Pu-Xian Min
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Pu-Xian Min
Puxian
//
Pó-sing-g/Pó-sing-u?/Hing-hua?-u?
Native toChina, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Taiwan (Wuqiu), United States (California)
RegionFujian (Putian, parts of Fuzhou and Quanzhou)
EthnicityPutianese (Han Chinese)
Native speakers
2.6 million (2000)[1]
Dialects
Chinese characters[]
Hinghwa Romanized(bá?-u?-ci?)
Language codes
cpx
Glottologpuxi1243
Linguasphere79-AAA-id
Min dialect map.svg
  Pu-Xian Min
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Bible in Hinghwa (Xinghua) Romanised (Genesis), published by the British and Foreign Bible Society.

Puxian (Hinghwa Romanized: Pó-sing-g/; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Púxi?nhuà), also known as Pu-Xian Chinese, Puxian Min, Xinghua, Henghwa or Hinghwa (Hing-hua?-g/; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: X?nghuày?), is a Sinitic language that forms a branch of Min Chinese.

The native language of Putian people, Puxian is spoken mostly in Fujian province, particularly in Putian city and Xianyou County (after which it is named), parts of Fuzhou, and parts of Quanzhou. It is also widely used as the mother tongue in Wuqiu Township, Kinmen County, Fujian Province, Republic of China (Taiwan). More than 2000 people in Shacheng, Fuding in northern Fujian also speak Puxian.[2] There are minor differences between the dialects of Putian and Xianyou.

Overseas populations of Puxian speakers exist in Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore. Speakers of Puxian are also known as Henghua, Hinghua, or Xinghua.

History

Before the year 979 AD, the Puxian region was part of Quanzhou county and people there spoke a form of Southern Min.[3][4] due to its origin in the past.

In 979 AD, during the Song Dynasty, the region was administratively separated from Quanzhou and the Chinese spoken there developed separately from the rest of Southern Min. Due to its proximity with Fuzhou, it absorbed some elements of Eastern Min, such as morphophonemic alternations in initial consonants, but its basic linguistic characteristics, i.e. grammar and most of its lexicon, are based on Southern Min. It also shares denasalization of historical nasal consonants and vocalic nasalization with Southern Min varieties.[5]

Puxian Min has 62% cognates with Quanzhou dialect (Southern Min) and only 39% cognates with Fuzhou dialect (Eastern Min).[6]

Characteristics

Differences with Southern Min dialects

Puxian differs from most Southern Min varieties in several ways:

  • The vowel 'a' is replaced by /?/ (o?) in most cases, e.g. ? ko? "leg".
  • The vowel '?' /?/ is replaced by /y/ ('ü'), e.g. ? h? "fish".
  • In Putian 'ng' has changed to /u?/ except after zero initial and h- (notation: ng), e.g. ? tung "soup".
  • The vowel /e/ is often replaced by /?/ o?, e.g. ? bo? "horse".
  • Where Quanzhou has '?' and Zhangzhou has '?', the corresponding Putian vowel is 'ã', e.g. ? ba? "sick", where ? indicates a nasalized vowel.
  • The vowel 'io' is replaced by 'iau' (notation: a?u), e.g. ? ciao "laugh". This also holds for nasalized vowels, e.g. ? da?u? corresponding to Zhangzhou tio?.
  • Nasals 'm' sometimes occur in place of voiced stops 'b', e.g. ? mang vs. Quanzhou bang.
  • Initial consonant 'ng' replaces 'g' e.g. ? 'ngo' vs. Quanzhou 'go'.
  • There is a loss of distinction between voiced and unvoiced stops, e.g. the sounds /b/ and /p/ both correspond to the same phoneme and occur in free variation.

Borrowings from Eastern Min

  • Wife (Lau Ma)

Phonology

Puxian has 15 consonants, including the zero onset, the same as most other Min varieties. Puxian is distinctive for having a lateral fricative [?] instead of the [s] in other Min varieties, similar to Taishanese.

Puxian has 53 finals and 6 phonemic tones.

