Recall Election
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Recall Election

A recall election (also called a recall referendum, recall petition or representative recall) is a procedure by which, in certain polities, voters can remove an elected official from office through a referendum before that official's term of office has ended. Recalls, which are initiated when sufficient voters sign a petition, have a history dating back to the constitution in ancient Athenian democracy[1] and feature in several current constitutions. In indirect or representative democracy, people's representatives are elected and these representatives serve for a specific period of time. However, where the facility to recall exists, if any representative comes to be perceived as not properly discharging their responsibilities, they can be called back with the written request of a specific number or proportion of voters. Even where they are legally available, recall elections are only commonly held in a small number of countries including the United States, Peru, Ecuador, and Japan.[2] They are considered by groups such as ACE Electoral Knowledge Network the most rarely used form of direct democracy.[3]


The processes for recall elections vary greatly by country and can be originated may in different ways. The process may be:[4]

  • Indirect or "Top-down": The recall may only be triggered an official authority such as a government, parliament, or President.
  • Direct or "Bottom-up": A recall may be triggered by the public by the collection of signatures.


The recall referendum arrived in Latin America shortly after its introduction at the US subnational level, in 1923 and 1933, to Cordoba and Entre Ríos provinces, respectively, both in Argentina. There, recall exists at the provincial level in Chaco (introduced in 1957), Chubut (1994), Córdoba (1923, 1987), Corrientes (1960), La Rioja (1986), Rio Negro (1988), Santiago del Estero and Tierra del Fuego (1991); other provinces include it for their municipalities, namely, Entre Ríos (1933), Neuquén (1957), Misiones (1958), San Juan (1986), San Luis (1987). It is also included in Buenos Aires City (1996).[5]


Canada does not have legislation allowing for recall elections on the federal level. The only province or territory with recall election laws currently in force is British Columbia.[6][7]


The province of Alberta enacted recall legislation for Members of the Legislative Assembly in 1936 during the Social Credit government of William Aberhart.[6] The legislation was repealed after a petition was introduced for the recall of Aberhart himself.[6][8]

In 2020, the Government of Alberta announced it will introduce a bill allowing recall elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly, municipal governments, and school boards.[9]

British Columbia

British Columbia's Recall and Initiative Act, enacted in 1995, provides a process for recalling members of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia.[7] Voters in a provincial riding can petition to have their Member of the Legislative Assembly removed from office once said MLA has been in office for at least 18 months. If over 40 percent of registered voters in the riding sign the petition and the petition is validated by Elections BC, the Chief Electoral Officer informs the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the member in question that the member has been recalled and their seat vacated. A by-election is called by the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia as soon as possible to fill the vacant seat. The recalled MLA is permitted to run in the recall by-election for their former seat. Twenty-six recall petitions have been launched as of 2020; of the six completed petitions returned to Elections BC, five were rejected for having too few valid signatures.[7] The sixth, on the recall of MLA Paul Reitsma, was halted after Reitsma resigned in 1998 during the secondary verification stage.[6]


In Colombia, the recall referendum was included by the constitution in 1991. The constitutional replacement was launched as an answer to the movement known as la séptima papeleta (the seventh ballot), which requested a constitutional reform to end violence, narcoterrorism, corruption and increasing citizenship apathy. The definition of recall referendum in relation to programmatic vote was approved.[clarification needed] It obliges candidates running for office to register a government plan which is later on considered to activate the recall.[clarification needed] Since the time the mechanism was regulated by Law 134 in 1994, until 2015, 161 attempts led 41 referendums and none of them succeeded since the threshold of participation was not reached. In 2015, a new law (303/2015) reduced the number of signatures required to activate a recall referendum (from 40 per cent to 30 per cent of the total of votes obtained by the elected authority) and the threshold (dropping from the 50 per cent to the 40 per cent of valid votes on the day of the elections of the challenged authority). The change in the regulation, also quickening the registration of promoters, led to a considerable increase in the number of attempts.[10]


Article 105 of the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador provides for recall of all elected officials:

People in enjoyment of political rights may revoke the mandate of popularly elected authorities. The request for revocation of the mandate may be submitted once the first and before the last year of the period for which the authority in question was elected. During the management period of an authority, only one process of revocation of the mandate may be carried out. The revocation request must be supported by a number not less than ten percent of people registered in the corresponding electoral registry. In the case of the President of the Republic, the support of a number not less than fifteen percent of those registered in the electoral registry will be required.

