Poseidon
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Poseidon

Poseidon
God of the sea, storms, earthquakes, horses
Member of the Twelve Olympians
0036MAN Poseidon.jpg
Poseidon from Milos, 2nd century BC (National Archaeological Museum of Athens)
AbodeMount Olympus, or the Sea
SymbolTrident, fish, dolphin, horse, bull
Personal information
ParentsCronus and Rhea
SiblingsHades, Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Zeus, Chiron
ConsortAmphitrite, Aphrodite, Demeter, various others
ChildrenTheseus
Triton
Polyphemus
Orion
Belus
Agenor
Neleus
Atlas (the first king of Atlantis)
Pegasus
Chrysaor
Cymopolea
Roman equivalentNeptune

Poseidon (;[1] Greek: , pronounced [pose:d:n]) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth, god of the sea, storms, earthquakes and horses.[2] In pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece, he was venerated as a chief deity at Pylos and Thebes.[2] He had also the cult title "earth shaker". In the myths of isolated Arcadia he is related with Demeter and Persephone and he was venerated as a horse, however it seems that he was originally a god of the waters.[3] He is often regarded as the tamer or father of horses,[2] and with a strike of his trident, he created springs which are related with the word horse.[4] His Roman equivalent is Neptune.

Poseidon was protector of seafarers, and of many Hellenic cities and colonies. Homer and Hesiod suggest that Poseidon became lord of the sea following the defeat of his father Cronus, when the world was divided by lot among his three sons; Zeus was given the sky, Hades the underworld, and Poseidon the sea, with the Earth and Mount Olympus belonging to all three.[2][5] In Homer's Iliad, Poseidon supports the Greeks against the Trojans during the Trojan War and in the Odyssey, during the sea-voyage from Troy back home to Ithaca, the Greek hero Odysseus provokes Poseidon's fury by blinding his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, resulting in Poseidon punishing him with storms, the complete loss of his ship and companions, and a ten-year delay. Poseidon is also the subject of a Homeric hymn. In Plato's Timaeus and Critias, the legendary island of Atlantis was Poseidon's domain.[6][7][8]

Athena became the patron goddess of the city of Athens after a competition with Poseidon, and he remained on the Acropolis in the form of his surrogate, Erechtheus. After the fight, Poseidon sent a monstrous flood to the Attic Plain, to punish the Athenians for not choosing him.[9]

Etymology

The earliest attested occurrence of the name, written in Linear B, is ? Po-se-da-o or Po-se-da-wo-ne, which correspond to (Poseida?n) and (Poseidawonos) in Mycenean Greek; in Homeric Greek it appears as (Poseida?n); in Aeolic as (Poteida?n); and in Doric as (Poteidan), (Poteida?n), and (Poteidas).[10] The form ? (Poteidawon) appears in Corinth.[11] A cult title of Poseidon in Linear B is E-ne-si-da-o-ne, "earth-shaker".

The origins of the name "Poseidon" are unclear. One theory breaks it down into an element meaning "husband" or "lord" (Greek (posis), from PIE *pótis) and another element meaning "earth" ( (da), Doric for (g?)), producing something like lord or spouse of Da, i.e. of the earth; this would link him with Demeter, "Earth-mother".[12] Walter Burkert finds that "the second element - remains hopelessly ambiguous" and finds a "husband of Earth" reading "quite impossible to prove."[2] According to Robert S. P. Beekes in Etymological Dictionary of Greek, "there is no indication that means 'earth'",[13] although the root da appears in the Linear B inscription E-ne-si-da-o-ne, "earth-shaker".[14][15]

Another, more plausible, theory interprets the second element as related to the (presumed) Doric word * dâwon, "water", Proto-Indo-European *dah?- "water" or *d?enh?- "to run, flow", Sanskrit d-nu- "fluid, drop, dew" and names of rivers such as Danube (< *Danuvius) or Don. This would make *Posei-daw?n into the master of waters.[16] It seems that Poseidon was originally a god of the waters.[17] There is also the possibility that the word has Pre-Greek origin.[18] Plato in his dialogue Cratylus gives two traditional etymologies: either the sea restrained Poseidon when walking as a "foot-bond" (?), or he "knew many things" ( ? or ).[19]

At least a few sources deem Poseidon as a "prehellenic" (i.e. Pelasgian) word, considering an Indo-European etymology "quite pointless".[20][]

The name of the Frisian and Scandinavian god Fosite or Forseti, who was venerated on the island of Heligoland, may have been derived from Poseidon. According to the German philologist, Hans Kuhn, the Germanic form *Fosite is linguistically identical to Greek Poseidon. Roman altars dedicated to Poseidon have been found in the Middle Rhine area.

Bronze Age Greece

Poseidon, Paella Museum

Linear B (Mycenean Greek) inscriptions

If surviving Linear B clay tablets can be trusted, the name po-se-da-wo-ne ("Poseidon") occurs with greater frequency than does di-u-ja ("Zeus"). A feminine variant, po-se-de-ia, is also found, indicating a lost consort goddess, in effect the precursor of Amphitrite. Poseidon carries frequently the title wa-na-ka (wanax) in Linear B inscriptions, as king of the underworld. The chthonic nature of Poseidon-Wanax is also indicated by his title E-ne-si-da-o-ne in Mycenean Knossos and Pylos,[21] a powerful attribute (earthquakes had accompanied the collapse of the Minoan palace-culture). In the cave of Amnisos (Crete) Enesidaon is related with the cult of Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth.[22] She was related with the annual birth of the divine child.[23] During the Bronze Age, a goddess of nature, dominated both in Minoan and Mycenean cult, and Wanax (wa-na-ka) was her male companion (paredros) in Mycenean cult.[24] It is possible that Demeter appears as Da-ma-te in a Linear B inscription (PN EN 609), however the interpretation is still under dispute.[25]

