Proto-Indo-European Numerals
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Proto-Indo-European Numerals

The numerals and derived numbers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages. The following article lists and discusses their hypothesized forms.

Cardinal numbers

The cardinal numbers are reconstructed as follows:

Number Reconstruction (Sihler)[1] Reconstruction (Beekes)[2]
one *Hoi-no-/*Hoi-wo-/*Hoi-k(?)o-; *sem- *Hoi(H)nos ; sem-/sm?-
two *d(u)wo- *du?oh?
three *trei- (full grade) / *tri- (zero grade) *trei?es
four *k?etwor- (o-grade) / *k?etur- (zero grade)
(see also the k?etwóres rule)
*k?étur
five *penk?e *penk?e
six *s(w)e?s; originally perhaps *we?s *(s)u?éks
seven *septm? *séptm?
eight *o?t?, *o?tou or *h?e?t?, *h?e?tou *h?e?teh?
nine *(h?)newn? *(h?)néun
ten *de?m?(t) *dé?m?t
twenty *wm?t-; originally perhaps *wid?omt- *du?id?m?ti
thirty *tromt-; originally perhaps *trid?omt- *trih?d?omth?
forty *k?etwromt-; originally perhaps *k?etwr?d?omt- *k?eturd?omth?
fifty *penkomt-; originally perhaps *penk?ed?omt- *penk?ed?omth?
sixty *s(w)e?s?omt-; originally perhaps *we?sd?omt- *u?eksd?omth?
seventy *septmomt-; originally perhaps *septm?d?omt- *septm?d?omth?
eighty *o?t?(u)?omt-; originally perhaps *h?e?to(u)d?omt- *h?e?th?d?omth?
ninety *(h?)newnomt-; originally perhaps *h?newn?d?omt- *h?neund?omth?
hundred *?m?tom; originally perhaps *d?m?tom *d?m?tóm
thousand *eslo-; *tusd?omti (originally "a massive number"[]) *esl-

Other reconstructions typically differ only slightly from Beekes and Sihler. A nineteenth-century reconstruction (by Brugmann) for thousand is *t?s?mti?.[3][4] See also Fortson 2004.[5]

The elements *-d?omt- (in the numerals "twenty" to "ninety") and *d?m?t- (in "hundred") are reconstructed on the assumption that these numerals are derivatives of *de?m?(t) "ten".

Lehmann[6] believes that the numbers greater than ten were constructed separately in the dialect groups and that *?m?tóm originally meant "a large number" rather than specifically "one hundred."

Gender of numerals

The numbers three and four had feminine forms with the suffix *-s(o)r-, reconstructed as *t(r)i-sr- and *k?etwr?-sr-, respectively.[5]

Numerals as prefixes

Special forms of the numerals were used as prefixes, usually to form bahuvrihis (like five-fingered in English):

Number Prefix (Fortson)[7]
one- (together, same) *sm?-
two- *dwi-
three- *tri-
four- *k?(e)tru- or *k?etwr?-

Ordinal numbers

The ordinal numbers are difficult to reconstruct due to their variety in the daughter languages. The following reconstructions are tentative:[8]

  • "first" is formed with *pr?h?- (related to some adverbs meaning "forth, forward, front" and to the particle *pr? "forth", thus originally meaning "foremost" or similar) plus various suffixes like *-mo-, *-wo- (cf. Latin primus, Russian perv-).
  • "second": The daughter languages use a wide range of expressions, often unrelated to the word for "two" (including Latin and English), so that no PIE form can be reconstructed. A number of languages use the form derived from *h?enteros meaning "the other [of two]" (cf. OCS v?tor?, Lithuanuan añtras, Old Icelandic annarr)
  • "third" to "sixth" were formed from the cardinals plus the suffix *-t(ó)-: *tr?-t(ó)- / *tri-t(ó)- "third" etc.
  • "seventh" to "tenth" were formed by adding the thematic vowel *-ó- to the cardinal: *o?tow-ó- "eighth" etc.

