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Emergency governmental authority created to manage a country during a political transition
A provisional government, also called an interim government, an emergency government, or a transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration. Provisional governments are generally appointed, and frequently arise, either during or after civil or foreign wars.
In opinion of Yossi Shain and Juan J. Linz, provisional governments can be classified to four groups:
Revolutionary provisional governments (when the former regime is overthrown and the power belongs to the people who have overthrown it).
Power sharing provisional governments (when the power is shared between former regime and the ones who are trying to change it).
Incumbent provisional governments (when the power during transitional period belongs to the former regime).
International provisional governments (when the power during the transitional period belongs to the international community).
The establishment of provisional governments is frequently tied to the implementation of transitional justice. Decisions related to transitional justice can determine who is allowed to participate in a provisional government.
The practice of using "provisional government" as part of a formal name can be traced to Talleyrand's government in France in 1814. In 1843, American pioneers in the Oregon Country, in the Pacific Northwest region of North America established the Provisional Government of Oregon--as the U.S. federal government had not yet extended its jurisdiction over the region--which existed until March 1849. The numerous provisional governments during the Revolutions of 1848 gave the word its modern meaning: A liberal government established to prepare for elections.
List of provisional governments
Numerous provisional governments have been established since the 1850s.
As of 2021 in Africa, only Libya, Sudan, and Chad currently have provisional governments.
Provisional Government of Free India (1943-1945), commonly known as Azad Hind, established by Indian nationalists in southeast Asia, had nominal sovereignty over Axis controlled Indian territories, and had diplomatic relationships with eleven countries including Germany, Italy, Japan, Philippines, and the Soviet Union. It was headed by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, who was the Head of the State and Prime Minister. He was also the Supreme Commander of the Indian National Army. The government had its own cabinet and banks. It was also the first government to recruit women for combat roles.
As of 2020 in Asia, only Syria and Yemen currently have provisional governments. However the Syrian provisional governments were established as umbrella governments of the oppositions, in parallel with a pre-existent internationally recognized government; both provisional governments are not recognized internationally.
^ abShain(1) Linz(2), Yossi(1) Linz(2) (January 1992). "The Role of Interim Governments". Journal of Democracy. doi:10.1353/jod.1992.0012.
^Yossi Shain, Juan J. Linz, "Between States: Interim Governments in Democratic Transitions", 1995, ISBN9780521484985, p. 5
^McAuliffe, Padraig (09/01/2010). "Transitional Justice and the Rule of Law". ague Journal of the Rule of Law. doi:10.1017/S1876404510200015. Check date values in: |date= (help)
^Sayigh, Yezid (1999). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 624. ISBN9780198296430. "The Palestinian National Council also empowered the central council to form a government-in-exile when appropriate, and the executive committee to perform the functions of government until such time as a government-in-exile was established."