In Linear B inscriptions found at Pylos, E-ne-si-da-o-ne is related with Poseidon, and Si-to Po-tini-ja is probably related with Demeter.[26] Tablets from Pylos record sacrificial goods destined for "the Two Queens and Poseidon" ("to the Two Queens and the King": wa-na-soi, wa-na-ka-te). The "Two Queens" may be related with Demeter and Persephone, or their precursors, goddesses who were not associated with Poseidon in later periods.[27]

Arcadian myths

The illuminating exception is the archaic and localised myth of the stallion Poseidon and mare Demeter at Phigalia in isolated and conservative Arcadia, noted by Pausanias (2nd century AD) as having fallen into desuetude; the stallion Poseidon pursues the mare-Demeter, and from the union she bears the horse Arion, and a daughter (Despoina), who obviously had the shape of a mare too. The violated Demeter was Demeter Erinys (furious) .[28] In Arcadia, Demeter's mare-form was worshiped into historical times. Her xoanon of Phigaleia shows how the local cult interpreted her, as goddess of nature. A Medusa type with a horse's head with snaky hair, holding a dove and a dolphin, probably representing her power over air and water.[29]

Origins

It seems that the Arcadian myth is related with the first Greek speaking people who entered the region during the Bronze Age. (Linear B represents an archaic Greek dialect). Their religious beliefs were mixed with the beliefs of the indigenous population. It is possible that the Greeks did not bring with them other gods except Zeus, Eos, and the Dioskouroi. The horse (numina) was related with the liquid element, and with the underworld. Poseidon appears as a beast (horse), which is the river spirit of the underworld, as it usually happens in northern-European folklore, and not unusually in Greece.[30][31] Poseidon "Wanax", is the male companion (paredros) of the goddess of nature. In the relative Minoan myth, Pasiphaë is mating with the white bull, and she bears the hybrid creature Minotaur.[32] The Bull was the old pre-Olympian Poseidon.[33] The goddess of nature and her paredros survived in the Eleusinian cult, where the following words were uttered: "Mighty Potnia bore a strong son".[34]

In the heavily sea-dependent Mycenaean culture, there is not sufficient evidence that Poseidon was connected with the sea. We do not know if "Posedeia" was a sea-goddess. Homer and Hesiod suggest that Poseidon became lord of the sea following the defeat of his father Cronus, when the world was divided by lot among his three sons; Zeus was given the sky, Hades the underworld, and Poseidon the sea, with the Earth and Mount Olympus belonging to all three.[2][5] Walter Burkert suggests that the Hellene cult worship of Poseidon as a horse god may be connected to the introduction of the horse and war-chariot from Anatolia to Greece around 1600 BC.[2]

There is evidence that Poseidon was once worshipped as a horse, and this is evident by his cult in Peloponnesos. However, some ancient writers held he was originally a god of the waters, and therefore he became the "earth-shaker", because the Greeks believed that the cause of the earthquakes was the erosion of the rocks by the waters, by the rivers who they saw to disappear into the earth and then to burst out again. This is what the natural philosophers Thales, Anaximenes and Aristotle believed, which may have been similar to the folklore belief.[3]

In any case, the early importance of Poseidon can still be glimpsed in Homer's Odyssey, where Poseidon rather than Zeus is the major mover of events. In Homer, Poseidon is the master of the sea.[35]

Cameo showing Poseidon as gymnasiarch of the Isthmian Games (Kunsthistorisches Museum)

Worship of Poseidon

Poseidon was a major civic god of several cities: in Athens, he was second only to Athena in importance, while in Corinth and many cities of Magna Graecia he was the chief god of the polis.[2]

In his benign aspect, Poseidon was seen as creating new islands and offering calm seas. When offended or ignored, he supposedly struck the ground with his trident and caused chaotic springs, earthquakes, drownings and shipwrecks. Sailors prayed to Poseidon for a safe voyage, sometimes drowning horses as a sacrifice; in this way, according to a fragmentary papyrus, Alexander the Great paused at the Syrian seashore before the climactic battle of Issus, and resorted to prayers, "invoking Poseidon the sea-god, for whom he ordered a four-horse chariot to be cast into the waves."[36]

According to Pausanias, Poseidon was one of the caretakers of the oracle at Delphi before Olympian Apollo took it over. Apollo and Poseidon worked closely in many realms: in colonization, for example, Delphic Apollo provided the authorization to go out and settle, while Poseidon watched over the colonists on their way, and provided the lustral water for the foundation-sacrifice. Xenophon's Anabasis describes a group of Spartan soldiers in 400-399 BC singing to Poseidon a paean--a kind of hymn normally sung for Apollo. Like Dionysus, who inflamed the maenads, Poseidon also caused certain forms of mental disturbance. A Hippocratic text of ca 400 BC, On the Sacred Disease[37] says that he was blamed for certain types of epilepsy.

Poseidon is still worshipped today in modern Hellenic religion, among other Greek gods. The worship of Greek gods is recognized by the Greek government since 2017.[38][39]

Epithets and attributes

Dionysus, Plato, or Poseidon sculpture excavated at the Villa of the Papyri.

