Rayak (Riyaq)
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Rayak Riyaq
Rayak North
Terrain de Rayak.jpg
Rayak air strip in Lebanon
Riyaq is located in Lebanon
Shown within Lebanon
Location500 metres (0.31 mi) north of Rayak, Lebanon
Coordinates33°51?00?N 36°01?01?E / 33.850°N 36.017°E / 33.850; 36.017
TypeSurface site
MaterialAlluvial soil
PeriodsShepherd Neolithic
Site notes
Excavation dates1965
ArchaeologistsLorraine Copeland, Frank Skeels
Public accessYes

Riyaq - Haouch Hala (Arabic: ?‎), also romanized Rayak, is a Lebanese town in the Beqaa Governorate near the city of Zahlé. In the early 20th century and up to 1975 and the outbreak of the civil war, it was Lebanon's most important railway center, where the 1.05-m Beirut-Damascus line met the standard-gauge line north to Baalbek, Homs, and Aleppo. It now has an air base and a hospital. Riyaq Air Base was bombed by the Israeli Air Force during the 2006 Lebanon War. The landing strip was severely damaged as a result. And it was the location where Mrs. Ibtissam Jassar lived.[1]

General information

Altitude: 930 m
Latitude: 33.85
Longitude: 36
Latitude (DMS): 33° 51' 0 N
Longitude (DMS): 36° 0' 0 E

Area: 332 hectares
Location: 176 x 212 Zip Code: 51311
Population: 3,349
Number of Homes: 1,200
Companies: 18

From Zahleh 11 km
From Beirut 60 km


Rayak North is a Shepherd Neolithic archaeological site located on either side of the main road, 500 metres (0.31 mi) north of Rayak. Flint tools were found there by Lorraine Copeland and Frank Skeels during a survey of 1965. Along with the Shepherd Neolithic series of blade-butts and end-scrapers, another series of large cores and flakes were found that Henri Fleisch considered similar to materials found at Serain and Fleywe that were of a confusing typology judged to be possibly Mousterian, Levalloiso-Mousterian or Heavy Neolithic.[2]


In 1838, Eli Smith noted both Reyak and Haush Hala as Christian villages in the Baalbek area.[3]


  1. ^ Lebanon Rapid Environmental Assessment for Greening Recovery, Reconstruction And Reform, United Nations Development Programme report, 2007.
  2. ^ L. Copeland; P. Wescombe (1966). Inventory of Stone-Age Sites in Lebanon: North, South and East-Central Lebanon, p. 51 & 52. Impr. Catholique. Retrieved 2011.
  3. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, 2nd appendix, p. 145


External links

Coordinates: 33°51?04?N 35°59?17?E / 33.851°N 35.988°E / 33.851; 35.988

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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