Initials

Puxian Min Initial Chart
Bilabial Alveolar Lateral Velar Glottal
Plosive unaspirated p ? (b) t ? (d) k ? (g) ? ?
aspirated p? ? (p) t? ? (t) k? ? (k)
Nasals m ? (m) n ? (n) ? ? (ng)
Fricatives voiceless ? ? (s) h ? (h)
voiced ?*
Affricates unaspirated ts ? (c)
aspirated ts? ? (ch)
Approximant l ? (l)

Finals

Puxian Min has 53 finals (including nasalised finals)

Finals
Vowel Diphthong Nasal Glottal
no glide a ? (a) au ? (au) a? ? (ang) a? ? (ah)
? ? (o?) ? (o?ng) ? (o?h)
? ? (eo) ?u ? (o) ? (eong) o? ? (eoh)
e ? (a?) ai ? (ai) ? (eng) ? (eh)
oe ? (e?) oe? ? (e?ng) oe? ? (e?h)
? ? (ng)
/-i-/ i ? (i) iu ? (iu) i? ? (ing) i? ? (ih)
ia ? (ia) iau ? (a?u) ia? ? (iang) ia? ? (iah)
/-u-/ u ? (u) ui ? (ui) u? ? (ng)
ua ? (ua) ?i/ue ? (oi) ua? ? (uang) ua? ? (uah)
/-y-/ y ? (?) y? ? (?ng) y? ? (?h)
y? ? (io) y ? (io?ng) y ? (io?h)
Chinese character ? (?g) ? (hng) ? (dn?g) ? (bng) ? (gng) ? (nn?g) ? (m?g)
Putian u? hu? tu? pu? ku? nu? mu?
Xianyou h t p k n m
Xianyou dialect nasals
IPA ã ? ? ? a? a? u? i?
Romanization a? a a e o ia? io ua? oi? a?u?
Romanized IPA ã ? ø? y o?
Chinese character ? (ca?) ? (há) ? (d) ? (so) ? (diá?) ? (da?u?) ? (kua) ? (b?i?) ? (ió)
Xianyou tsã h? t? s tiã ti? k?uã pu? y
Putian tsa hi s? tia tiau k?ua puai y?

Tone

Tone Ing-bá? Ing-sing Ing-k Ing-ci?h Ió?ng-bá? Ió?ng-k Ió?ng-ci?h
Putian (533) (453) (42) (?21) (13) ? (11) (?4)
Xianyou (544) (332) (52) (?2) (24) (21) (?4)

Register

Xianyou dialect register chart
Chinese character ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Colloquial pe ?ã, ts?ã nia ?ai n hoe pia tieu
Literary mai h li? ?o lø? h? pi? tø?

Assimilation

?i? pu pa? -> ?i? mu ?a?

ts ts?au -> ts nau

Comparison between Putian Min and Quanzhou Min Nan

Chinese character ? (lit.) ? (lit.) ? (lit.) ? ? (lit.) ? ? ?
Putian mai man tsin tsi? kui ki? tue t
Quanzhou bai ban lin dzip ?ui ?iak lue l?k

Sentence-final particles

  • ah (?): used to express exclamation.
  • lah (?): used to stress or for adding emotional effect to your words.
  • neh (?): used for questioning.
  • n? (?): used to express emotion.
  • y?u (?): used to denote obviousness or contention.

Romanization

Hing-hua? bá?-u?-ci? () is the Romanization system for Puxian Min. It has 23 letters: a a? b c ch d e e? g h i k l m n ng o o? p s t u ?.

The Romanization only needs five tone marks for seven tones:

  • Ing-bá? (unmarked)
  • Ing-sing ^ (â)
  • Ing-k ' (a?)
  • Ing-ci?h (unmarked)
  • Ió?ng-bá? ? (á)
  • Ió?ng-k - (?)
  • Ió?ng-ci?h 'h (a?h)
IPA Puxian Min (Xinghua) Fuzhou
p? p p
t? t t
k? k k
p b b
t d d
k g g
ts? ch ch
ts c c
Tone Ing-bá? Ing-sing Ing-k Ing-ci?h Ió?ng-bá? Ió?ng-k Ió?ng-ci?h
Bá?-u?-ci? a â a? ah á ? a?h
Pe?h-?e-j? a á à ah â ? a?h

References

  1. ^ Puxian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Cai, Guo-mei (2013). "A Further Study on Puxian Dialect Zone in Aoyao Village, Fuding". Journal of Longyan University (1): 38-43 – via en.cnki.com.cn.
  3. ^ "Shìjiè shàng g?nb?n wú m?nnán y? ~ Wáng Huánán" ~ [There is no Hokkien in the World ~ Wang Huanan]. www.taiwanus.net (in Chinese). 2011-05-27.
  4. ^ "Cháozh?u huà" [Teochew Dialect]. 8944.net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2015-06-21. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Lien, Chinfa (August 17-19, 1998). "Denasalization, Vocalic Nasalization and Related Issues in Southern Min: A Dialectal and Comparative Perspective". International Symposium on Linguistic Change and the Chinese Dialects.
  6. ^ Li, Rulong ; Chen, Zhangtai (1991). Lùn m?n f?ngyán nèibù de zh?yào ch?yì - ? [On the Main Differences in Min Dialects] (in Chinese). Beijing: Yuwen Chubanshe. pp. 58-138.

External links


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