-- Article 105 of the Constitution of Ecuador (translated from Spanish)


Mayoral Recalls

Mayors may be recalled in 11 out of the 16 states of Germany. In a majority of these states recall elections are indirect, meaning that they only take place after a motion of no confidence from the municipal council of the city. A supermajority vote is normally needed to start the recall process from the council. Four states also allow the direct recall, where citizens may sign a petition to trigger the recall vote.

Process of recalling mayors in Germany
State Year of


Requires either: Turnout requirement of recall vote

(Percentage of Voters)


(percentage of citizens)

Municipal councilors


Brandenburg 1993 15-20% 2/3 25%
Hesse 1993 Not available 2/3 30%
Lower Saxony 1996 Not available 3/4 25%
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 1999 Not available 2/3 33.33%
North-Rhine Westphalia 1999 15-20% 2/3 25%
Rhineland-Palatinate 1994 Not available 2/3 30%
Saarland 1994 Not available 2/3 30%
Saxony 1994 33.33% 3/4 50%
Saxony-Anhalt 1994 Not available 3/4 30%
Schleswig-Holstein 1997 20 2/3 20%
Thuringia 1994 Not availalbe 1/2 30%


Article 18, Section 3 of the Constitution of Bavaria provides, that the entire Landtag can be dismissed by referendum on petition of 1 Million citizens, with elections of a new Landtag to be held up to six weeks after the recall referendum. The recall of specific members however, is not provided for.



Article 14 of the Constitution of Latvia enables the recall of the entire Saiema, though not of specific representatives:

Article 14: Not less than one tenth of electors has the right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima.
If the majority of voters and at least two thirds of the number of the voters who participated in the last elections of the Saeima vote in the national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima, then the Saeima shall be deemed recalled.
The right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima may not be exercised one year after the convening of the Saeima and one year before the end of the term of office of the Saeima, during the last six months of the term of office of the President, as well as earlier than six months after the previous national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima.
The electors may not recall any individual member of the Saeima.


In Mexico, the State of Yucatán was the first to introduce the recall in 1938. The mechanism, which had never been used, was declared unconstitutional 72 years later by the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation. A similar mechanism introduced in Chihuahua in 1997 was also declared unconstitutional and consequently eliminated from law. Despite these precedents, the recall was later included in the states of Oaxaca (1998), Morelos (2011), Guerrero (2013), Zacatecas and Aguascalientes.[12]

New Zealand

Early policies of the New Zealand Labour Party included support for "the recall".[13][14]


Article 10 of the constitution of the Philippines allows for the recall of local officials. The Local Government Code, as amended, enabled the application of the provisions of the constitution. Elected officials from provincial governors to the barangay councilors are potentially subject to recall. At least 25% of the electorate in a specific place must have their signatures verified in a petition in order for the recall to take place.[15]

The president, vice president, members of Congress, and the elected officials of the Bangsamoro cannot be removed via recall.

The most recent recall election above the barangay level was the 2015 Puerto Princesa mayoral recall election.


Recall regulations were introduced in Peru by the Democratic Constituent Congress (Congreso Constituyente Democrático) which drafted a new constitution after Alberto Fujimori's autogolpe in 1992. Between 1997 and 2013, more than 5000 recall referendums were activated against democratically elected authorities from 747 Peruvian municipalities (45.5% of all municipalities). This makes Peru the world's most intensive user of this mechanism.[16]


While recalls are not provided for at the federal level in Switzerland, six cantons allow them:[17][18]

