Reichenau Glosses
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Reichenau Glosses

The Reichenau Glossary is a collection of Latin glosses likely compiled in the 8th century in northern France to assist local clergy in understanding certain words or expressions found in the Vulgate Bible.[1]

Background

Over the centuries Jerome's translation of the Bible (c. 382-405) became more difficult to read for novice clergy as a result of the various grammatical and lexical changes that spoken Latin was experiencing at the time. To facilitate its interpretation, scholars put together a number of glossaries, i.e. collections of brief explanations of various terms found in the Vulgate.[2] The words that they used as glosses often survived in Romance,[3] while the words that needed glossing generally did not.

What we now know as the Reichenau Glossary was compiled circa the eighth century at the Abbey of Corbie in Picardy. From there it eventually found its way to the Abbey of Reichenau in southern Germany, where it was 'discovered' in 1863 by the philologist Adolf Hotzmann.[4]

Selected entries

Term found in Vulgate Meaning Descendants Gloss(es) Origin Descendants[i]
abdito hidden.DAT/ABL -- absconso Attested variant of CL abscondito 'hidden', a cognate of abdito.[ii] PR. [askó:su~askónsu]
OFr. [eskúns]
OOcc. [es?kós?][5]
Cat. [?s?kúns?]
OSp. [es?kúz?o]
OPt. [es?kúz?o]
Vnz. [skónto][iii]
It. [askó:zo]
Ro. [askúns]
abio[?] go_away.1SG -- uado Vado meant 'hurry, rush' in CL. PR. [?áo]
OFr. [vói?s][iv]
Fr. [v?z]
Cat. [bát?]
Occ. [báu?]
Sp. [bói?][v]
Ast. [bó]
Pt. [vóu?]
Vnz. [vágo]
Vgl. [vís]
It. [vx][vi]
Nap. [vá:k?]
abgetarii[?] woodworkers -- carpentarii CL for 'wagon makers'. PR. [karpentá:r?i]nom
OFr. [t?arp?ntjé:r]
PR. [karpentá:r?os]acc
OFr. [t?arp?ntjé:rs]
Fr. [?a?ptjez]
Occ. [ka?pentjs?]
Sp. [ka?pinté?os?]
Pt. [kp?ntéiu?]
absintio[?] wormwood.DAT/ABL PR. [apsnts?o]
Occ. [au?s?én]
Ara. [i?énso]
Sp. [axé?xo]
Vgl. ascianz
OIt. [asséntso]
aloxino Greek ? [6] 'bitter aloe'. PR. [alks?na]
OFr. [alúi?zn?]
Fr. [al?in?]
OSp. [alóz?na]
Pt. alosna
adolescentia youth -- iuuentus CL synonym. PR. [ntu]
OFr. [d?uvnt]
Occ. [d?u?én]
Cat. [?u?én]
aculeus stinger -- aculeonis Compound based on CL aculeus + -o, -onis, originally a noun-forming suffix but serving here merely as an extender. Note the Gallo-Romance analogical nominative in place of the expected *aculeo. PR. [akuó:ne]
Fr. [ij]
Occ. [a?y?ú]
Sp. [a?ixón]
Glc. [a?i?ó]
aes bronze -- eramen[?] Compound based on aer- (obl. stem of aes) + -men, originally a noun-forming suffix but serving here merely as an extender. Attested in the fourth-century Codex Theodosianus. PR. [ará:men]
Fr. [?]
Occ. [a?án]
Cat. [ám]
Pt. [?m?]
Rms. arom
It. [rá:me]
Ro. [arám?]
PR. [ará:m?ne][7]
Sp. [alámb?e]
Srd. [rá:min?]
ager field PR. [á:?ru]
OFr. [ái?r?]
Fr. [?]
Occ. [áe]
Pie. [ái?re]
It. [á:gro]
Ro. [á?ru]
'field, land'
campus Already a near-synonym in CL. PR. [kámp?s]nom
OFr. [t?á?ns]
PR. [kámpu]acc
OFr. [t?á?mp]
Fr. []
Occ. [kán]
Cat. [kám]
Sp. [kámpo]
Pt. [kmpu]
Rms. champ
Vgl. [kúmp]
It. [kámpo]
Nap. [kámb?]
