|Reconstruction of||Tupian languages|
|Region||Madeira River basin?|
|Era||ca. 3000 BCE|
Proto-Tupian (PT) is the reconstructed common ancestor of all the Tupian languages. It consists, therefore, of a hypothetical language, reconstructed by the comparative method from data of the descendant languages.
In Brazil, Tupian historical-comparative studies are being developed mainly by two scientific teams: one from the Laboratório de Línguas Indígenas (LALI) of the University of Brasília, under the coordination of Aryon Rodrigues; and the other one from the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, located in Belém, under the orientation of Denny Moore. These studies provide evidence about the Proto-Tupian economy and culture, suggesting, for example, that they had agriculture.
The most accepted theory is that the Tupian language family originated between the Guaporé and Aripuanã rivers, in the Madeira River basin. There are currently 70 Tupian languages, including Tupi, Paraguayan Guarani, Awetï, Ayvu, etc.
Rodrigues (2007) considers the Proto-Tupian Urheimat to be somewhere between the Guaporé and Aripuanã rivers, in the Madeira River basin. Much of this area corresponds to the modern-day state of Rondônia, Brazil. 5 of the 10 Tupian branches are found in this area, as well as some Tupi-Guarani languages (especially Kawahíb), making it the probable urheimat of these languages and maybe of its speaking peoples. Rodrigues believes that Proto-Tupian dates back to around 5,000 B.P.
O'Hagan (2014) proposes that Proto-Tupi-Guarani was spoken in the region of the lower Tocantins and Xingu Rivers. Proto-Omagua-Kokama then expanded up the Amazon River, Proto-Tupinamba expanded south along the Atlantic coast, and the Southern branch expanded up along the Tocantins/Araguaia River towards the Paraná River basin.
This section lists Proto-Tupían reconstructions from Rodrigues and Cabral (2012). Since the reconstructions are highly tentative, the Proto-Tupían forms are all marked by two asterisks.
Proto-Tupian independent nouns:
Proto-Tupian dependent nouns:
Proto-Tupian verbs, affixes, and other parts of speech:
Proto-Tupían cultural vocabulary (Rodrigues and Cabral 2012):
|**ike||'man's older brother'|
|**k?p?t||'man's younger brother'|
|**?o ~ ?e||'cultivated field'|
|**awa(i)||'yams (Dioscorea sp.)'|
|**?juku||'achiote (Bixa orellana)'|
|**w?p||'to bake, to cook'|