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Mexico (Spanish: México ['mexiko] ; Nahuan languages: M?xihco), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos; EUM [es'taðos u'niðoz mexi'kanos] , lit. 'Mexican United States'), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world's 13th-largest country by area; with approximately 126,014,024 inhabitants, it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish-speakers. Mexico is organized as a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital and largest metropolis. Other major urban areas include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.
Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BC and is identified as one of the six cradles of civilization; it was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, most notably the Maya and the Aztecs. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the region from its base in Mexico City, establishing the colony of New Spain. The Catholic Church played an important role in spreading Christianity and the Spanish language, while also preserving some indigenous elements. Native populations were subjugated and heavily exploited to mine rich deposits of precious metals, which contributed to Spain's status as a major world power for the next three centuries, and to a massive influx of wealth and a price revolution in Western Europe. Over time, a distinct Mexican identity formed, based on a fusion of European and indigenous customs; this contributed to the successful Mexican War of Independence against Spain in 1821. (Full article...)
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The Battle of Lipantitlán, also known as the Battle of Nueces Crossing, was fought along the Nueces River on November 4, 1835 between the Mexican Army and Texian insurgents, as part of the Texas Revolution. After the Texian victory at the Battle of Goliad, only two Mexican garrisons remained in Texas, Fort Lipantitlán near San Patricio and the Alamo Mission at San Antonio de Béxar (modern-day San Antonio in the U.S. state of Texas). Fearing that Lipantitlán could be used as a base for the Mexican army to retake Goliad and angry that two of his men were imprisoned there, Texian commander Philip Dimmitt ordered his adjutant, Captain Ira Westover, to capture the fort.
The commander of Fort Lipantitlán, Nicolás Rodríguez, had been ordered to harass the Texian troops at Goliad. Rodríguez took the bulk of his men on an expedition; while they were gone, Westover's force arrived in San Patricio. On November 3, a local man persuaded the Mexican garrison to surrender, and the following day the Texians dismantled the fort. Rodríguez returned as the Texians were crossing the swollen Nueces River
to return to Goliad. The Mexican soldiers attacked, but the longer range of the Texians rifles soon forced them to retreat. One Texian was injured, 3–5 Mexican soldiers were killed, and 14–17 were wounded. (Full article...
Selected article -
, a major tourist destination
Tourism in Mexico is a very important industry. Since the 1960s, it has been heavily promoted by the Mexican government, as "an industry without smokestacks." Mexico has traditionally been among the most visited countries in the world according to the World Tourism Organization, and it is the second-most visited country in the Americas, after the United States. In 2017, Mexico was ranked as the sixth-most visited country in the world for tourism activities. Mexico has a significant number of UNESCO World Heritage sites with the list including ancient ruins, colonial cities, and natural reserves, as well as a number of works of modern public and private architecture. Mexico has attracted foreign visitors beginning in the early nineteenth century, cultural festivals, colonial cities, nature reserves and the beach resorts. The nation's temperate climate and unique culture – a fusion of the European and the Mesoamerican are attractive to tourists. The peak tourism seasons in the country are during December and the mid-Summer, with brief surges during the week before Easter and Spring break, when many of the beach resort sites become popular destinations for college students from the United States.
The majority of tourists come to Mexico from the United States and Canada. Other visitors come from other Latin American
countries. A small number of tourists also come from Europe
. (Full article...
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Mis Boleros Favoritos
(English: My Favorite Boleros
) is a compilation album
by Mexican singer Luis Miguel
. Released on 8 October 2002 by Warner Music Latina
, it contains thirteen previously-recorded songs from the Romance
-themed albums as well as a new track "Hasta Que Vuelvas". A special edition of the record was released on the same day and includes a DVD
containing seven music videos
from the bolero-themed discs. "Hasta Que Vuelvas" was released as a single for the album and peaked at number 16 on Billboard
s Hot Latin Songs
chart in the United States. Iván Adaime of AllMusic
gave the album a 3.5 out of 5 star rating citing that the new song and music videos are the only incentives for fans to buy it and noted the album's purpose to end the Romance
era. "Hasta Que Vuelvas" received a Latin Grammy
nomination for Record of the Year
in 2003. Commercially, Mis Boleros Favoritos
peaked at number three on Billboard
s Top Latin Albums
chart in the United States, number one in Spain, and number seven in Argentina. (Full article...
Selected biography -
Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, also known as Juan Diego (Spanish pronunciation: [?xwan'dje?o]; 1474-1548), was a Chichimec peasant and Marian visionary. He is said to have been granted apparitions of the Virgin Mary on four occasions in December 1531: three at the hill of Tepeyac and a fourth before don Juan de Zumárraga, then bishop of Mexico. The Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, located at the foot of Tepeyac, houses the cloak (tilmahtli) that is traditionally said to be Juan Diego's, and upon which the image of the Virgin is said to have been miraculously impressed as proof of the authenticity of the apparitions.
Juan Diego's visions and the imparting of the miraculous image, as recounted in oral and written colonial sources such as the Huei tlamahuiçoltica
, are together known as the Guadalupe event (Spanish
: el acontecimiento Guadalupano
), and are the basis of the veneration of Our Lady of Guadalupe
. This veneration is ubiquitous in Mexico, prevalent throughout the Spanish-speaking Americas, and increasingly widespread beyond. As a result, the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe is now one of the world's major Christian pilgrimage destinations, receiving 22 million visitors in 2010. (Full article...