Poseidon had a variety of roles ,duties and attributes. He is a separate deity from the oldest Greek god of the sea Pontus. In Athens his name is superimposed ?n the name of the non-Greek god Erechtheus (Poseidon Erechtheus).[40][41] In Iliad he is the lord of the sea and his palace is built in Aegai, in the depth of the sea.[42] His significance is indicated by his titles Eurykreion (?) "wide-ruling", an epithet also applied to Agamemnon[43][44] and Helikonios anax ( ?), "lord of Helicon or Helike" [45] In Helike of Achaia he was specially honoured.[46] Anax is identified in Mycenaean Greek (Linear B) as wa-na-ka,a title of Poseidon as king of the underworld.[27] Aeschylus uses also the epithet anax [47] and Pindar the epithet Eurymedon () "widely ruling".[48]

Some of the epithets (or adjectives) applied to him like Enosigaios (?), Enosichthon () (Homer) and Ennosidas () (Pindar) , mean "earth shaker".[49] These epithets indicate his chthonic nature, and have an older evidence of use, as it is identified in Linear B, as , E-ne-si-da-o-ne.[21] Other epithets that relate him with the earthquakes are Gaieochos () [50] and Seisichthon () [51] The god who causes the earthquakes is also the protector against them, and he had the epithets Themeliouchos () "upholding the foundations" ,[52] Asphaleios () "securer, protector" [53] with a temble at Tainaron.[54] Pausanias describes a sunctuary of Poseidon near Sparta beside the shrine of Alcon, where he had the surname Domatites (), "of the house"[55][56]

Homer uses for Poseidon the title Kyanochaites () , "dark-haired, dark blue of the sea".[57][58] Epithets like Pelagios () "of the open sea",[59][60] Aegeus (?) ,"of the high sea" [61] in the town of Aegae in Euboea, where he had a magnificent temple upon a hill,[62][63][64] Pontomedon (?),[65]" lord of the sea" (Pindar , Aeschylus) and Kymothales (), "abounding with waves",[66] indicate that Poseidon was regarded as holding sway over the sea.[67] Other epithets that relate him with the sea are , Porthmios (), "of strait, narrow sea" at Karpathos,[68] Epactaeus () "god worshipped on the coast", in Samos.,[69] Alidoupos, () "sea resounding".[70] His symbol is the trident and he has the epithet Eutriaina (), "with goodly trident" (Pindar).[71] The god of the sea is also the god of fishing , and tuna was his attribute. At Lampsacus they oferred fishes to Poseidon and he had the epithet phytalmios () [72] His epithet Phykios (), "god of seaweeds" at Mykonos,[73] seems to be related with fishing. He had a fest where women were not allowed, with special offers also to Poseidon Temenites () "related to an official domain ".[74] At the same day they made offers to Demeter Chloe therefore Poseidon was the promotor of vegetation. He had the epithet phytalmios () at Myconos, Troizen, Megara and Rhodes, comparable with Ptorthios () at Chalcis.[72][75][76]

Poseidon had a close association with horses. He is known under the epithet Hippios (?) ,"of a horse or horses" [77] usually in Arcadia. He had temples at Lycosura, Mantineia, Methydrium, Pheneos, Pallandion.[78] At Lycosura he is related with the cult of Despoina.[79] The modern sunctuary near Mantineia was built by Emperor Hadrian.[80] In Athens on the hill of horses there was the altar of Poseidon Hippios and Athena Hippia. The temple of Poseidon was destroyed by Antigonus when he attacked Attica.[81] He is usually the tamer of horses (Damaios ,? at Corinth),[82] and the tender of horses Hippokourios ) at Sparta, where he had a sunctuary near the sunctuary of Artemis Aiginea.[83][84] In some myths he is the father of horses, either by spilling his seed upon a rock or by mating with a creature who then gave birth to the first horse.[2] In Thessaly he had the title Petraios , "of the rocks".[85] He hit a rock and the first horse "Skyphios" appeared.[86] He was closely related with the springs, and with the strike of his trident, he created springs. He had the epithets Krenouchos (), "ruling over springs",[87] and nymphagetes (?) "leader of the nymphs" [88] On the Acropolis of Athens he created the saltspring Sea of Erechtheus ( ?).[89] Many springs like Hippocrene and Aganippe in Helikon are related with the word horse (hippos). (also Glukippe, Hyperippe). He is the father of Pegasus, whose name is deriven from ?, (p?g?) "spring".[90]

Epithets like Genesios at Lerna[91][92] Genethlios () "of the race or family" [93] Phratrios () "of the brotherhood",[94] and Patrigenios () [95] indicate his relation with the genealogy trees and the brotherhood. Other epithets of Poseidon in local cults are Epoptes (?) , "overseer, watcher" at Megalopolis,[96] Empylios (), "at the gate " at Thebes.,[97] Kronios (?)[98] (Pindar) and semnos (), "august, holy" [99] (Sophocles).

The cult of Poseidon is oftenly related with festivals. At Corinth the Isthmian games was an athletic and music festival to honour the god who had the epithet Isthmios (?). The Amphictiony of Kalaureia belonged to him. At Tainaron he had a famous temple and festival. Other games which belonged to him are the Pohoidaia (h) in Helos and Thuria and the race in Gaiaoch? ( ?) [100][101] Poseidon Gaieochos () had a temple near Sparta beside an Hippodrome.[102] ?he epithet probably means " the one who moves under the earth" '[103] and therefore shakes the earth. This seem to relate Poseidon with the rivers at Peloponnesus that seem to disappear and then flow under the earth.[101] At Ephesus there was a fest "Tavria" and he had the epithet Tavreios (T?), "related with the bull".[104][105]

Birth

Poseidon was the second son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. In most accounts he is swallowed by Cronus at birth and is later saved, along with his other brothers and sisters, by Zeus.