Srd. [kámpu]
Ro. [kmp]
annuant nod.3PL.SBJV -- cinnant Verb based on LL cinnus 'wink', a word of obscure origin. PR. [knnant]
OFr. [tsn?nt]
OOcc. [tsénan]
Pt. [?sén?]+pref
It. [att?énnano]+pref
anxiaretur worry.3SG.IMPF.PASS.SBJV OIt. [ánsja]
Sp. [ans?ía]
Pt. [si]
'eagerly await'
angustiaretur LL verb based on CL angustia 'tribulations, difficulties'. PR. [a?gsts?at]
OFr. [ã?gói?s]
Fr. [was?]
Occ. [a?gúi?s]
Cat. [ó]
It. [a?góa]
aper boar PR. [á:pru]
Srd. [pká:u][vii]
saluaticus porcus[?] Periphrase, lit 'wild pig'. PR. [prk?s sal?á:t?k?s]nom
OFr. [prs sa?váds]
PR. [prku sal?á:t?ku]acc
OFr. [prk sa?vád]
Fr. [p sova??]
Occ. [pk s?al?ád?e]
Cat. [pk s?ád]
Rms. portg selvadi
Vgl. [pwárk salvútik]
It. [prko salvá:tiko]
Ro. [pórk s?lbátik]
arbusta orchards Glc. albustre arbricellus Rendering of *arboriscellus, a postclassical compound based on CL arbor, arboris 'tree' + -cellus, a conflation of CL -culus and -ellus, both diminutive-forming suffixes. PR. [ar?or?sk?u]
OFr. [arbrisl]
Fr. [a?b?iso]
Occ. [a?b?isl]
'shrubbery'
It. [arbo?llo]
'sapling'
area threshing-floor PR. [á:r?a]
OFr. [ái?r?]
Fr. [?]
Occ. [j?]
Cat. [é]
Sp. [é?a]
Pt. [i]
It. [á:ja]
Ro. arie
danea Frankish *dannja. Wal. dègne[8]
arena sand PR. [aré:na]
OFr. [ar?n?]
Occ. [a?én?]
Cat. [?n?]
Sp. [a?éna]
Pt. [?i]
It. [ré:na]
Nap. [ré:n?]
ARo. [arín?]
sabulo CL for 'gravel'. PR. [sa?ló:ne]
Fr. [sabl]
Occ. [s?a?lú]
Cat. [s?auó]
Sp. [s?a?lón]
Rms. [s?blún]
Vgl. [salbáu]
It. [sabbjó:ne]
IRo. [salbún]
armilla bracelet PR. [arm?a]
Sp. [a?mé?a]
baucus Ultimately from Proto-Germanic *baugaz. OFr. [bu?]
atram black.F.ACC.SG -- nigram Nearly synonymous with atram in CL and replaced the latter in LL. PR. [nra]
OFr. [néi?r?]
Fr. [nwa??]
Gsc. [né]
Occ. [né]
Cat. [n]
Sp. [néa]
Pt. [né]
Pie. [nia]
Rms. [nái?r?]
Vgl. [njára]
It. [né:ra]
Nap. [nu?r?]
Ro. [ne?á?r?]
axis axle PR. [ákse]
Fr. [?]
'plank'
Occ. [ái?s?]
Cat. [é?]
Sp. [éxe]
Ast. [éi?s?]
Pt. [éiu]
It. [ásse]
'beam, axle'
ascialis An attempt to render *axialis, a postclassical compound based on CL axis 'axle' + -alis, originally an adjective-forming suffix. PR. [aksá:le]
OFr. [ai?s?é:l]
PR. [aksí:le]
OFr. [ai?s?íl]
Fr. [esjø]
benignitate kindness.ABL -- bonitate Often had this sense in CL. PR. [bon?tá:te]
OFr. [bunté:?]
Fr. [bte]
Occ. [buntát]
Cat. [bundát]
Sp. [bondáð]
Pt. [bõndáð?]
OIt. [bontá:de]
It. [bontáx]
Ro. [bun?táte]
binas in_pairs.F.PL.ADJ -- duas et duas Periphrase, literally 'two and two'. Fr. deux à deux
Sp. de dos en dos
Pt. de dois em dois
It. due a due
calamus reed-pen PR. [ká:lamu]
OFr. [t?á?m?]
Fr. [?om?]
'stubble, thatch'
penna CL for 'feather', reflecting a change in the usual writing implement by late antiquity. PR. [pnna]
OFr. [pn?]
Pt. [pén?]
