Provinces of Thailand
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Provinces of Thailand
Provinces of Thailand
  • Also known as:
  • changwat (?)
CategoryUnitary state
LocationKingdom of Thailand
Number77 Provinces
1 Special Administrative Division
Populations193,305 Samut Songkhram - 2,648,927 Nakhon Ratchasima (2019)[1]
Areas414 km2 (160 sq mi) Samut Songkhram - 22,135 km2 (8,546 sq mi) Chiang Mai[2]
Government
Subdivisions

The Provinces of Thailand are part of the government of Thailand that is divided into 76 provinces (Thai: ?, RTGSchangwat, pronounced [t?.wàt]) proper and one special administrative area (Thai: ), representing the capital Bangkok.[3][4][5] They are the primary local government units and are divided into amphoes (districts) and also act as juristic persons. Each province is led by a governor (? phu wa ratchakan changwat), who is appointed by the central government.

The provinces and Administrative Areas

A clickable map of Thailand exhibiting its provinces.
Chiang Rai ProvinceChiang Mai ProvinceMae Hong Son ProvincePhayao ProvinceLampang ProvincePhrae ProvinceLamphun ProvinceNan ProvinceUttaradit ProvinceBueng Kan ProvinceNong Khai ProvinceUdon Thani ProvinceNakhon Phanom ProvinceSakon Nakhon ProvinceKalasin ProvinceMukdahan ProvinceLoei ProvinceKhon Kaen ProvinceNong Bua Lamphu ProvinceTak ProvinceSukhothai ProvincePhitsanulok ProvincePhichit ProvinceUthai Thani ProvinceKamphaeng Phet ProvinceNakhon Sawan ProvincePhetchabun ProvinceChaiyaphum ProvinceMaha Sarakham ProvinceRoi Et ProvinceYasothon ProvinceAmnat Charoen ProvinceUbon Ratchathani ProvinceSisaket ProvinceSurin ProvinceBuriram ProvinceNakhon Ratchasima ProvinceLopburi ProvinceChainat ProvinceSingburi ProvinceKanchanaburi ProvinceSuphan Buri ProvinceAng Thong ProvinceSaraburi ProvinceAyutthaya ProvinceNakhon Nayok ProvincePrachin Buri ProvincePathum Thani ProvinceNakhon Pathom ProvinceRatchaburi ProvinceSa Kaew ProvinceChachoengsao ProvinceChonburi ProvinceRayong ProvinceChanthaburi ProvinceTrat ProvincePhetchaburi ProvincePrachuap Khiri Khan ProvinceChumphon ProvinceRanong ProvinceSurat Thani ProvincePhang Nga ProvincePhuket Provinceกระบี่นครศรีธรรมราชตรังPhatthalung ProvinceSatun ProvinceSongkhla ProvincePattani ProvinceYala ProvinceNarathiwat ProvinceSamut Prakan ProvinceBangkokNonthaburi ProvinceSamut Sakhon ProvinceSamut Songkhram ProvinceA clickable map of Thailand exhibiting its provinces.
About this image
Seal Name Name
(in Thai)
Population (2019)[1] Area (km²)[2] Population density Namesake town/city HS[6] ISO[7] FIPS
Seal Bangkok Metropolitan Admin (green).svg  Bangkok
(special administrative area)
? 5,666,264 1,564 3,623 Bangkok BKK TH-10 TH40
Seal Amnatcharoen.png  Amnat Charoen ? 378,438 3,290 115 Amnat Charoen ACR TH-37 TH77
Seal Ang Thong.png  Ang Thong ? 279,654 950 294 Ang Thong ATG TH-15 TH35
Seal Bueng Kan.png  Bueng Kan 424,091 4,003 106 Bueng Kan BKN TH-38 TH81