However, in some versions of the story, he, like his brother Zeus, did not share the fate of his other brother and sisters who were eaten by Cronus. He was saved by his mother Rhea, who concealed him among a flock of lambs and pretended to have given birth to a colt, which she gave to Cronus to devour.[106]

According to John Tzetzes[107] the kourotrophos, or nurse of Poseidon was Arne, who denied knowing where he was, when Cronus came searching; according to Diodorus Siculus[108] Poseidon was raised by the Telchines on Rhodes, just as Zeus was raised by the Korybantes on Crete.

According to a single reference in the Iliad, when the world was divided by lot in three, Zeus received the sky, Hades the underworld and Poseidon the sea.[109]

In Homer's Odyssey (Book V, ln. 398), Poseidon has a home in Aegae.

Foundation of Athens

The Dispute of Minerva and Neptune by René-Antoine Houasse (circa 1689 or 1706)

Athena became the patron goddess of the city of Athens after a competition with Poseidon. Yet Poseidon remained a numinous presence on the Acropolis in the form of his surrogate, Erechtheus.[2] At the dissolution festival at the end of the year in the Athenian calendar, the Skira, the priests of Athena and the priest of Poseidon would process under canopies to Eleusis.[110] They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift and the Athenians would choose whichever gift they preferred. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a spring sprang up; the water was salty and not very useful,[111] whereas Athena offered them an olive tree.

The Athenians or their king, Cecrops, accepted the olive tree and along with it Athena as their patron, for the olive tree brought wood, oil and food. After the fight, infuriated at his loss, Poseidon sent a monstrous flood to the Attic Plain, to punish the Athenians for not choosing him. The depression made by Poseidon's trident and filled with salt water was surrounded by the northern hall of the Erechtheum, remaining open to the air. "In cult, Poseidon was identified with Erechtheus," Walter Burkert noted; "the myth turns this into a temporal-causal sequence: in his anger at losing, Poseidon led his son Eumolpus against Athens and killed Erectheus."[9]

The contest of Athena and Poseidon was the subject of the reliefs on the western pediment of the Parthenon, the first sight that greeted the arriving visitor.

This myth is construed by Robert Graves and others as reflecting a clash between the inhabitants during Mycenaean times and newer immigrants. Athens at its height was a significant sea power, at one point defeating the Persian fleet at Salamis Island in a sea battle.

Walls of Troy

Poseidon and Apollo, having offended Zeus by their rebellion in Hera's scheme, were temporarily stripped of their divine authority and sent to serve King Laomedon of Troy. He had them build huge walls around the city and promised to reward them well, a promise he then refused to fulfill. In vengeance, before the Trojan War, Poseidon sent a sea monster to attack Troy. The monster was later killed by Heracles[].

Consorts and children

Poseidon was said to have had many lovers of both sexes (see expandable list below). His consort was Amphitrite, a nymph and ancient sea-goddess, daughter of Nereus and Doris. Together they had a son named Triton, a merman.

Poseidon was the father of many heroes. He is thought to have fathered the famed Theseus.

A mortal woman named Tyro was married to Cretheus (with whom she had one son, Aeson), but loved Enipeus, a river god. She pursued Enipeus, who refused her advances. One day, Poseidon, filled with lust for Tyro, disguised himself as Enipeus, and from their union were born the heroes Pelias and Neleus, twin boys. Poseidon also had an affair with Alope, his granddaughter through Cercyon, his son and King of Eleusis, begetting the Attic hero Hippothoon. Cercyon had his daughter buried alive but Poseidon turned her into the spring, Alope, near Eleusis.

Sea thiasos depicting the wedding of Poseidon and Amphitrite, from the Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus in the Field of Mars, bas-relief, Roman Republic, 2nd century BC

Poseidon rescued Amymone from a lecherous satyr and then fathered a child, Nauplius, by her.

After having raped Caeneus, Poseidon fulfilled her request and changed her into a male warrior.

A mortal woman named Cleito once lived on an isolated island; Poseidon fell in love with the human mortal and created a dwelling sanctuary at the top of a hill near the middle of the island and surrounded the dwelling with rings of water and land to protect her. She gave birth to five sets of twin boys; the firstborn, Atlas, became the first ruler of Atlantis.[6][7][8]

Not all of Poseidon's children were human. In an archaic myth, Poseidon once pursued Demeter. She spurned his advances, turning herself into a mare so that she could hide in a herd of horses; he saw through the deception and became a stallion and captured her. Their child was a horse, Arion, which was capable of human speech. Poseidon also raped Medusa on the floor of a temple to Athena.[112][113] Medusa was then changed into a monster by Athena.[114][113] When she was later beheaded by the hero Perseus, Chrysaor and Pegasus emerged from her neck.

His other children include Polyphemus (the Cyclops) and, finally, Alebion and Bergion and Otos and Ephialtae (the giants).[112]

The philosopher Plato was held by his fellow ancient Greeks to have traced his descent to the sea-God Poseidon through his father Ariston and his mythic predecessors the demigod kings Codrus and Melanthus.[115][116]