The cardinals ending in a syllabic nasal (seven, nine, ten) inserted a second nasal before the thematic vowel, resulting in the suffixes *-mó- and *-nó-. These and the suffix *-t(ó)- spread to neighbouring ordinals, seen for example in Vedic aa- "eighth" and Lithuanian deviñtas "ninth".

Reflexes

Reflexes, or descendants of the PIE reconstructed forms in its daughter languages, include the following.

Reflexes of the cardinal numbers

Number Reconstruction (Sihler) Reflexes[5][9]
one *Hoi-no-[10] Alb. njã > një (dialectal nji;njo), Lith. vienas, Latv. viens, Gaul. oinos, Gm. ein/eins, Eng. ?n/one, Gk. ? oîos, Av. a?uua, Ir. óin/aon, Kashmiri akh, Lat. ?nus, Roman. unu, Osc. uinus, OCS edin?, ON einn, OPruss. a?ns, Osset. iu/ieu, Pers. aiva-/yek, Kamviri ev, Pol. jeden, Russ. odin, Ved. aika, Umbr. uns, Goth. ains, Welsh un
*sem-[11] Arm. mi/mek/meg, Alb. gjithë, Lith. sa, sav-as, Eng. sum/some, Gm. saman/zusammen, Gk. heîs, Hitt. san, Av. hakeret, Ir. samail/samhail, Lat. semel, Lyc. sñta, Kamviri sâ~, Pers. hama/hamin, Russ. odin, yedin, perviy Ved. sakt, Toch. sas/?e, Welsh hafal, ON sami, Goth. sama, Kurdish yek, ek, hev- as prefix.
two *du(w)o-[12] Hitt. d?-, Luv. tuwa/i-, Lyc. kbi-, Mil. tba-, Ved. dv?(u), Av. duua, Pers. duva/do, Osset. dyuuæ/duuæ, Kashmiri z?', Kamviri dü, Gk. dúo, Lat. du?, Osc. dus, Umbr. tuf, Roman. doi, ON tveir, Goth. twai, Eng. tw?/two, Gm. zwêne/zwei, Gaul. vo, Ir. dá/dó, Welsh dau, Arm. erkow/yerku/yergu, Toch. wu/wi, OPruss. dw?i, Latv. divi, Lith. dù, OCS d?va, Pol. dwa, Russ. dva, Alb. dy;di/dy;d?, Kurdish du.
three *trei-[13] Hitt. teriya? (gen. pl.), Lyc. trei, Ved. tráyas, Av. ?r?ii?, Pers. çi/se, Osset. ærtæ/ærtæ, Kashmiri tre, Kamviri tre, Gk. treîs, Lat. tr?s, Osc. trís, Umbr. trif, Roman. trei, ON þrír, Goth. þreis, Eng. þr?o/three, Gm. dr?/drei, Gaul. treis, Ir. treí/trí, Welsh tri, Arm. erek?/yerek?/yerek?, Toch. tre/trai, OPruss. tri, Latv. tr?s, Lith. tr?s, OCS trije, Pol. trzy, Russ. tri, Alb. tre/tre. se`(thr>s).
four *k?etwor-[14] Lyc. teteri, Ved. catv?ras, Av. ca?uu?r?, Pers. /?ah?r, Osset. cyppar/cuppar, Kashmiri tsor, Kamviri ?to, Gk. téttares, Lat. quattuor, Osc. petora, Roman. patru, Umbr. petor, ON fjórir, Goth. fidwor, Eng. f?ower/four, Gm. feor/vier, Gaul. petor, Ir. cethir/ceathair, Welsh pedwar, Arm. ?ork?/?ors/?ors, Toch. ?twar/?twer, OPruss. keturj?i, Latv. ?etri, Lith. keturì, OCS ?etyre, Pol. cztery, Russ. ?etyre, Alb. katër;katrë/katër, Kurdish char, chwar.