Seal Buriram.png  Buriram 1,595,747 10,080 159 Buriram BRM TH-31 TH28
Seal Chachoengsao.png  Chachoengsao ? 720,113 5,169 139 Chachoengsao CCO TH-24 TH44
Seal Chainat.png  Chai Nat 326,611 2,506 131 Chai Nat CNT TH-18 TH32
Seal Chaiyaphum.png  Chaiyaphum ? 1,137,357 12,698 91 Chaiyaphum CPM TH-36 TH26
Seal Chanthaburi (1).svg  Chanthaburi 537,698 6,415 84 Chanthaburi CTI TH-22 TH48
Seal Chiang Mai.png  Chiang Mai 1,779,254 22,135 79 Chiang Mai CMI TH-50 TH02
Seal Chiang Rai.png  Chiang Rai 1,298,304 11,503 113 Chiang Rai CRI TH-57 TH03
Seal Chonburi.png  Chonburi 1,558,301 4,508 346 Chonburi CBI TH-20 TH46
Seal Chumphon.png  Chumphon 511,304 5,998 85 Chumphon CPN TH-86 TH58
Seal Kalasin.png  Kalasin 983,418 6,936 142 Kalasin KSN TH-46 TH23
Seal Kamphaeng Phet.png  Kamphaeng Phet 725,867 8,512 86 Kamphaeng Phet KPT TH-62 TH11
Seal Kanchanaburi.png  Kanchanaburi 895,525 19,385 46 Kanchanaburi KRI TH-71 TH50
Seal Khon Kaen.png  Khon Kaen ? 1,802,872 10,659 169 Khon Kaen KKN TH-40 TH22
Seal Krabi.png  Krabi 476,739 5,323 90 Krabi KBI TH-81 TH63
Seal Lampang.png  Lampang 738,316 12,488 59 Lampang LPG TH-52 TH06
Seal Lamphun.png  Lamphun 405,075 4,478 92 Lamphun LPN TH-51 TH05
Seal Loei.png  Loei 642,950 10,500 61 Loei LEI TH-42 TH18
Seal Lopburi.png  Lopburi 755,556 6,493 116 Lopburi LRI TH-16 TH34
Seal Mae Hong Son.svg  Mae Hong Son ? 284,138 12,765 23 Mae Hong Son MSN TH-58 TH01
Seal Maha Sarakham.png  Maha Sarakham 962,665 5,607 172 Maha Sarakham MKM TH-44 TH24
Seal of Mukdahan Province.png  Mukdahan 353,174 4,126 87 Mukdahan MDH TH-49 TH78
Seal Nakhon Nayok.png  Nakhon Nayok ? 260,751 2,141 122 Nakhon Nayok NYK TH-26 TH43
Seal Nakhon Pathom.svg  Nakhon Pathom 920,030 2,142 430 Nakhon Pathom NPT TH-73 TH53
Seal Nakhon Phanom.png  Nakhon Phanom 719,136 5,637 127 Nakhon Phanom NPM TH-48 TH73
Seal Nakhon Ratchasima.png  Nakhon Ratchasima ? 2,648,927 20,736 128 Nakhon Ratchasima NMA TH-30 TH27
Seal Nakhon Sawan.png  Nakhon Sawan 1,059,887 9,526 111 Nakhon Sawan NSN TH-60 TH16
Seal Nakhon Si Thammarat.png  Nakhon Si Thammarat ? 1,561,927 9,885 158 Nakhon Si Thammarat NRT TH-80 TH64
Seal Nan.png  Nan ? 478,227 12,130 40 Nan NAN TH-55 TH04
Seal Narathiwat.png  Narathiwat 808,020 4,491 180 Narathiwat NWT TH-96 TH31
Seal Nong Bua Lamphu.png  Nong Bua Lamphu 512,780 4,099 125 Nong Bua Lam Phu NBP TH-39 TH79
Seal Nong Khai.png  Nong Khai ? 522,311 3,275 160 Nong Khai NKI TH-43 TH17
Nonthaburi Province Seal.svg  Nonthaburi ? 1,265,387 637 1,986 Nonthaburi NBI TH-12 TH38
Seal Pathum Thani.png  Pathum Thani 1,163,604 1,520 766 Pathum Thani PTE TH-13 TH39
Seal Pattani.png  Pattani ? 725,104 1,977 367 Pattani PTN TH-94 TH69
Seal Phang Nga.png  Phang Nga 268,788 5,495 49 Phang Nga PNA TH-82 TH61
Provincial Seal of Phatthalung.svg  Phatthalung 524,865 3,861 135 Phatthalung PLG TH-93 TH66
Seal Phayao.png  Phayao 472,356 6,189 76 Phayao PYO TH-56 TH41
Seal Phetchabun.png  Phetchabun 992,451 12,340 80 Phetchabun PNB TH-67 TH14