List of Poseidon's consorts and children

Female lovers and offspring

Goddesses Children Mortal Women Children Mortal Women Children
Amphitrite o Triton[117] Agamede[118] o Dictys Laodice[119] No known offspring
o Benthesicyme[120] o Actor Larissa[121] o Achaeus
o Rhodos[122] Aethra o Theseus[123] o Pelasgus
Gaea o Antaeus[124] Alistra o Ogyges[125] o Pythius
o Charybdis[126] Alope o Hippothoon[127] Leis[128] o Althepus
o Laistryon[129] Amphimedusa o Erythras[130] Libya o Agenor[131]
Demeter o Despoina[132] Amymone o Nauplius[133] o Belus
o Areion[134] Anippe[135] or o Busiris o Lelex[136]
Aphrodite o Rhodos[137] Lysianassa[138] Melantho[139] o Delphus
o Herophile[140] Arene o Idas[141] Melissa[142] o Dyrrhachius
Medusa[143] o Pegasus Antiope[118] or o Aeolus Melite[144] o Metus
o Chrysaor Arne[145] or Mestra[146] No known offspring
Unknown mother o Cymopoleia[147] Melanippe[148] o Boeotus Molione[149] o The Molionides
Nymphs Children Ascre o Oeoclus[150] 1. Cteatus
Aba o Ergiscus[151] Astypalaea o Ancaeus[152] 2. Eurytus
Alcyone o Aethusa[153] o Eurypylus[154] Mytilene[155] o Myton
o Hyrieus[156] Caenis[157] No known offspring Oenope[158] o Megareus
o Hyperenor Calchinia o Peratus[159] Ossa[160] o Sithon
o Hyperes[161] Calyce[118] or o Cycnus Periboea[162] o Nausithous
o Anthas[163] Harpale[164] or Phoenice[165] o Torone
Arethusa o Abas[144] Scamandrodice[166] o Proteus
Bathycleia[167] or o Halirrhothius a Nereid[168] Rhode[169] o Ialysus
Euryte[170] Canace[171] o Hopleus o Cameirus
Beroe[172] No known offspring o Nireus o Lindus
Bisalpis or o Chrysomallus o Aloeus Syme[173] o Chthonius
Bisaltis or o Epopeus Themisto[118] o Leucon or Leuconoe
Theophane[174] o Triopas Tyro[175] o Pelias
Callirhoe o Minyas[176] Celaeno o Celaenus[177] o Neleus
Celaeno[178] o Lycus Cerebia[179] o Dictys Daughter of Amphictyon o Cercyon[180]
o Nycteus o Polydectes Unknown Mother o Ialebion[181]
o Eurypylus (Eurytus) Ceroessa o Byzas[182] o Dercynus
o Lycaon Chrysogeneia o Chryses[183] Unknown Mother o Dicaeus[184]
Kelousa[185] or o Asopus (possibly) o Minyas[186] o Syleus[187]
Pero[188] Circe o Phaunos[189] Unknown Mother o Poltys[190]
Cleodora o Parnassus[191] Cleito[192] o Atlas o Sarpedon of Ainos[193]
Chione o Eumolpus[194] o Eumelus (Gadeirus) Unknown Woman o Amphimarus[195]
Corcyra o Phaeax[196] o Ampheres Unknown Woman o Amyrus[197]
Diopatra[198] No known offspring o Euaemon Unknown Woman o Aon, eponym of Aonia[199]
Halia[200] o Rhode (possibly) o Mneseus Unknown Mother o Astraeus[201]
o Six sons o Autochthon o Alcippe[201]
Melantheia o Eirene[202] o Elasippus Unknown Woman o Augeas[203]
Melia[190] o Amycus o Mestor Unknown Woman o Byzenus[168]
o Mygdon o Azaes Unknown Woman o Calaurus[204]
Mideia o Aspledon[205] o Diaprepes Unknown Woman o Caucon or Glaucon[206]
Olbia o Astacus[207] Coronis[208] No known offspring Unknown Woman o Corynetes[209]
Peirene[210] o Cenchrias Ergea o Celaeno[177] Unknown Woman o Cromus[211]
o Leches Doris (Oris)[212] or o Euphemus Unknown Woman o Erginus of Caria[213]
Pitane[214] or o Euadne Europa[215] or Unknown Woman o Eryx[216]
Lena Mecionice[212] or Unknown Woman o Euseirus[217]
Pronoe o Phocus[218] Macionassa[219] Unknown Woman o Geren[220]
Rhodope o Athos[221] Euryale o Orion[222] Unknown Woman o Lamia[223]
Salamis o Cychreus[224] Euryanassa[225] o Minyas Unknown Woman o Lamus[226]
Satyria of Taras o Taras[227] Hermippe[228] Unknown Woman o Messapus[229]
Thoosa o Polyphemus[230] Tritogeneia[231] Unknown Woman o Onchestus[232]
Thyia[233] No known offspring Eurycyda[234] or Eurypyle[235] o Eleius Unknown Woman o Palaestinus[236]
Nymph of Chios o Chios[237] Eurynome[238] or Eurymede[239] o Bellerophon Unknown Woman o Phineus[240]
Nymph of Chios

(another one)[237]

o Melas Helle o Almops[241] Unknown Woman o Phorbas of Acarnania[242]
o Agelus o Edonus (Paion)[243] Unknown Woman o Procrustes[209]
o Malina Hippothoe o Taphius[244] Unknown Woman o Taenarus[245]
Unknown mother o Lotis[] Iphimedeia o The Aloadae[246] Unknown Woman o Thasus[247]
Unknown mother o Ourea, a nymph[248] 1. Ephialtes Unknown Woman o Thessalus[249]
2. Otus
o Sciron[250][251]

Male lovers

Genealogy

Poseidon's family tree [253]

In literature and art

Neptune and Amphitrite by Jacob de Gheyn II (late 1500s)

In Greek art, Poseidon rides a chariot that was pulled by a hippocampus or by horses that could ride on the sea. He was associated with dolphins and three-pronged fish spears (tridents). He lived in a palace on the ocean floor, made of coral and gems.

In the Iliad Poseidon favors the Greeks, and on several occasion takes an active part in the battle against the Trojan forces. However, in Book XX he rescues Aeneas after the Trojan prince is laid low by Achilles.