  • Bern: Recall of the executive and legislative has been possible since 1846. 30,000 signatures (4% of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There has been one unsuccessful attempt to recall the executive in 1852 (the 'Schatzgelder' affair).
  • Schaffhausen: Recall of the executive and legislative has been possible since 1876. 1,000 signatures (2% of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There has been one unsuccessful attempt to recall the executive in 2000, triggered by the lawyer and cantonal MP Gerold Meier.
  • Solothurn: Recall of the executive and legislative has been possible since 1869. 6,000 signatures (3% of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There has been one unsuccessful attempt to recall the executive and legislative in 1995 (related to a banking scandal). Three further attempts (in 1887, 1961 and 1973) failed to collect the necessary number of signatures.
  • Ticino: Recall of the executive has been possible since 1892. 15,000 signatures (7% of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There has been one unsuccessful recall attempt in 1942. In addition, recall of municipal executives has been possible since 2011. Signatures of 30% of all adult citizens are required to trigger a recall referendum.
  • Thurgau: Recall of the executive and legislative has been possible since 1869. 20,000 signatures (13% of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There have been no recall attempts.
  • Uri: Recall of the executive and legislative has been possible since 1888. Since 1979, 600 signatures (3% of all adult citizens) have been required to trigger a recall referendum. In addition, recall of municipal executives and legislatives has been possible since 2011. Signatures of 10% of registered voters are required to trigger a recall referendum. There have been no recall attempts either at the cantonal or municipal levels.

The possibility of recall referendums (together with the popular election of executives, the initiative and the legislative referendum) was introduced into several cantonal constitutions after the 1860s in the course of a broad movement for democratic reform. The instrument has never been of any practical importance--the few attempts at recall so far have failed, usually because the required number of signatures was not collected--and it was abolished in the course of constitutional revisions in Aargau (1980), Baselland (1984) and Lucerne (2007). The only successful recall so far happened in the Canton of Aargau in the year 1862. However, the possibility of recalling municipal executives was newly introduced in Ticino in 2011, with 59% of voters in favor, as a reaction to the perceived problem of squabbling and dysfunctional municipal governments.[17]

Soviet Union

Article 142 of The 1936 Constitution of the Soviet Union had the right in theory to recall deputies in legislature at all levels of government:

Article 142. It is the duty of every deputy to report to his electors on his work and on the work of the Soviet of Working People's Deputies, and he is liable to be recalled at any time in the manner established by law upon decision of a majority of the electors.

The recall was widely copied in the constitutions of communist countries of the Eastern Block, which modeled them after the Soviet Union.[19]


In Taiwan, according to the Additional Articles of the Constitution, the recall of the president or the vice president shall be initiated upon the proposal of one-fourth of all members of the Legislative Yuan, and also passed by two-thirds of all the members. The final recall must be passed by more than one-half of the valid ballots in a vote in which more than one-half of the electorate in the free area of the Republic of China takes part.[20] On 6 June 2020, mayor of Kaohsiung, Han Kuo-yu, became the first mayor to be recalled. 939,090 votes within 969,259 agreed the recall.[21]


A year after the 2015 Ukrainian local elections, voters can achieve a recall election of an elected deputy or mayor if as many signatures as voters are collected.[22]

United Kingdom

The Recall of MPs Act 2015 (c. 25) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which allows a recall petition to be held if a Member of Parliament did certain wrongdoings, including being sentenced to prison for up to a year (longer sentences result in automatic disqualification). The petitions cannot be triggered by popular initiative, but rather are automatic and administered by the local returning officer for parliamentary elections, who is designated as petitions officer for this purpose. If the subsequent recall petition is successful, by being signed by at least 10% of the electorate, a by-election is called. It received Royal Assent on 26 March 2015 after being introduced on 11 September 2014.[23][24] On 1 May 2019, Fiona Onasanya became the first MP to be removed from office after a successful recall petition.[25]

United States

Submitting petitions for the recall of Seattle, Washington mayor Hiram Gill in December 1910; Gill was removed by a recall election the following February, but voters returned him to the office in 1914

Recall first appeared in Colonial America in the laws of the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1631.[26] This version of the recall involved one elected body removing another official. During the American Revolution, the Articles of Confederation stipulated that state legislatures might recall delegates from the Continental Congress.[27] According to New York Delegate John Lansing, the power was never exercised by any state. The Virginia Plan, issued at the outset of the Philadelphia Convention of 1787, proposed to pair recall with rotation in office and to apply these dual principles to the lower house of the national legislature. The recall was rejected by the Constitutional Convention. However, the anti-Federalists used the lack of recall provision as a weapon in the ratification debates.

Several states proposed adopting a recall for US senators in the years immediately following the adoption of the Constitution. However, it did not pass.