Seal Phetchaburi.png  Phetchaburi 485,191 6,172 77 Phetchaburi PBI TH-76 TH56
Seal Phichit.png  Phichit 536,311 4,319 124 Phichit PCT TH-66 TH13
Seal Phitsanulok.png  Phitsanulok 865,247 10,589 82 Phitsanulok PLK TH-65 TH12
Seal Ayutthaya.png  Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya 820,188 2,548 322 Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya AYA TH-14 TH36
Phrae seal.svg  Phrae ? 441,726 6,483 68 Phrae PRE TH-54 TH07
Seal Phuket (blue).png  Phuket 416,582 547 762 Phuket PKT TH-83 TH62
Seal Prachinburi.png  Prachinburi ? 494,680 5,026 99 Prachinburi PRI TH-25 TH74
Seal Prachuap Khiri Khan.png  Prachuap Khiri Khan 554,116 6,414 88 Prachuap Khiri Khan PKN TH-77 TH57
Seal Ranong.png  Ranong 193,370 3,230 60 Ranong RNG TH-85 TH59
Seal Ratchaburi.png  Ratchaburi ? 873,101 5,189 168 Ratchaburi RBR TH-70 TH52
Seal Rayong.png  Rayong 734,753 3,666 201 Rayong RYG TH-21 TH47
Seal Roi Et.png  Roi Et 1,305,211 7,873 166 Roi Et RET TH-45 TH25
Old picture Seal Sakaeo.png  Sa Kaeo ? 566,303 6,831 83 Sa Kaeo SKW TH-27 TH80
Seal Sakon Nakhon.png  Sakon Nakhon 1,153,390 9,580 121 Sakon Nakhon SNK TH-47 TH20
Samutphakhan.png  Samut Prakan 1,344,875 947 1,420 Samut Prakan SPK TH-11 TH42
Seal Samut Sakhon.png  Samut Sakhon 584,703 866 675 Samut Sakhon SKN TH-74 TH55
Seal Samut Songkhram.png  Samut Songkhram 193,305 414 467 Samut Songkhram SKM TH-75 TH54
Seal Saraburi.png  Saraburi ? 645,911 3,499 185 Saraburi SRI TH-19 TH37
Seal Satun.png  Satun ? 323,586 3,019 107 Satun STN TH-91 TH67
Seal Sing Buri.png  Sing Buri 208,446 817 255 Sing Buri SBR TH-17 TH33
Seal Sisaket.png  Sisaket 1,472,859 8,936 165 Sisaket SSK TH-33 TH30
Seal Songkhla.png  Songkhla 1,435,968 7,741 186 Songkhla SKA TH-90 TH68
Seal Sukhothai.png  Sukhothai ? 595,072 6,671 89 Sukhothai (Sukhothai Thani) STI TH-64 TH09
Seal Suphanburi.png  Suphan Buri ? 846,334 5,410 156 Suphan Buri SPB TH-72 TH51
?.gif  Surat Thani 1,068,010 13,079 81 Surat Thani SNI TH-84 TH60
Seal Surin.png  Surin 1,396,831 8,854 157 Surin SRN TH-32 TH29
Seal Tak.png  Tak 665,620 17,303 39 Tak TAK TH-63 TH08
Seal Trang.png  Trang ? 643,164 4,726 136 Trang TRG TH-92 TH65
Seal Trat.png  Trat ? 229,958 2,866 78 Trat TRT TH-23 TH49
Seal Ubon Ratchathani.png  Ubon Ratchathani 1,878,146 15,626 120 Ubon Ratchathani UBN TH-34 TH75
Seal Udon Thani.png  Udon Thani 1,586,646 11,072 143 Udon Thani UDN TH-41 TH76
Seal Uthaithani.png  Uthai Thani 328,618 6,647 50 Uthai Thani UTI TH-61 TH15
Seal Uttaradit.png  Uttaradit 453,103 7,906 58 Uttaradit UTD TH-53 TH10
Seal Yala.png  Yala ? 536,330 4,476 119 Yala YLA TH-95 TH70
 Yasothon 537,299 4,131 130 Yasothon YST TH-35 TH72
  • The total population of Thailand is 66,558,935 on 31 December 2019.[1]
  • The total land area of Thailand is 517,646 km² in 2013.[2]
  • HS - Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System.
  • FIPS-code is on 31 December 2014 replaced with ISO 3166.