In the Odyssey, Poseidon is notable for his hatred of Odysseus who blinded the god's son, the Cyclops Polyphemus. The enmity of Poseidon prevents Odysseus's return home to Ithaca for many years. Odysseus is even told, notwithstanding his ultimate safe return, that to placate the wrath of Poseidon will require one more voyage on his part.

In the Aeneid, Neptune is still resentful of the wandering Trojans, but is not as vindictive as Juno, and in Book I he rescues the Trojan fleet from the goddess's attempts to wreck it, although his primary motivation for doing this is his annoyance at Juno's having intruded into his domain.

A hymn to Poseidon included among the Homeric Hymns is a brief invocation, a seven-line introduction that addresses the god as both "mover of the earth and barren sea, god of the deep who is also lord of Helicon and wide Aegae,[259] and specifies his twofold nature as an Olympian: "a tamer of horses and a saviour of ships."

Poseidon appears in Percy Jackson and the Olympians as the father of Percy Jackson and Tyson the Cyclops. He also appears in the ABC television series Once Upon a Time as the guest star of the second half of season four played by Ernie Hudson.[260] In this version, Poseidon is portrayed as the father of the Sea Witch Ursula.

In modern culture

Movies

Poseidon has been very popular especially in god-related movies. John Putch directed the movie The Poseidon Adventure. Wolfgang Petersen also film adapted Paul Gallico's novel and directed the movie Poseidon.[261]

Military

Many military weapons from multiple countries have been named after Poseidon. Such examples are the P8 Poseidon, & the "Poseidon" which is a Russian nuclear-armed unmanned underwater vehicle.[262][263]

Narrations

Neptune's fountain in Pre?ov, Slovakia.
Poseidon myths as told by story tellers

Bibliography of reconstruction:

  • Homer, Odyssey, 11.567 (7th century BC)
  • Pindar, Olympian Odes, 1 (476 BC)
  • Euripides, Orestes, 12-16 (408 BC)
  • Bibliotheca Epitome 2: 1-9 (140 BC)
  • Ovid, Metamorphoses, VI: 213, 458 (AD 8);
  • Hyginus, Fables, 82: Tantalus; 83: Pelops (1st century AD)
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.22.3 (AD 160 - 176)

Bibliography of reconstruction:

Gallery

Paintings

Statues

See also

Explanatory notes

References

Citations
  1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Burkert 1985, pp. 136-139.
  3. ^ a b Seneca quaest. Nat. VI 6 :Nilsson Vol I p.450
  4. ^ Nilsson Vol I p.450
  5. ^ a b Hesiod, Theogony 456.
  6. ^ a b Plato (1971). Timaeus and Critias. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd. pp. 167. ISBN 9780140442618.
  7. ^ a b Timaeus 24e-25a, R. G. Bury translation (Loeb Classical Library).
  8. ^ a b Also it has been interpreted that Plato or someone before him in the chain of the oral or written tradition of the report accidentally changed the very similar Greek words for "bigger than" ("meson") and "between" ("mezon") - Luce, J.V. (1969). The End of Atlantis - New Light on an Old Legend. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 224.
  9. ^ a b Burkert 1983, pp. 149, 157.
  10. ^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion. Erster Band. Verlag C. H. Beck. p. 444.
  11. ^ Liddell & Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, Archived 9 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Pierre Chantraine Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque Paris 1974-1980 4th s.v.; Lorenzo Rocci Vocabolario Greco-Italiano Milano, Roma, Napoli 1943 (1970) s.v.
  13. ^ R. S. P. Beekes. Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 324 (s.v. "?")
  14. ^ ?. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  15. ^ Adams, John Paul, Mycenean divinities - List of handouts for California State University Classics 315. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  16. ^ Martin Nilsson, p. 417, p. 445. Michael Janda, pp. 256-258.
  17. ^ "The Greeks believed that the cause of the earthquakes was the erosion of the rocks by the waters" : Seneca quaest. Nat. VI 6 :Nilsson Vol I p.450
  18. ^ Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, p. 324.
  19. ^ Plato, Cratylus, 402d-402e
  20. ^ van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem (1999), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (second ed.), Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8028-2491-9
  21. ^ a b Adams, John Paul. "Mycenaean Divinities". List of Handouts for Classics 315. Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 2006.
  22. ^ Dietrich, pp. 220 Archived 23 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine-221 Archived 24 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ Dietrich, p. 109 Archived 23 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Dietrich, p. 181 Archived 23 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Ventris/Chadwick,Documents in Mycenean Greek p. 242; Dietrich, p. 172, n. 218 Archived 24 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ George Mylonas (1966), Mycenae and the Mycenean world. p.159. Princeton University Press
  27. ^ a b "Wa-na-ssoi, wa-na-ka-te, (to the two queens and the king). Wanax (Greek ) is best suited to Poseidon, the special divinity of Pylos. The identity of the two divinities addressed as wanassoi, is uncertain ": George Mylonas (1966) Mycenae and the Mycenean age p. 159 .Princeton University Press
  28. ^ Pausanias VIII 23. 5; Raymond Bloch "Quelques remarques sur Poseidon, Neptunus et Nethuns" in Comptes-rendus des séances de l' Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Letres 2 1981 p. 345.
  29. ^ L. H. Jeffery (1976). Archaic Greece: The Greek city states c.800-500 B.C (Ernest Benn Limited) p 23 ISBN 0-510-03271-0
  30. ^ F.Schachermeyer: Poseidon und die Entstehung des Griechischen Gotter glaubens :Nilsson p 444
  31. ^ The river god Acheloos is represented as a bull
  32. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke 3.1.4 Archived 4 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Ruck and Staples 1994:213.
  34. ^ Dietrich, p. 167 Archived 23 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "Poseidon - God of the Sea". www.crystalinks.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  36. ^ Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Müller's ed. Papyrus Oxyrrhincus Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum 148, 44, col. 2; quoted by Robin Lane Fox, Alexander the Great (1973) 1986:168 and note. Alexander also invoked other sea deities: Thetis, mother of his hero Achilles, Nereus and the Nereids
  37. ^ "(Hippocrates), On the Sacred Disease, Francis Adams, tr". Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 2007.
  38. ^ Brunwasser, Matthew (20 June 2013). "The Greeks Who Worship Ancient Gods". BBC. Retrieved 2020.
  39. ^ Souli, Sarah (4 January 2018). "Greece's Old Gods Are Ready for Your Sacrifice". The Outline. Retrieved 2020.
  40. ^ Walter Burkert (Peter Bing, tr.) Homo Necans 1983, p. 149 gives references for this observation
  41. ^
  42. ^ Iliad 13.21 Nilsson Vol I p.446
  43. ^ Iliad 10.751
  44. ^ ?
  45. ^ Iliad 20.404.
  46. ^
  47. ^ Seven against Thebes 131
  48. ^
  49. ^ Diedrich p. 185 n. 305
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^ .
  54. ^ Suda, tau, 206
  55. ^
  56. ^ Pausanias 3.14.7
  57. ^
  58. ^ Iliad 20.144
  59. ^
  60. ^ Nilsson Vol I p.449
  61. ^ A
  62. ^ Strabo, ix. p. 405
  63. ^ Virgil, Aeneid iii. 74, where Servius erroneously derives the name from the Aegean Sea
  64. ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Aegaeus". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston. p. 24.
  65. ^ ?
  66. ^
  67. ^ Smith, >Steven D. (2019), Maria Kanellou; Ivana Petrovic; Chris Carey (eds.), "Art, Nature, Power: Garden Epigrams from Nero to Heraclius", Greek Epigram from the Hellenistic to the Early Byzantine Era, Oxford University Press, p. 348, ISBN 978-0-192-57379-7
  68. ^
  69. ^  Leonhard Schmitz (1870). "Epactaeus". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^ a b Nilsson Vol I p.451,452
  73. ^
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^ ?
  78. ^ Nilsson Vol I p.448
  79. ^ Pausanias 8.37.9-10
  80. ^ Pausanias 8.10.3
  81. ^ Pausanias 1.30.4
  82. ^ ?
  83. ^ Pausanias 3.14.2
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^ Nilsson Vol I p. 447
  87. ^
  88. ^ " Oceanus is the primeval water, the origin of all springs and rivers" : Nilsson Vol I p.450
  89. ^ Apollodorus 3.14.1
  90. ^ Nilsson Vol I p.450-451
  91. ^
  92. ^ Pausanias 2.38.4
  93. ^
  94. ^
  95. ^ Nilsson Vol I p.452
  96. ^ ?
  97. ^
  98. ^ ?
  99. ^
  100. ^ Pausanias 3.21.8.
  101. ^ a b Nilsson Vol I p.447- 448
  102. ^ contest at Sparta : ?
  103. ^ Hesych. "? " Nilsson Vol I p. 448
  104. ^
  105. ^ Nilsson Vol I p. 449
  106. ^ In the 2nd century AD, a well with the name of Arne, the "lamb's well", in the neighbourhood of Mantineia in Arcadia, where old traditions lingered, was shown to Pausanias. (Pausanias, VIII.8.2.)
  107. ^ Tzetzes, ad Lycophron 644.
  108. ^ Diodorus, Bibliotheca Historica (Book V, Ch. 55.
  109. ^ Homer's Iliad (Book XV, ln. 184-93 Archived 11 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine)
  110. ^ Burkert 1983, pp. 143-149.
  111. ^ Another version of the myth says that Poseidon gave horses to Athens.[]
  112. ^ a b Gill, N.S. (2007). "Mates and Children of Poseidon". Archived from the original on 23 December 2006. Retrieved 2007.
  113. ^ a b Seelig 2002, p. 895-911.
  114. ^ Philip Freeman (2013). Oh My Gods: A Modern Retelling of Greek and Roman Myths. p. 30. ISBN 9781451609981.
  115. ^ Great Books of the Western World, Plato's Dialogues. Biographical Note
  116. ^ Diogenes Laertius Plato 1
  117. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 930-933
  118. ^ a b c d Hyginus, Fabulae 157
  119. ^ Ovid, Heroides 18 (19). 135
  120. ^ Apollodorus, 3.15.4
  121. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Antiquitates Romanae 1.17.3
  122. ^ Pindar, Olympian Odes 7.14
  123. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 14
  124. ^ Apollodorus, 2.5.11
  125. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 1206
  126. ^ Servius, Commentary on Virgil's Aeneid 3.420
  127. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 187
  128. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.30.5
  129. ^ Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 40a as cited in Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1358 fr. 2
  130. ^ Scholia on Homer, Iliad 2.499
  131. ^ Apollodorus, 2.1.4
  132. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 8.25.7 & 8.42.1
  133. ^ Apollodorus, 2.1.5
