Marquette Building (Chicago), Millennium Stadium, National Gallery, London, National Police Memorial, New Bedford Historic District, Old Louisville, One Bayfront Plaza, One Times Square, Onion dome, Oregon Public Library, Pavillon de Flore, Presidio of Santa Barbara, Queen's Pier, Rancho Camulos, Robot Building, Rock N Roll McDonald's, Roman Baths (Bath), Rookery Building, Senate House (University of London), Shamrock Hotel, Sycamore Historic District, Taipei 101, Taj Mahal, TCF Bank Stadium, United States Institute of Peace Headquarters, University Mall (Little Rock, Arkansas), University of Illinois Observatory, University of Virginia, Upper Brook Street Chapel, Manchester, Valley of the Kings, Via della Conciliazione, Victoria Rooms (Bristol), Waller Hall, Wales Millennium Centre, World Trade Center.
Castles and fortifications: Beaumaris Castle, Berkhamsted Castle, Bowes Castle, Buckton Castle, Caernarfon Castle, Caludon Castle, Château Gaillard, Château de Chinon, Conwy Castle, Dolbadarn Castle, Dunstaffnage Castle, Fort Greble, Fort Pasir Panjang, Fortress of Klis, Golubac fortress, Goodrich Castle, Haapsalu Castle, Hadleigh Castle, Halton Castle, Himeji Castle, Hylton Castle, Kaunas Fortress, Kenilworth Castle, Loch Leven Castle, Longtown Castle, Okehampton Castle, Oxford Castle, Peckforton Castle, Castle Rising, Roslin Castle, Smederevo Fortress, St Briavels Castle, Vilnius Castle Complex, Walls of Constantinople, Walls of Dubrovnik, York Castle.
Religious buildings: Akhtala monastery, Akshardham Temple, Al-Aqsa Mosque, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Bath Abbey, Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Hong Kong), Chester Cathedral, College of All Saints, Maidstone, Elgin Cathedral, Etchmiadzin Cathedral, Ganting Grand Mosque, Hurva Synagogue, Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos, Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral, Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Mezhyhirskyi Monastery, Old St Paul's Cathedral, St Mary's Church, Acton, St Mary's Church, Nantwich, St Mary's Church, Nether Alderley, St Thomas the Martyr's Church, Oxford, Sunol Water Temple, Uppsala Cathedral, Wells Cathedral, Zagreb Synagogue, Zhenguo Temple.
Cities, countries and regions: Architecture of Denmark, Architecture of Leeds, Architecture of Madagascar, Architecture of Norway, Architecture of Scotland, Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England, Buildings and architecture of Bath, Castles in Great Britain and Ireland, Grade I listed buildings in Somerset, Architecture of the Song Dynasty, Fatimid architecture.
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