Governance

Thailand's national government organisation is divided into three types: central government (ministries, bureaus and departments), provincial government (provinces and districts) and local government (Bangkok, Pattaya, provincial administrative organisations, etc.).

A province, as part of the provincial government, is administered by a governor (?) who is appointed by the Minister of Interior. Bangkok, as part of the local government, is administered by a corporation called Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The corporation is led by the Governor of Bangkok (?) who is directly elected by the citizens of Bangkok.

The provinces are named by their original main city, which is not necessarily still the most populous city within the province today. Also, in several provinces the administration has been moved into a new building outside the city.

History

Before 1892

Many provinces date back to semi-independent local chiefdoms or kingdoms, which made up the Ayutthaya Kingdom. The provinces were created around a capital city (mueang), and included surrounding villages or satellite towns. The provinces were administered either by a governor, who was appointed by the king or by a local ruling family, who were descendants of the old kings and princes of that area and had been given this privilege by the central king. De facto the king did not have much choice but to choose someone from the local nobility or an economically strong man, as against these local power groups the administration would have become impossible. The governor was not paid by the king, but instead financed himself and his administration by imposing local taxes himself. Every province was required to send an annual tribute to Bangkok.

The provinces were divided into four different classes. The first-class were the border provinces. The second-class were those that once had their own princely house. Third-class were provinces that were created by splitting them from other provinces. Fourth-class were provinces near the capital. Additionally tributary states like the principalities of Lan Na, the Laotian kingdoms of Vientiane and Luang Prabang, Cambodia, or the Malay sultanate Kedah were also part of the country, but with more autonomy than the provinces. In this Mandala system the semi-independent countries sometimes were tributary to more than one country.

New provinces were created when the population of an area outgrew the administration, but also for political reasons. If a governor became too dominant in a region former satellite cities were elevated to provincial status, as was the case with Maha Sarakham Province.

Reforms of the provincial administration started in the 1870s under increased pressure from the colonial states of the United Kingdom and France. Agents were sent, especially to border areas, to impose more control on the provinces or tributary states.

Administrative reform of 1892

Map of Siam in 1900

At the end of the 19th century King Chulalongkorn reformed the central government. In 1892 the ministry, which previously had many overlapping responsibilities, was reorganized with clear missions as in Western administrations. Prince Damrong Rajanubhab became minister of the Ministry of the North (Mahatthai), originally responsible for the northern administration. When the Ministry of the South (Kalahom) was dissolved in 1894, Prince Damrong became Minister of the Interior, responsible for the provincial administration of the whole country.