It. [pénna]
Sic. [pínna]
Ro. [pe?án?]
callidior devious.COMP -- uitiosior Comparative form of CL uitiosus 'wicked, corrupt'. PR. [ts?ó:su]
OFr. [vei?zóu?s]
Occ. [bisjús?]
'depraved'
It. [vettsó:so]
'charming'
calumpniam[?] slander.ACC PR. [kalm?a]
OFr. [t?alú?d]
OOcc. [kaló?d?a]
Sp. [kaló?a]
Pt. [kwm?]
contentio CL for 'quarrel, dispute'. PR. [tents?ó:ne]-pref
Occ. [tens?ú]
calx heel -- calcaneum Compound based on calx + -aneus, originally an adjective-forming suffix but now serving merely as an extender. PR. [kalkáu]
OFr. [ka?kán]
Gsc. [kau?ká?]
OCat. [kká?]
OSp. [kalká?o]
Rms. chalchagn
It. [kalkáo]
Srd. [ka?kán?u]
ARo. cãlcãnju
Ro. [k?lki?]
caminum furnace.ACC PR. [kamí:nu]
Rms. chamin
Vgl. [kamái?n]
It. [kamí:no]
clibanum A late borrowing of Greek . Did not survive in Romance. --
cartallo basket.DAT/ABL -- panario CL for 'breadbasket'. PR. [paná:r?u]
OFr. [pãnjé:r]
Fr. [panje]
Occ. [panj]
Sp. [pané?o]
Pt. [p?niu]
OIt. [paná:jo]
Nap. [paná:r?]
caseum cheese.ACC PR. [ká:s?u]
Sp. [kés?o]
Pt. [kiu]
Vgl. [kís]
Tsc. [ká:?o]
Nap. [ká:s?]
Srd. [ká:zu]
Ro. [ká?]
formaticum Compound based on CL forma 'mould' + -aticus, a derivational suffix that became especially popular in Gallo-Romance. The original sense here appears to have been 'that which is made in a mould'. OFr. [furmád]
Fr. [fma??]
Occ. [fu?mád?e]
Cat. [fu?mád]
PR. [kas:lu]dim
Rms. [t?al]
crastro[?] barracks.DAT/ABL PR. [kástru]
Sp. [kás?t?o]
Pt. [ká?t?u]
heribergo Frankish *heriberga. OFr. herberge
Occ. [al]
cementarii[?] stonecutters OFr. *cimentiers
Fr. [simtjez]
mationes Frankish *makjo. Note the free interchange of ⟨ti⟩ and ⟨ci⟩, both representing [ts].Alkire & Rosen: 62-63 OFr. [matsúns]
Fr. [masz]
Occ. [mas?ús?]
cementariis[?] stonecutters.DAT/ABL macionibus
cenacula chambers --
mansiunculas LL diminutive of CL mansio 'lodging'. PR. [mas?ó:nes]-dim
OFr. [mai?zúns]
Fr. [m?zz]
Occ. [mai?z?ús]
Sp. [mes?ónes?]
OPt. [meió?es?]
Pie. [mei?sú?]
'houses'
Vgl. *mo?une
'barns'
It. [mad?ó:ni]
'houses'
Srd. [maz:n?z?]
'
herds'
cesis[?] beaten.DAT/ABL.PL -- flagellatis CL for 'whipped'. PR. [fla?eá:tos]
OFr. [fla?lé:ts]
cibaria food -- cibus uiuendi A phrase reminiscent of Proto-Romance *uiuanda 'food', an alteration of CL uiuenda 'that which is necessary for life'.[9] PR. [?i?ánda]
Fr. [vjd?]
'meat'
Occ. [bjánd?]
It. [vivánda]
'food'
PR. [?inda]
Sp. [bi?jénda]
Pt. [vivnd?]
'residence, housing'
clibanus oven -- furnus The more usual CL word. PR. [frnu]acc
OFr. [fúrn]
Fr. [fu?]
Occ. [fú?]
Cat. [fó?n]
Rib. [fó?t]
Ara. [fú?no]
Sp. [ó?no]
Pt. [fó?nu]
Rms. furn
It. [fórno]
Nap. [fú?rn?]
Srd. [fúrru]
ARo. [fúrnu]
cliuium[?] hill.ACC -- montania Rendering of *montanea, a postclassical compound based on CL mont- (ob. stem of mons 'mountain') + -anea, originally an adjective-forming suffix but now serving merely as an extender. PR. [montáa]
OFr. [muntá]
Fr. [mta??]