five *pénk?e[15] Luv. panta, Ved. pañca, Av. panca, Pers. pan?a/panj, Osset. fondz/fondz, Kashmiri p?.~tsh Kamviri pu?, Gk. pénte, Lat. qu?nque, Roman. cinci, Osc. pompe, Umbr. pumpe, ON fimm, Goth. fimf, Eng. f?f/five, Gm. fimf/fünf, Gaul. pempe, Ir. cóic/cúig, Welsh pump, Arm. hing/hing/hink, Toch. päñ/pi?, OPruss. p?nkj?i, Latv. pieci, Lith. penkì, OCS p?t?, Pol. pi, Russ. pjat', Alb. pesë/pes(ë);pês, Kurdish penc.
six *s(w)e?s[16] Ved. ?á?, Av. x?uua?, Pers. /?e?, Osset. æxsæz/æxsæz, Kashmiri ?e, Kamviri ?u, Gk. héx, Lat. sex, Osc. sehs, Umbr. sehs, ON sex, Goth. saíhs, Eng. siex/six, Gm. sëhs/sechs, Gaul. suex, Ir. sé/sé, Welsh chwech, Arm. vec?/vec?/vec?, Toch. ?äk/?kas, OPruss. usjai, Latv. se?i, Lith. ?e?ì, OCS ?est?, Pol. sze, Roman. ?ase, Russ. ?est', Alb. gjashtë/gjasht(ë);xhasht, Kurdish shesh.
seven *septm?[17] Hitt. ?ipta-, Ved. saptá, Av. hapta, Pers. hafta/haft, Osset. avd/avd, Kashmiri sath, Kamviri sut, Gk. ? heptá, Lat. septem, Osc. seften, Roman. ?apte, ON sjau, Goth. sibun, Eng. seofon/seven, Gm. sibun/sieben, Gaul. sextan, Ir. secht/seacht, Welsh saith, Arm. ewt?n/yot?/yot, Toch. ?pät/?ukt, OPruss. sept?njai, Lith. septynì, Latv. septi?i, OCS sedm?, Pol. siedem, Russ. sem', Alb. shtatë/shtat(ë), Kurdish heft.
eight *h?e?t?[18] Lyc. aitãta-,[19] Ved. a(u), Av. a?ta, Pers. a?ta/ha?t, Osset. ast/ast, Kashmiri ?.?h, Kamviri u, Gk. ? okt?, Lat. oct?, Roman. opt, Osc. uhto, ON átta, Goth. ahtau, Eng. eahta/eight, Gm. ahto/acht, Gaul. oxt?, Ir. ocht/ocht, Welsh wyth, Arm. owt?/ut, Toch. okät/okt, OPruss. ast?njai, Latv. asto?i, Lith. a?tuonì, OCS osm?, Pol. osiem, Russ. vosem', Alb. tëte/tet(ë), Kurdish hesht.
nine *(h?)newn?[20] Lyc. ñuñtãta-,[21] Ved. nava, Av. nauua, Pers. nava/noh, Kashmiri nav, Kamviri nu, Gk. ?(?)? enné(w)a, Lat. novem, Osc. nuven, Umbr. nuvim, Roman. nou?, ON níu, Goth. niun, Eng. nigon/nine, Gm. niun/neun, Gaul. navan, Ir. nói/naoi, Welsh naw, Arm. inn/inn/inn?, TochA. ñu, OPruss. new?njai, Latv. devi?i, Lith. devynì, OCS dev?t?, Pol. dziewi, Russ. devjat', Alb. nëntë;nëndë/nând(ë);non(t), Kurdish neh, no.