Starting in 1893 the already existing commissionaireships in some parts of the country were renamed "superintendent commissioner" (khaluang Thesaphiban), and their area of responsibility was called a monthon. In strategically important areas the monthon were created first, while in other areas the provinces kept their independence a bit longer. Several smaller provinces were reduced in status to a amphoe (district) or even lower to a tambon (sub-district) and included in a neighboring province, sometimes for administrative reasons, but sometimes to remove an uncooperative governor.

In some regions rebellions broke out against the new administrative system, usually induced by the local nobility fearing their loss of power. The most notable was the Holy Man Rebellion in 1902 in Isan. It was initially a messianic doomsday sect, but it also attacked government representatives in the northeast. The provincial town Khemarat was even burned by the rebels. After a few months the rebellion was beaten back.[8]

After 1916, the word changwat became common to use for the provinces, partly to distinguish them from the provincial capital city (mueang or amphoe mueang), but also to stress the new administrative structure of the provinces.[9]

Cities and Monthons in 1900[10]

When Prince Damrong resigned in 1915, the whole country was divided into 19 monthon (including the area around Bangkok, which was under the responsibility of another ministry until 1922), with 72 provinces.

In December 1915 King Vajiravudh announced the creation of regions (phak), each administered by a viceroy (upparat), to cover several monthon. Until 1922 four regions were established, however in 1925 they were dissolved again. At the same time several monthon were merged, in an attempt to streamline administration and reduce costs.

Since 1932

The monthons were dissolved when Thailand transformed from an absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy in 1932, making the provinces the top level administrative division again. Several smaller provinces were also abolished at that time. During World War II, several provinces around Bangkok were merged. These changes were undone after the war. Also the occupied area from French Indochina was organized into four provinces: Phra Tabong, Phibunsongkhram, Nakhon Champasak and Lan Chang. The current province of Sukhothai was at first known as Sawankhalok. It was renamed Sukhothai in 1939 (which is why the railway system goes to Sawankhalok city and not Sukhothai city). The province, Kalasin, was reestablished in 1947 after having been dissolved in 1932.

In 1972 Phra Nakhon and Thonburi Provinces were merged to form the special administrative area of Bangkok, which combines the tasks of the provinces with that of a municipality, including having an elected governor.

Starting in the second half of the 20th century some provinces were newly created by splitting them off from bigger provinces. In 1975, Yasothon Province was split off from Ubon Ratchathani. In 1977, Phayao province was created from districts formerly part of Chiang Rai. In 1982, Mukdahan was split off from Nakhon Phanom. In 1993 three provinces were created: Sa Kaeo (split from Prachinburi), Nong Bua Lamphu Province (split from Udon Thani), and Amnat Charoen (split from Ubon Ratchathani). The newest province is Bueng Kan, which was split off from Nong Khai effective 23 March 2011.

Former provinces and administrative areas

Former provinces merged into other provinces

Province Capital Merged in Fate
Kabin Buri Kabin Buri 1926[11] Merged into Prachinburi Province
Sukhothai (beforce 1932) Sukhothai Thani 1932[12] Merged into Sawankhalok Province. However, The province's name and location of capital was changed back to Sukhothai in 1938.
Lom Sak Lom Sak Merged into Phetchabun Province
Thanyaburi Thanyaburi Merged into Pathum Thani Province
Kalasin Kalasin Merged into Maha Sarakham Province, Splited out again in 1947
Lang Suan Lang Suan Merged into Chumphon Province
Takua Pa Takua Pa Merged into Phang Nga Province
Sai Buri Sai Buri Merged into Pattani Province (except Bacho District which was merged into Narathiwat Province)
Phra Pradaeng Phra Pradaeng Merged into Samut Prakan Province (except Rat Burana District which was merged into Thonburi Province)
Min Buri Min Buri Merged into Phra Nakhon Province (Nong Chok District was merged into Chachoengsao Province first then reallocated back in 1933)
Samut Prakan (before 1943) Samut Prakan 1943[13] Merged into Phra Nakhon Province (except Ko Sichang District which was merged into Chonburi Province), The part of Phra Nakhon was splited out again in 1946
Nakhon Nayok Nakhon Nayok Merged into Prachinburi Province (except Ban Na District which was merged into Saraburi Province), Splited out again in 1946
Samut Sakhon Samut Sakhon Merged into Thonburi Province, Splited out again in 1946
Nonthaburi Nonthaburi Merged into Phra Nakhon Province (except Bang Kruai District, Bang Yai District, Bang Bua Thong District which was merged into Thonburi Province), Splited out again in 1946
Phra Nakhon Phra Nakhon 1971[14] Merged together to form the current Bangkok
Thonburi Thonburi