Occ. [muntá]
Cat. [muntá]
Sp. [montá?a]
Pt. [mõnt?]
Rms. [muntó]
It. [montáa]
Nap. [mundá]
coccinus scarlet -- rubeus CL for 'red'. PR. [rs]nom
OFr. [rúds]
PR. [r?u]acc
OFr. [rúd]
Fr. [?u??]
Gsc. [arói?]
Occ. [rúd?e]
Cat. [rt?]
Ara. [rói?o]
Sp. [rú?jo]
Pt. [?úi?vu]
Pie. [rúbi]
Srd. [arrú?ju]
Ro. [rói?b]
colliridam[?] pastry.ACC -- turtam Already attested in the first-century Vindolanda tablets.[10] Presumably from torta 'twisted', in reference to the shape of the pastry. PR. [trta]
OFr. [túrt?]
Fr. [tu?t?]
Occ. [tú?t?]
Sp. [tó?ta]
Rms. turta
Vgl. [túrta]
It. [tórta]
Srd. [tú?ta]
Ro. [túrt?]
commutatione exchange.ABL -- concambiis Late borrowing of Gaulish *cambion. The glosser has added the prefix con- by analogy with commutatione. PR. [kámb?u]-suff
Fr. [??]
Occ. [kámbi]

Cat. [kánvi]
Sp. [kámbjo]
Pt. [kmbju]
It. [kámbjo]
Ro. [skímb][viii]

compellit urge.3SG -- anetset Frankish *anhattian.[11] OFr. [ãné:ts]
OIt. [aníttsa]
OPt. [anátsa]
concidit cut.3SG.PRT -- taliauit Verb based on CL talea 'cutting from a plant'. PR. [taát~taáu?t]
OFr. [ta?á?]
Fr. [t?ja]
Gsc. [ta?á]
Cat. [tá]
Sp. [taxó]
Pt. [tóu?]
It. [ta?x]
Ro. [t?jé]
contumeliam belittlement.ACC -- uerecundiam CL for 'shame, disgrace'. PR. [?era]
Fr. [v?]
Occ. [beú]
Cat. [bó]
OSp. [?ewé?a]
Ast. [beó?a]
Pt. [vó]
It. [ver?óa]
Nap. [vr?]
PR. [?erndz?a]
Occ. [beúnd]
Sp. [bewén?a]
OPt. [?eóntsa]
Lmb. [var?ónd]
Srd. [b?e?ún?a]
coturnices quail.PL PR. [kot?rní:kes]
Sp. [koðo?ní?es?]
Pt. [kuðu?níz]
OIt. [kotorní:t?i]
quacoles Frankish *kwakla.[12] PR. [kwákkolas]
OFr. [kás]
Fr. [k?j?.z]
Occ. [kás?]
Cat. [?wás?]
Rib. [?wá?as?]
Rms. quacras
It. [kwáe]
PR. [kot?rní:klas]dim
Ro. [pot?rník?][ix]
'partridges'
scabrones[?] hornets PR. [kara?ró:nes]
Pt. [kmb?]
It. [kalavró:ni]
uuapces Frankish *wapsa. OFr. [gwsp?s][x]
Fr. [p?.z]
crebro[?] sieve.ABL -- criuolo The same word after liquid dissimilation.[13] The extra ⟨o⟩ appears to be a hypercorrection. PR. [krí:?lu]
Fr. [k?ibl?]
Pie. [kríbi]
Lmb. [kríbi]
PR. [krí:?u]
Ara. [g?í?a]fem
Sp. [k?í?a]fem
Pt. [k?ívu]
PR. [kí:?ru]
Ro. [?júr]
PR. [kri?u]dim
Gsc. [kri?t]
Occ. [k?il]
Cat. [gé?]
Pie. [kriv?l]
It. [kriv?llo]
crura shins -- tibia Had this sense in CL as well. PR. [tí:a]
OFr. [tíd]
Fr. [tí??]
Occ. [tíd]
Cat. [tí]
'stem'
culmen peak PR. [klmen]
It. [kólmo]
Pt. [kúm?]