  134. ^ Apollodorus, 3.6.8; Pausanias, 8.25.5 & 8.25.7
  135. ^ Plutarch, Parallela minora 38
  136. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 1.44.3
  137. ^ Herodorus, fr. 62 Fowler (Fowler 2000, p. 253), apud schol. Pindar, Olympian Odes 7.24–5; Fowler 2013, p. 591
  138. ^ Apollodorus, 2.5.11
  139. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 208
  140. ^ Giovanni Boccaccio's Famous Women translated by Virginia Brown 2001; Cambridge and London, Harvard University Press; ISBN 0-674-01130-9; p. 42
  141. ^ Apollodorus, 1.9.5
  142. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Dyrrhakhion
  143. ^ Apollodorus, 2.42
  144. ^ a b Hyginus, Fabulae 157
  145. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.67.3-4
  146. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.850-54
  147. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 817–819
  148. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 186
  149. ^ Apollodorus, 2.7.2
  150. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9. 29. 1
  151. ^ Suida, Suda Encyclopedia s.v. Ergiske
  152. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 7.4.1
  153. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.3
  154. ^ Apollodorus, 2.7.1
  155. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Mytilene
  156. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.1
  157. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 12.195-199
  158. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 157
  159. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.5.7
  160. ^ Conon, Narrations 10
  161. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.30.7
  162. ^ Homer, Odyssey 7.56-57
  163. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 9.22.5
  164. ^ Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Ode 2.147
  165. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Tor?n?
  166. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 232
  167. ^ Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Ode 10.83 quoted in Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 64
  168. ^ a b Murray, John (1833). A Classical Manual, being a Mythological, Historical and Geographical Commentary on Pope's Homer, and Dryden's Aeneid of Virgil with a Copious Index. Albemarle Street, London. p. 78.
  169. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 923
  170. ^ Apollodorus, 3.14.2
  171. ^ Apollodorus, 1.7.4
  172. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41.153-155
  173. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 5.53.1
  174. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 188
  175. ^ Apollodorus, 4.68.3
  176. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 875
  177. ^ a b Strabo, Geographica 12.8.18
  178. ^ also said to be the daughter of Ergeus
  179. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 838
  180. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 1.14.3
  181. ^ Apollodorus, 2.5.10
  182. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Byzantion
  183. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 9.36.4
  184. ^ eponym of Dicaea, a city in Thrace as cited in Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Dikaia
  185. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.12.4
  186. ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3.1094
  187. ^ Conon, Narrations 17
  188. ^ Apollodorus,3.12.6
  189. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13.328 ff.
  190. ^ a b Apollodorus, 2.5.9
  191. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 10.6.13
  192. ^ Plato, Critias 114c
  193. ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.216
  194. ^ Apollodorus, 3.15.4
  195. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 9.29.5
  196. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.72.3
  197. ^ eponym of a river in Thessaly as cited in Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.596
  198. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 22
  199. ^ Scholia on Statius, Thebaid 1.34
  200. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 5.55
  201. ^ a b Pseudo-Plutarch, De fluviis 21.1
  202. ^ Plutarch, Quaestiones Graecae 19
  203. ^ Apollodorus, 2.88
  204. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Kalaureia
  205. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Aspledon
  206. ^ Aelian, Varia Historia 1.24
  207. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Astakos, with a reference to Arrian
  208. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 2.542 ff
  209. ^ a b Hyginus, Fabulae 38
  210. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.2.2
  211. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.1.3
  212. ^ a b Tzetzes, Chiliades 2.43
  213. ^ Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.185 & 2.896
  214. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 175
  215. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 14; Pindar, Pythian Ode 4.45
  216. ^ Apollodorus, 2.5.10
  217. ^ Antoninus Liberalis. Metamorphoses, 22 vs Cerambus Archived 2 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  218. ^ Scholia on Homer, Iliad 2.517
  219. ^ John Lempière, Argonautae
  220. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Ger?n
  221. ^ Scholia on Theocritus, Idylls 7.76
  222. ^ Apollodorus, 1.4.3
  223. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 10.12.1
  224. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.72.1-5
  225. ^ Scholia on Homer, Odyssey 11.326 = Hesiod, fr. 62 (Loeb edition, 1914)
  226. ^ Eustathius ad Homer, Odyssey p. 1649
  227. ^ Probus on Virgil's Georgics 2.197
  228. ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.230-3b
  229. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 7.691
  230. ^ Homer, Odyssey 1.70–73
  231. ^ Scholia on Pindar, Pythian Odes 4.122
  232. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 9.26.5
  233. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 10.29.5
  234. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 5.1.8
  235. ^ Conon, Narrations 14
  236. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, De fluviis 11.1
  237. ^ a b Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 7.4.8
  238. ^ Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 7
  239. ^ Apollodorus, 1.9.3
  240. ^ Apollodorus, 1.9.21
  241. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Almopia
  242. ^ Suda s.v. Phorbanteion
  243. ^ Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Catasterismi 19; Hyginus, Poeticon astronomicon 2.20
  244. ^ Apollodorus, 2.4.5
  245. ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.179
  246. ^ Homer, Odyssey 11.305-8
  247. ^ Apollodorus, 3.1.1
  248. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 161
  249. ^ Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Odes 14.5
  250. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 1.2
  251. ^ Tripp, Edward. The Meridian Handbook of Classical Mythology. Meridian, 1970, p. 522.
  252. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History, 1 in Photius, 190
  253. ^ This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony, unless otherwise noted.
  254. ^ According to Homer, Iliad 1.570-579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
  255. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 927-929 Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
  256. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 886-890 Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena "from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51-52, 83-84.
  257. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 183-200 Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99-100.
  258. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105 Archived 2 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine; Odyssey 8.308 Archived 2 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370-71), see Gantz, pp. 99-100.
  259. ^ The ancient palace-city that was replaced by Vergina
  260. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (19 December 2014). "Ernie Hudson To Play Poseidon On 'Once Upon a Time'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  261. ^ Beyond the Poseidon Adventure, Paul Gallico
  262. ^ "Boeing: P-8".
  263. ^ "Russia is Building Four Special Submarines to Haul Its Weird Doomsday Drone".
Bibliography

External links


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