Lost territories

Province Capital Period Fate Today part of
Prachankiriket[15] Prachankiriket 1855-1904 Pursat and Kampot, France French Indochina Pursat and Koh Kong,  Cambodia
Lan Chang (formerly Chaiburi) Sama Buri until 1904
1941-1946
Luang Prabang, France French Indochina Sainyabuli and Luang Prabang,  Laos
Phra Tabong Battambang until 1907
1941-1946
Battambang, France French Indochina Battambang and Pailin,  Cambodia
Phibunsongkhram Sisophon 1941-1946 Battambang, Siem Reap, Kompong Thom and Stung Treng, France French Indochina Banteay Meanchey, Oddar Meanchey and Siem Reap,  Cambodia
Nakhon Champassak Champasak until-1904
1941-1946
Kompong Thom, Stung Treng and Bassac, France French Indochina Preah Vihear and Stung Treng,  Cambodia
Champasak,  Laos
Syburi Alor Setar until-1909
1943-1945
Kedah, United Kingdom British Malaya Kedah,  Malaysia
Palit Kangar until-1909
1943-1945
Perlis, United Kingdom British Malaya Perlis,  Malaysia
Kalantan Kota Bharu until-1909
1943-1945
Kelantan, United Kingdom British Malaya Kelantan,  Malaysia
Trangkanu Kuala Terengganu until-1909
1943-1945
Terengganu, United Kingdom British Malaya Terengganu,  Malaysia
Saharat Thai Doem Chiang Tung 1943-1945 Karenni State and Shan State, United Kingdom British Burma Kayah State and Shan State  Myanmar

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c ? ?.?.2562 [Statistics, population and house statistics for the year 2019]. Registration Office Department of the Interior, Ministry of the Interior. stat.bora.dopa.go.th (in Thai). 31 December 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ a b c " 2 ? ? ?.?.2562" [Table 2 Forest area Separate province year 2019]. Royal Forest Department (in Thai). 2019. Retrieved 2021, information, Forest statistics Year 2019, Thailand boundary from Department of Provincial Administration in 2013CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  3. ^ "Administrative information". Department of Provincial Affairs (DOPA). Provincial Affairs Bureau. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ "? ? ? ? 31 ? 2558" [Announcement of the Central Registry. The number of people throughout the Kingdom. The evidence of registration as of 31 December 2015]. Department of Provincial Administration (DOPA). Retrieved 2018.
  5. ^ "The World Factbook: Thailand". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ "What is the Harmonized System (HS)?". World Customs Organization.
  7. ^ "ISO 3166-2:TH".
  8. ^ Tej Bunnag (1969). The Provincial Administration of Siam from 1892 to 1915. p. 273ff.
  9. ^ ? (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 33 (?): 51-53. 1916-05-28.
  10. ^ Timtsunami8 (2020-08-31), of Siam in 1900.png English: An updated version of the map Check |url= value (help), retrieved
  11. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2468/A/430.PDF
  12. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2474/A/576.PDF
  13. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2485/A/077/2447.PDF
  14. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2514/A/144/816.PDF
  15. ^ https://mgronline.com/onlinesection/detail/9610000063767

Further reading

  • Tej Bunnag (1977). The Provincial Administration of Siam, 1892-1915: the Ministry of the Interior under Prince Damrong Rajanubhab. Kuala Lumpur; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580343-4.

External links


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