Ro. [kúlme]
spicus Attested Classical variant of spica 'point' or 'ear of grain'. PR. [?spí:ku]acc
OFr. [espí]
Fr. [epi]
Occ. [es?pík]
Frl. [spí]
Ro. [spík]
PR. [klm?ne]
Sp. [kúmb?e]
PR. [?spí:ka]
Occ. [es?pí]
Cat. [?s?pí]
Sp. [es?pí?a]
Pt. [i?pí]
Vgl. [spái?ka]
It. [spí:ga]
Srd. [ispí:?a]
cuncti all.PL -- omnes CL synonym. PR. [mnes]
OIt. [nni]
da give.IMP.SG PR. [dá]
Gsc. [dá]
Ara. [dá]
Sp. [dá]
Pt. [dá]
Rms. dai
Vgl. [dú]
It. [dá]
Ro. [d]
dona CL synonym and cognate that became more popular in Gallo-Romance. PR. [dó:na]
OFr. [dún?]
Fr. [d?n?]
Occ. [dún?]
Cat. [dón?]
Ara. [dóna]
denudare lay_bare.INF PR. [d?snuðá:re]
OFr. [deznyðé:r]
Fr. [den?e]
'deprive'
Sp. [dez?nuðá?]
Pt. desnudar
'undress'
discooperire Compound based on CL dis- (a negating prefix) + cooperire 'cover up'. PR. [d?skoperí:re]
Fr. [dekuv?í?]
Occ. [des?kuí]
Cat. [d?s?kuí]
Sp. [des?kuí?]
Pt. [dkuí?]
Pie. [d?sku?ví]
It. [diskoprí:re]
Ro. [deskoperíre]
detestare revile.INF -- blasphemare A late borrowing of Greek 'id.' PR. [blastemá:re]
OFr. [blazmé:r]
Fr. [bl?me]
Occ. [blai?má]
Cat. [bz?má]
Sp. [las?timá?]
Pt. [ltimá?]
Vgl. [blasmúr]
OIt. [bjastemmjá:re][I]
Ro. [blestemáre]
dilecta love.F.PASS.PTCP -- amata CL synonym in this context. PR. [amá:ta]
OFr. [ãmé:ð?]
Fr. [?me?][II]
Occ. [ai?máð?]
Cat. [?máð?]
Ara. [amáta]
Sp. [amáða]
Pt. [?máð?]
Vnz. [amá]
It. [amá:ta]
ducta lead.F.PASS.PTCP PR. [dkta]
OFr. [dúi?t?]
OOcc. [dýt?a]
Cat. [dúi?t?]
OSp. [dút?a]
OIt. [dótta]
Ro. [dús?]
menata[?] Past participle of minare, a regularization of the CL deponent minari 'threaten', with the sense evolution apparently in reference to yelling at livestock to make them move along. PR. [m?ná:ta]
OFr. [m?né:ð?]
Fr. [m?ne?]
Occ. [menáð?]
Cat. [m?náð?]
Ara. [menáta]
It. [mená:ta]
Ro. [m?nát?]
emit buy.3SG.PRT -- comparauit Meant 'obtain' in CL. PR. [komparát~komparáu?t]
OFr. [kumprá?]
Gsc. [k?umpá]
Cat. [kump?á]
Sp. [komp?ó]
Pt. [kõmp?óu?]
It. [komprx]
Ro. [kump?r]
'bought'
ensis sword -- gladius More usual CL synonym. PR. [?lás]
OFr. [?lái?s][III]
'sword-lily'
PR. [?lá?u]
Fr. [gl?]
'sword-lily'
OOcc. glazi[14]
It. [gjádo]
'sword'
escas food.ACC.PL PR. [skas~éskas]
Fr. [?.z]
Pt. [í?k]
Occ. [és?k?s?]
Cat. [s?k?s?]
Ara. [t?és?kas?]
Sp. [jés?kas?]
'bait'
It. [éske]
'bait, tinder'
Ro. [jé?t?]
'tinder'
cibos CL synonym. PR. [kos]
Sp. [?é?os?]
Pt. [sévu?]
'bait'
exacerbauerunt irritate.3PL.PRT -- exasperauerunt CL synonym. The unprefixed version apparently survived in Proto-Romance as asprire, with a change in conjugation. PR. [asprí:r?nt]-pref
OFr. [asprír?nt]
OIt. [asprí:rono]
exaurire drain.INF -- scauare CL excauare 'hollow out, empty', from ex- + cauare, a verb based on cauus 'hollow, empty'. PR. [?ska?á:re]
OFr. [est?avé:r]
Occ. [es?ka?á]
Sp. [es?ka?á?]
Pt. [i?k?vá?]