In the news
- 14 September 2021 - Mexican drug war
- A Mexican court sentences Vicente Carrillo Fuentes, a former leader of the Juárez drug cartel, to 28 years in prison on the charges of organized crime and drug trafficking. (AFP via RFI)
- 10 September 2021 - 2021 Guerrero earthquake
- A landslide occurs at Tlalnepantla, State of Mexico, on the hill known as Cerro del Chiquihuite, killing one person and leaving three more missing. It is said that the landslide was triggered by the earthquake in Guerrero three days earlier, which weakened soil conditions on the hill. (U.S. News & World Report) (ABC News)
- 7 September 2021 - 2021 Guerrero earthquake
- A 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck just outside the tourist city of Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, killing at least one person and leaving more than 1.6 million without electricity. (Reuters) (The Guardian)
- 7 September 2021 - Abortion in Mexico
- In a unanimous vote, the Mexican Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation rules that criminalizing abortion is unconstitutional, setting a precedent for the legalization of abortion. (The New York Times)
- 6 September 2021 -
- Mexico City Mayor Claudia Sheinbaum announces that the historic Monument to Christopher Columbus in Paseo de la Reforma will be permanently replaced by a statue of a woman from the indigenous Olmec civilization. Sheinbaum says that the move is not an attempt to "erase history" but to instead deliver "social justice". The Columbus statue is reportedly being moved to a small park in the Polanco neighborhood. (BBC) (USA Today)
- At least 17 people are killed at a hospital during heavy floods in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. (BBC) (Milenio)
Selected fare or cuisine -
The cuisine of Chiapas
is a style of cooking centered on the Mexican state of the same name
. Like the cuisine of rest of the country
, it is based on corn with a mix of indigenous and European influences. It distinguishes itself by retaining most of its indigenous heritage, including the use of the chipilín
herb in tamales and soups, used nowhere else in Mexico
. However, while it does use some chili peppers
, including the very hot simojovel, it does not use it as much as other Mexican regional cuisines, preferring slightly sweet seasoning to its main dishes. Large regions of the state are suitable for grazing and the cuisine reflects this with meat, especially beef and the production of cheese
. The most important dish is the tamal
, with many varieties created through the state as well as dishes such as chanfaina, similar to menudo
and sopa de pan. Although it has been promoted by the state of Chiapas for tourism purposes as well as some chefs, it is not as well known as other Mexican cuisine, such as that of neighboring Oaxaca
. (Full article...
The following are images from various Mexico-related articles on Wikipedia.
Ixmiquilpan occurred on September 25, 1866. between 350 soldiers of the Belgian Legion and Juarista forces, ending the battle with the victory of the latter. (from History of Mexico)
Nacional Financiera (NAFIN), the state development bank. (from History of Mexico)
Partido Nacional Revolucionario, with the colors of the Mexican flag (from History of Mexico)
Logo of the
Chacmool, Maya, from the Platform of the Eagles, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800-90 CE. Stone, 4' 10.5" high. National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico city. Chacmools represent fallen warriors reclining on their backs with receptacles on their chests to receive sacrificial offerings. Excavators discovered one in the burial chamber inside the Castilloyo (from History of Mexico)
Kukulkan sits atop this pyramid with a total of 365 stairs on its four sides. At the spring and fall equinoxes, the sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase. (from History of Mexico)
The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800-900 CE. A temple to
History of Mexico)
Rebel soldiers moving by rail during the Mexican Revolution. (from
History of Mexico)
Goddess, mural painting from the Tetitla apartment complex at Teotihuacan, Mexico, 650-750 CE. Pigments over clay and plaster. Elaborate mural paintings adorned Teotihuacan's elite residential compound. This example may depict the city's principal deity, a goddess wearing a jade mask and a large feathered headdress. (from
Tula portraying warriors armed with darts and spear-throwers reflect the military regime of the Toltecs, whose arrival in central Mexico coincided with the decline of the Maya. (from History of Mexico)
Colossal atlantids, pyramid B, Toltec, Tula, Mexico, ca. 900-1180 CE. Stone, each 16' high. The colossal statue-columns of
Lady Xoc, Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilan, Mexico, ca. 725 ce. Limestone, 3'7" × 2' 6.5". British Museum, London. The Maya built vast complexes of temples, palaces, and plazas and decorated many with painted reliefs. (from History of Mexico)
Shield Jaguar and
History of Mexico)
1890 perhaps the streets of no other city present so diversified a picture as those of the city of Mexico. Every variety of costume, civil and religious, Indian and European, of the city and country, is intermingled in the crowd. (from
La Constitución ha muerto). (from History of Mexico)
1903. Slogan on the protest banner reads: "The Constitution has died" (
History of Mexico)
Comanchería, territory controlled by the Comaches, prior to 1850. (from
Battle of Celaya (1915), earning him the nickname of Manco de Celaya ("the one-armed man of Celaya"). (from History of Mexico)
President Obregón. Note that he lost his right arm in the
Tabasco (from History of Mexico)
Battle of Centla, first time a horse was use in battle in a war in the Americas. Mural in the Palacio Municipal of Paraíso,
History of Mexico)
Flag and coat of arms of the Mexican Empire superimposed a map of its territorial limits. Note the crown on the eagle. (from
Olmec colossal are uncertain, but their individualized features and distinctive headgear, as well as later Maya practice, suggest that these heads portray rulers rather than deities. (from History of Mexico)
The identities of the
T'ah 'ak' Cha'an. (from History of Mexico)
Panel 3 from Cancuen, Guatemala, representing king
Teotihuacan view of the Avenue of the Dead and the Pyramid of the Sun, from the Pyramid of the Moon. At its peak around 600 CE, Teotihuacan was the sixth-largest city in the world. It featured a rational grid plan and a two-mile-long main avenue. Its monumental pyramids echo the shapes of surrounding mountains. (from History of Mexico)
History of Mexico)
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Friar Miguel de Herrera (1700-1789) (from
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.
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