Only two governors have ever been successfully recalled. In 1921, Governor Lynn Frazier of North Dakota was recalled during a dispute about state-owned industries. In 2003, Governor Gray Davis of California was recalled over the state budget. Additionally, in 1988, a recall was approved against Governor Evan Mecham of Arizona,[28] but he was impeached and convicted before it got on the ballot.[29]

In Alaska, Georgia, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Rhode Island, and Washington, specific grounds are required for a recall. Some form of malfeasance or misconduct while in office must be identified by the petitioners. The target may choose to dispute the validity of the grounds in court, and a court then judges whether the allegations in the petition rise to a level where a recall is necessary. In the November 2010 general election, Illinois passed a referendum to amend the state constitution to allow a recall of the state's governor, in light of former Governor Rod Blagojevich's corruption scandal. In the other eleven states that permit statewide recall, no grounds are required and recall petitions may be circulated for any reason. However, the target is permitted to submit responses to the stated reasons for recall.

The minimum number of signatures to qualify a recall, and the time limit to do so, vary among the states. In addition, the handling of recalls, once they qualify, differs. In some states a recall triggers a simultaneous special election, where the vote on the recall, as well as the vote on the replacement if the recall succeeds, are on the same ballot. In the 2003 California recall election, over 100 candidates appeared on the replacement portion of the ballot. In other states, a separate special election is held after the target is recalled, or a replacement is appointed by the Governor or some other state authority.

2011 recalls

In 2011, there were at least 150 recall elections in the United States. Of these, 75 officials were recalled, and nine officials resigned under threat of recall. Recalls were held in 17 states in 73 different jurisdictions. Michigan had the most recalls (at least 30). The year set a record for number of state legislator recall elections (11 elections) beating the previous one-year high (three elections).

Three jurisdictions adopted the recall in 2011.[30]

Of recall elections, 52 were for city council, 30 were for mayor, 17 were for school board, 11 were for state legislators, and one was for a prosecuting attorney (York County, Nebraska). The largest municipality to hold a recall was Miami-Dade County, Florida, for mayor.[30]

The busiest day was November 8 (Election Day) with 26 recalls. In 34 jurisdictions, recalls were held over multiple days.[30]

Successful recalls

Unsuccessful recalls

Note: Wisconsin's Jim Holperin has the distinction of being the only U.S. politician to have been subjected to recall from service in two different legislative bodies: the Wisconsin State Assembly in 1990 and the Wisconsin State Senate in 2011. Both attempts were unsuccessful.[60]

Unsuccessful attempts to qualify recall elections


Article 72 of the Constitution of Venezuela enables the recall of any elected representative, including the President. This provision was used in the 2004 Venezuelan recall referendum, which attempted to remove President Hugo Chávez:

Article 72: All [...] offices filled by popular vote are subject to revocation.
Once one-half of the term of office to which an official has been elected has elapsed, a number of voters representing at least 20% of the registered voters in the affected constituency may petition for the calling of a referendum to revoke that official's mandate.
When a number of voters equal to or greater than the number of those who elected the official vote in favour of the recall, provided that a number of voters equal to or greater than 25% of the total number of registered voters vote in the recall referendum, the official's mandate shall be deemed revoked and immediate action shall be taken to fill the permanent vacancy as provided for by this Constitution and by law.