Rms. stgavar
It. [skavá:re]
exterminabit uproot.3SG.FUT -- eradicabit CL synonym. PR. [eraðiká:re]
OFr. [arat?jé:r]
Fr. [a?a?e]
Gsc. [ari?á]
OOcc. arazigar[15]
Glc. [?ri?á?]
Ro. [ridikáre]
exuerunt strip_away.3PL.PRT -- expoliauerunt CL synonym. PR. [?spoá:r?nt]
OFr. [espu?é:r?nt]
It. [spoá:rono]
OSp. [es?po?á?on][IV]
Glc. [ezu?á?õ?]
faretra[?] arrow-case -- teca sagittarum Periphrase, lit. 'container for arrows'. Theca was a Classical borrowing of Greek ? 'container', while sagitta was the native Latin term for 'arrow'. PR. [té:ka]
OFr. [téi]
Fr. [t??]
'pillowcase'
It. [té:ga]
'pod'
Ro. [te?ák?]
'case, sheath'
PR. [sattas]
OFr. [sai?ét?s?]
Occ. [s?ad?ét?s?]
Cat. [st?s?]
Ara. [sajétas?]
Sp. [s?aétas?]
Pt. [st]
Pie. [sajte]
OIt. [saétte]
Srd. [saíttaza]
Ro. [s?d?éts?]
cupra Frankish loan, cf. German Köcher. OFr. [kúi?vr?]
fatigatus tired -- lassus CL synonym. PR. [láss?s]
OFr. [lás]
Fr. [l?]
Occ. [lás?]
femur thigh -- coxa CL for 'hip'. PR. [kksa]
OFr. [kúi?s]
Fr. [k?ís?]
Gsc. [kwéi]
Occ. [ki?s]
Cat. [kú]
Sp. [kúxa]
Pt. [kó]
Pie. [køs?a]
Rms. cossa
Vgl. [kópsa]
It. [k?a]
Nap. [k]
Srd. [kssa]
Ro. [ko?áps?]
cingolo[?] Meant 'belt' in CL. PR. [k?la]
OFr. [ts?l?]
Fr. [sl?]
Occ. [s?é?gl?]
Cat. [s?í?]
Pt. [sí]
Vnz. [sé?d?a]
It. [t?íja]
PR. [kl?a]
Nap. chienga
Ro. [kí]
ferus savage PR. [f:r?s]nom
OFr. [firs]
'proud'
durus CL for 'harsh, severe'. PR. [dú:r?s]nom
OFr. [dýrs]
Rms. [dírs][xi]
PR. [f:ru]acc
OFr. [fir]
Fr. [fj]

'proud'
Cat. [fé?]

'ugly'
It. [fj:ro]
'proud'
Sp. [fjé?o]
'wild'

PR. [dú:ru]acc
OFr. [dýr]
Fr. [dy?]
Occ. [dý]
Cat. [dú]
Sp. [dú?o]
Pt. [dú?u]
Lmb. [dý:r]
Rms. [dír]
Vgl. [dói?r]
It. [dú:ro]
feruet boil.3SG PR. [fr?et]
Sp. [ée]
Pt. [fv?]
Ro. [fjérbe]
'id.'
It. [frve]
'has a fever'
bullit CL synonym. PR. [bt]
OFr. [bú?t]
Fr. [but]
Occ. [bú?e]
Cat. [bú?]
Sp. [bú?e]
'id.'
Pt. [búl?]
'fidgets'
It. [bólle]
Nap. [vdd?]
Srd. [búiði]
'id.'
fex dregs -- lias Gaulish *ligas. OFr. [lí?s]
Fr. [li?.z]
flare blow.INF -- suflare[?] CL synonym. PR. [s?fflá:re]
OFr. [suflé:r]
Fr. [sufle]
Occ. [s?uflá]
Ara. [s?oflá]
OSp. [s?o?á?]
Pt. [sup?á?]
Rms. suflar
It. [soffjá:re]
Ro. [sufláre]
flasconem flask.ACC OFr. [flaskún]
Fr. [flak]
Occ. [flas?kú]
Cat. [fs?kó]
Sp. [f?ás?ko]
Pt. [f?á?ku]
It. [fjásko]
buticulam Diminutive of butis~buttis 'cask', a late borrowing of Greek ?. PR. [b?ttkla]
OFr. [buté]
Fr. [but?j?]
Occ. [buté]
fletur weep.3SG.PASS -- planctur[?] CL for 'there is mourning'. PR. [pláere]
OFr. [plándr?]