ten *de?m?(t)[22] Ved. dá?a, Av. dasa, Pers. da?a/dah, Osset. dæs/dæs, Kashmiri da.h, Kamviri duc, Gk. ? déka, Lat. decem, Osc. deken, Umbr. desem, Roman. zece, ON tíu, Goth. taíhun, Eng. t?en/ten, Gm. zëhen/zehn, Gaul. decam, Ir. deich/deich, Welsh deg, Arm. tasn/tas/das?, Toch. ?äk/?ak, OPruss. des?mtan, Latv. desmit, Lith. dimt, OCS des?t?, Pol. dziesi, Russ. desjat', Alb. dhjetë/dhet(ë), Kurdish deh, de.
twenty *wm?t- Ved. viatí-, Av. v?saiti, Pers. /b?st, Kashmiri vuh, Kamviri vici, Doric wíkati, Lat. v?gint?, Gaul. vocontio, Ir. fiche/fiche, M. Welsh ugein(t), Arm. k?san/k?san/k?san, Toch. wiki/ikä?, Lith. dvi-de-?imt, Alb. njëzet/njizet, Kurdish bist.
thirty *tromt- Skr. triat, Gk. triákonta, Lat. tr?gint?, Ir. /tríocha, Lith. tris-de-?imt[], Kurdish sih, si.
forty *k?etwromt- Skr. catv?riat, Gk. tessarákonta, Lat. quadr?gint?, Lith. keturias-de-?imt[], Kurdish chil.
fifty *penkomt- Skr. pañcat, Gk. ? pent?konta, Lat. quinqu?gint?, Ir. /caoga, Lith. penkias-de-?imt[], Kurdish pe`nci, penca.
sixty *s(w)e?s?omt- Skr. ?aih, Gk. hex?konta, Lat. sex?gint?, Ir. /seasca, Lith. ?e?ias-de-?imt, Russ. ?est'desjat[], Kurdish shest.
seventy *septmomt- Skr. saptatih, Gk. hebdom?konta, Lat. septu?gint?, Ir. /seachtó, Lith. septynias-de-?imt, Russ. sem'desjat[], Kurdish hefte`, hefta.
eighty *h?e?t?(u)?omt- Skr. atih, Gk. ? ogdo?konta, Lat. oct?gint?, Ir. /ochtó, Lith. a?tuonias-de-?imt, Russ. vosem'desjat[], Kurdish heshte`, heshta.
ninety *(h?)newnomt- Skr. navatih, Gk. ? enen?konta, Lat. non?gint?, Ir. /nócha, Lith. devynias-de-?imt, Russ. devjanosto[], Kurdish not, newet.
hundred *?m?tom[23] Ved. ?atám, Av. sat?m, Roman. sut?, Pers. /sad, Osset. sædæ, Kashmiri ?ath, Gk. hekatón, Lat. centum, ON hundrað, Goth. hund, Eng. hundred/hundred, Gm. hunt/hundert, Gaul. cantam, Ir. cét/céad, Welsh cant, Toch. känt/kante, Latv. simts, Lith. ?im?tas, OCS s?to, Pol. sto, Russ. sto/sotnja, Kurdish sed.
thousand *(sm?-)éslo- Skr. sahasram, Av. hazar?m, Pers. /haz?r, Gk. khílioi, Lat. m?lle, Kurdish hezar.
*tusd?omti ON þúsund, Goth. þusundi, Eng. þusend/thousand, Gm. þ?sunt/tausend, TochA. tm, TochB. tm?ne/tumane, Lith. t?kstantis, Latv. t?kstots, OCS tysti, Pol. tysi?c, Russ. tys'a?a
*wel-tyo-[24] Toch. wälts/yaltse; OCS vel?j?/velik?