See also



  1. ^ Aristotle, Constitution of Athens 43.4
  2. ^ European commission for democracy through law (4 July 2019). "REPORT ON THE RECALL OF MAYORS AND LOCAL ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES". Retrieved 2021.
  3. ^ "ACE". Retrieved .
  4. ^ "(PDF) Recall referendum around the world: origins, institutional designs and current debates". ResearchGate. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Welp, Yanina (2018) "Recall referendum around the world: origins, institutional designs and current debates", in Morel, Laurence & Qvortrup, Matt. Compendium on Direct Democracy. Routledge.
  6. ^ a b c d "Citizens need power to recall politicians, expert says". CBC News. March 21, 2013. Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ a b c "Recall". Elections BC. Retrieved 2020.
  8. ^ Rowat, Don (1998). "Our Referendums are not Direct Democracy" (PDF). Canadian Parliamentary Review. 21 (3): 25-27.
  9. ^ Bellefontaine, Michelle (February 25, 2020). "Alberta government plans to table recall legislation for MLAs, local councils". CBC News. Retrieved 2020.
  10. ^ Welp, Yanina; Milanese, Juan Pablo (2018). "Playing by the rules of the game: Partisan use of recall referendums in Colombia" (PDF). Democratization. 25 (8): 1379-1396. doi:10.1080/13510347.2017.1421176.
  11. ^ Geissel, Brigitte & Jung, Stefan. (2018). Recall in Germany: explaining the use of a local democratic innovation. Democratization. 25. 1358-1378. 10.1080/13510347.2017.1398735.
  12. ^ Limón, Walter (November 2016). "Revocación del mandato en México". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. ^ Gustafson, Barry (2013). Labour's Path to Political Independence: Origins and Establishment of the New Zealand Labour Party, 1900-19. EBL ebooks online. Auckland University Press. ISBN 9781869405199. Retrieved 2019. The 1914 election was fought primarily on the issues of the cost of living and the reform Government's handling of the 1913 strike. [...] Other questions [...] also unduly preoccupied the Labour candidates: constitutional matters, for example, such as proportional representation, the initiative, the abolition of the country quota, the referendum, and the recall of MPs.
  14. ^ Proposed platform, 1916.
  15. ^ Bueza, Michael (2014-10-14). "Fast Facts: The recall process". Rappler. Retrieved 2018.
  16. ^ Welp, Yanina (2016). "Recall referendums in Peruvian municipalities: A political weapon for bad losers or an instrument of accountability?". Democratization. 23 (7): 1162-1179. doi:10.1080/13510347.2015.1060222.
  17. ^ a b Jankovsky, Peter (22 March 2011). "Der Versuch, eine Exekutive zu stoppen". Neue Zürcher Zeitung.
  18. ^ Serdült, Uwe (2015). "The History of a Dormant Institution: Legal Norms and the Practice of Recall in Switzerland". Representation. 51 (2): 161-172. doi:10.1080/00344893.2015.1056219.
  19. ^ Siekmann, Robert (1977). "The Development and Practice on the Right of Recall in the Soviet Union since 1917". Review of Socialist Law. 3: 423.
  20. ^ "Presidential and Vice Presidential Election and Recall Act". Laws and Regulations Database of Taiwan, R.O.C.
  21. ^ "12?9/12 ". Retrieved 2021.
  22. ^ Local vote, global implications, Business Ukraine (1 October 2015)
    Poroshenko responds to petition on recalling MPs, UNIAN (16 October 2015)
    What the new Local Elections Law changed?, Ukrainian Crisis Media Center (8 September 2014)
  23. ^ "Bill stages -- Recall of MPs Act 2015". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 2015.
  24. ^ "Recall of MPs Act 2015 - Legislation PDF" (PDF). The Stationery Office. Retrieved 2015.
  25. ^ "Peterborough MP Fiona Onasanya KICKED OUT by constituents after successful Recall Petition".
  26. ^ Joshua Spivak, History News Network,
  27. ^ Article V of the Articles of Confederation provided, "a power reserved to each state, to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the Year."
  28. ^ Watkins, Ronald J. (1990). High Crimes and Misdemeanors : The Term and Trials of Former Governor Evan Mecham. New York: William Morrow & Co. pp. 194-195, 274. ISBN 978-0-688-09051-7.
  29. ^ "Arizona's Supreme Court Blocks A Special Gubernatorial Election". The New York Times. April 13, 1988. pp. A20:1.
  30. ^ a b c "The Recall Elections Blog: The Year in Recalls -- 151 Recalls in 2011 (edited to add another recall)". 2011-12-27.
  31. ^ Burton J. Hendrick, "The 'Recall' in Seattle', McClure's, October 1911, p. 647-663.
  32. ^ a b Kaplan, Tracey (February 6, 2018). "California's 1st judicial recall in 86 years to come before voters in Santa Clara County". The Mercury News. San Jose, California. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ "Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series, Corrected List of Mayors, 1867-1996" (PDF). Retrieved .
  34. ^ 'Recall vote removed five in La Crosse,' Racine Journal Times, August 3, 1977, pg. 7A
  35. ^ 'La Crosse removes 4 School Board members,' Milwaukee Journal, July 15, 1992, pg. A13
  36. ^ James, Michael S. (July 22, 1994). "River Vale Recall Vote Offers Two Slates Split by 911 Issue". The Bergen Record.
  37. ^ a b "" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-12-09. Retrieved .
  38. ^ "Ex-mayor reimburses North Pole over contested election". Peninsula Clarion. Associated Press. March 11, 2001. Retrieved 2013.
  39. ^ Archived 2006-12-09 at the Wayback Machine, Wisconsin Constitution Article XIII, section 12
  40. ^ Fuller, Kathy (September 30, 2011). "Cornelius voters oust 'Team 3' from office". Hillsboro Argus. Hillsboro, OR. Retrieved 2011.
  41. ^ "Sheboygan mayoral recall: Mayor Bob Ryan ousted from office by challenger Terry Van Akkeren". Sheboygan Press. Sheboygan, WI. February 21, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
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  43. ^ "RECALLED: Troy Mayor Janice Daniels Voted Out of Office". Troy Patch. November 7, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  44. ^ a b Lynn Barels, Kurtis Lee and Joey Bunch (September 10, 2013). "John Morse, Angela Giron ousted in historic Colorado recall election". Denver Post. Retrieved 2013.
  45. ^ WAFB Staff (November 16, 2013). "Port Allen Mayor Deedy Slaughter recalled". WAFB. Retrieved 2013.
  46. ^ Aguilar, John and Yesenia Robles. "Jeffco voters choose recall; incumbents losing in DougCo school race", The Denver Post, November 3, 2015. (accessed 8 November 2015)
  47. ^ Morice, Jane "East Cleveland mayor, City Council president recalled in special election",, December 6, 2016. (accessed 13 December 2016)
  48. ^ McNamara, John (March 12, 2018). "Woolfley wins big in Bowie District 2 special election". The Bowie Blade-News. Retrieved 2018.
  49. ^ Kaplan, Tracey (June 5, 2018). "Judge Persky likely to be recalled". The Mercury News. San Jose, California. Retrieved 2018.
  50. ^ "Democrats lose California state senate supermajority after recall vote". Fox News. 2018-06-06. Retrieved 2018.
  51. ^ "A recall sweep in Toledo: Mayor and two councilors removed from office - News Lincoln County".
  52. ^ Pries, Allison (Jan 29, 2019). "Controversial mayor ousted in recall vote". Archived from the original on Nov 8, 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  53. ^ York, Jessica A. (March 3, 2020). "Voting majority recalls Santa Cruz city councilmen". Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved 2020.
  54. ^ "Election Results Archive". Retrieved .
  55. ^ "Recall of State Officials". Archived from the original on July 8, 2011.
  56. ^ "A judge haunted by five ill-chosen words about a..." UPI. Retrieved .
  57. ^ Holmes, Mike. "Suttle survives recall". Omaha World-Herald. Retrieved 2021.
  58. ^ Gerstein, Michael (November 8, 2017). "Flint Mayor Weaver wins recall election". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2018.
  59. ^ "Elections Roundup: Incumbents Fare Well in Boston, Detroit and Flint". The New York Times. November 7, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  60. ^ The Milwaukee Journal, April 4, 1990; (retrieved 11/16/2013)
  61. ^ "Frank Church Chronology". Archived from the original on February 10, 2009.
  62. ^ "Arizona's Supreme Court Blocks A Special Gubernatorial Election". The New York Times. April 13, 1988. pp. A20:1.
  63. ^ Daily Titan, "Group asks for Wilson's recall," by Matt Cliff (November 18th, 1992 - retrieved on June 18th, 2011).
  64. ^ Los Angeles Times, "VALLEY COLLEGE: Wilson Recall Campaign Started," by Jennifer Case (October 4th, 1992 - retrieved on June 19th, 2011).
  65. ^ "Charged With Getting Free Olympics Trip, Boise Mayor Resigns", The New York Times, February 15, 2003. (accessed 8 November 2015)
  66. ^ [1]
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  68. ^ "Report: Effort to recall Michigan governor fizzles". 2011-09-29.
  69. ^ "Tom Luna reacts to failure of recall efforts", Bryan Dooley, The Idaho Press-Tribune, June 28, 2011
  70. ^ "Committee to recall Mayor Mack fails to collect 9,860 needed signatures to force special election". 2011-11-15.
  71. ^ "KRBD, "Recall application rejected," October 11, 2011".
  72. ^ Patrick Marley (March 16, 2012). "State Sen. Galloway to resign, leaving Senate split". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.
  73. ^ "Loveland Has No Mayor". WLWT-TV. August 18, 2017.

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