In the following languages, reflexes separated by slashes mean:

Reflexes of the feminine numbers

Number Reconstruction Reflexes[5]
three *t(r)i-sr- Ved. tisrás, Av. ti?r?, Gaul. tidres, Ir. teoir/?
four *k?etwr?-sr- Ved. cátasras, Av. cata?r?, Lith. keturios, Ir. cetheoir/?

Reflexes of the numeral prefixes

Number Reconstruction Reflexes (with examples)[7][25]
one- (together, same) *sm?- Ved. sa-kt "once", Gk. ? haplóos "one-fold, simple", Lat. sim-plex "one-fold"
two- *dwi- Ved. dvi-pád- "two-footed", Gk. dí-pod- "two-footed", Archaic Lat. dui-dent "a sacrificial animal with two teeth", Lith. dvi-kojis "two-footed"
three- *tri- Ved. tri-pád- "three-footed", Gk. trí-pod- "three-footed (table)", Lat. tri-ped- "three-footed", Lith. tri-kojis "three-footed", Gaul. tri-garanus "having three cranes", Alb. tri-dhjetë "thirty" (three ten)
four- *k?(e)tru- Ved. cátu?-pád- "four-footed", Av. ca?ru-gao?a- "four-eared", Gk. tetrá-pod- "four-footed", Lat. quadru-ped- "four-footed", Lith. ketur-kojis "four-footed"

Reflexes of the ordinal numbers

Number Reconstruction Reflexes
first *pr?h?-wó- Ved. p?rviyá-, OCS pr?v?,[8] Pol. pierwszy, Russ. pervyj, Toch. parwät/parwe
*pr?h?-mó- Goth. fruma, Lith. pìrmas,[8] Latv. pirmais, Lat. pr?mus, Osc. perum
other forms Eng. fyrst/first,[8]

Hitt. para, Lyc. pri, Av. pairi, vienet-as, paoiriia, Osset. fyccag, farast/farast, Kamviri pürük, Gk. prôtos, Umbr. pert, ON fyrstr, Gm. furist/Fürst "prince, ruler"; fruo/früh "early", Ir. er/air, Welsh ar, OPruss. pariy, Alb. i parë

second *(d)wi-teró- Skr. dvit?ya, Gk. deúteros, Russ. vtoroj[]
third *tri-t(y)ó- Ved. tr?t?ya-, Gk. trítos, Lat. tertius,[8]

Alb. (i) tretë, Lith. tre?ias < *tretias, Russ. tretij[]

fourth *k?etwr?-tó- Gk. tétartos, Eng. feorþa/fourth, OCS ?etvir?t?,[8]

Alb. (i) katërt, Lat. quartus, Lith. ketvirtas, Russ. chetv'ortyj[]

fifth *penk?-tó- Av. pux?a-, Gk. ? pémptos,[8]

Lat. qu?ntus, Alb. (i) pestë, Lith. penktas, Russ. p'atyj[]

sixth *swe?s-tó- Gk. héktos, Lat. sextus,[8]

Alb.(i) gjashtë, Lith. ?e?tas, Russ. ?estoj[]

seventh *septm?-(m/t)ó- Gk. ? hébdomos, Lat. septimus, OCS sedm?,[8]

Lith. septintas, sekmas, Russ. sed'moj[]

eighth *h?e?t?w-ó- Gk. ?(?) ógdo(w)os, Lat. oct?vus,[8]

Russ. vos'moj, Lith. a?tuntas, a?mas[]

ninth *(h?)newn?-(n/t)ó- Lat. n?nus,[8]

Gk. énatos, Russ. dev'atyj, Lith. devintas[]

tenth *de?m?-(m/t)ó- Ved. da?amá-, Av. das?ma-, Lat. decimus,[8]

Gk. ? dékatos, Lith. de?imtas, Russ. desjatyj[]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sihler (1995:402-24)
  2. ^ Beekes (1995:212-16)
  3. ^ Brugmann (1892:48)
  4. ^ Meillet:372)
  5. ^ a b c d Fortson (2004:131)
  6. ^ Lehmann (1993:252-255)
  7. ^ a b Fortson (2004:131-132)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Fortson (2004:132)
  9. ^ Gvozdanovic (1991)
  10. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European "one" and "first"". In: Sborník prací Filosofické fakulty Brn?nské university, A 47. Brno: MU, 1999. p. 7-27. A 47. ISBN 80-210-2098-9.
  11. ^ de Vaan, Michiel. "Proto-Indo-European *sm and *si 'one'". In: The Precursors of Proto-Indo-European. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill|Rodopi, 2019. pp. 203-218. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004409354_015
  12. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European "two"". In: Sborník prací Filosofické fakulty brn?nské university. Brno: Masarykova universita, 1998. p. 5-25. A 46. ISBN 80-210-1796-1.
  13. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European "three"". In: Lingua Posnaniensis, Polsko: neznámý, 1998, vol. 40, No 1, p. 33-45. ISSN 0079-4740.
  14. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European "four"." In: Indogermanische Forschungen, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1998, vol. 103, No 1, p. 112-134. ISSN 0019-7262.
  15. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European "five"". In: Indogermanische Forschungen, Berlin-NY: Walter de Gruyter, 2000, vol. 105, No 1, p. 102-120. ISSN 0019-7262.
  16. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European "six"". In: Sborník prací Filosofické fakulty brn?nské university. Brno: Masarykova universita, 2000. p. 5-18. A 48. ISBN 80-210-2350-3.
  17. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European 'Seven'". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies, Monograph Series 22 (1997): 9-29.
  18. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-european "eight"". In: Historische Sprachforschung. SRN: neznám, 1998, vol. 111, No 1, p. 209-224. ISSN 0935-3518.
  19. ^ Craig Melchert stated: "Meriggi, 'Fs Hirt' 266, suggests 'eighty' and 'ninety' respectively for aitãta and nuñtata ... 'Eight' and 'nine' are not only more reasonable contextually ... The remaining *aita- and *nuñta- may be derived from *ok?t? and *néwn? ... " Melchert, H. Craig. "New Luvo-Lycian Isoglosses". In: Historische Sprachforschung. 102 Band. 1 Heft. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 1989. pp. 24-25. ISSN 0935-3518
  20. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European "nine"". In: Historische Sprachforschung. Göttingen: Vanderhoeck & Ruprecht, 1999. vol. 112, No 2, p. 188-390. ISSN 0935-3518.
  21. ^ "This numeral ... is obviously derived from the word for "nine". (...) The etymological connection with PIE *newn ... is evident ...". Eichner, Heiner. "Anatolian". In: Gvozdanovic, Jadranka (ed.). Indo-European numerals. Trends in linguistics: Studies and monographs n. 57. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 1991. p. 87. ISBN 3-11-011322-8
  22. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European "ten"". In: Bygone voices reconstructed. On language origins and their relationships: In honor of Aharon Dolgopolski. Ed. by Vitalij V. Shevoroshkin & Harald U. Sverdrup. Copenhagen: Underskoven Publishers ApS, 2009. pp. 113-123. ISBN 978-87-91947-33-9.
  23. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European "hundred"". In: History of Language. Melbourne: Association for the History of Language, 1999, 5.2, No 2, p. 71-82. ISSN 1441-5542.
  24. ^ Douglas Q. Adams, A Dictionary of Tocharian B, 2nd ed., 2013, ISBN 9401209367 s.v. yaltse
  25. ^ Fortson (2004:120)

References

Further reading

  • Bammesberg, Alfred (1995). "Latin quattuor and Its Prehistory". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES) 23 (1-2): 213-222.
  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (1987). "The Word for 'Four' in Proto-Indo-European". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES) 15 (1/2): 215-219.
  • Bomhard, Allan. "Some thoughts on the Proto-Indo-European cardinal numbers". In: In Hot Pursuit of Language in Prehistory: Essays in the four fields of anthropology. In honor of Harold Crane Fleming. Edited by John D. Bengtson. John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008. pp. 213-221. 10.1075/z.145.18bom.

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Proto-Indo-European_numerals
 



 



 
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