Fr. [pld??]
Occ. [plá?e]
Cat. [p?á]
OSp. [?a?é?]
OPt. [t?a?d?é?]
Pie. [pjánze]
Vnz. [pjándza?]
Vgl. [plúr?]
It. [pjá?d?ere]
Nap. [kjá]
Sic. [cá?nd]
Ro. [pld?ere]
forum marketplace PR. [f:ru]
OFr. [fur]
Fr. [fy?]
'extent'
Sp. [fwé?o]
'law'
Ro. [fór]
'plaza'
mercatum CL synonym in this context. PR. [merká:tu]
OFr. [mart?jé:?]
Fr. [mae]
Occ. [me?kát]
Cat. [mkát]
Sp. [me?káðo]
Pt. [mkáðu]
Rms. marchà
Vnz. [marká]
It. [merká:to]
Srd. [ma?ká:ðu]
framea type of sword -- gladius bisacutus Lit. 'double-edged sword'. Bisacutus is a compound based on CL bis 'twice' + acutus 'sharpened'. For descendants of gladius 'sword', see entry for ensis. PR. [b?sakú:ta]
Fr. [b?zy?]
'carpenter's tool
with two sides'
It. [bizakú:ta]
'double-edged'
furent[?] steal.3PL.SBJV PR. [fú:rent]
It. [fú:rino]
Ro. [fúre]
involent CL for 'sweep down, carry off'. PR. [m?olent]
OFr. [mbl?nt]
OOcc. [émblen][16]
OCat. emblen
PR. [?m?ó:lent]
It. [invó:lino]
furuus brown -- brunus Frankish *br?n. OFr. [brýn]acc
Fr. [b?oe?]
Occ. [b?ý]
Cat. [b?ú]
Sp. [b?úno]
Pt. [b?únu]
Rms. [brýn]
Vgl. [brói?n]
It. [brú:no]
fusiles melt.PASS.PCP.PL -- fundutas Postclassical past participle[17] of fundere 'melt'. PR. [f?ndú:tas]
OFr. [fundýð?s]
Fr. [fdy?]
Occ. [fundýð?s?]
OIt. [fondú:te]
'melted'
galea helmet -- helmus Frankish *helm. OFr. [hm?]acc
Fr. [om?]
Sp. [élmo]
Pt. [lmu]
It. [élmo]
genuit give_birth.3SG.PRT -- generauit CL synonym. PR. [?enerát~?eneráu?t]
OFr. [dndrá?]
Fr. [d?a]+pref
Gsc. [eend?á]+pref
Cat. [?nd?á]+pref
Sp. [e?xend?ó]+pref
Pt. [óu?]
gratia thanks -- merces CL for 'goods, wages'. PR. [merké:ðe]
OFr. [mertsí?]
Fr. [msi]
Occ. [me?s?é]
'mercy, thanks'
Sp. [meéð]
Pt. [msé]
'mercy'
OIt. [mert?é]
'thanks'
It. [mert?é:de]
'mercy'
abenas[?] reins.ACC -- retinacula iumentorum Periphrase, lit. 'reins for pack animals'. CL retinacula 'reins' is reminiscent of Proto-Romance *retina 'id.', a deverbal of retinere 'hold back'. PR. [r:t?nas]
OFr. [rðn?s]
Fr. [n?.z]
Occ. [rénn?s?]
Cat. [rn?s?]
Sp. [rjéndas?]
Pt. [ðj]
It. [r:dine][V]
PR. [?umntu]
OFr. [d?umnt]
Fr. [?ym]
'mare'
OSp. [?umjénto]
Sp. [xuménto]
Pt. [?umntu]
OIt. [d?uménto]
Nap. [?ummnd?]fem
'pack animal'
arundine[?] reed.ABL -- ros Frankish *rausa. OFr. [rós]
Occ. [ráu?s?]
OFr. [rozl]dim
Fr. [?ozo]
ebitatum[?] weaken.ACC.PASS.PTCP -- bulcatum Past participle of *bullicare, a compound based on CL bullire 'boil' + -icare, a verb-forming suffix. PR. [b?ká:tu]
OFr. [bu?d?jé:?]
Fr. [bu?e]
Occ. [bule?át]
Cat. [bu?át]
Rib. [ez?bu?i?áu?]+pref
Ara. [ez?bo?i?áto]+pref
Pie. [bu(d)?á]
'stirred, agitated'
It. [buliká:to]
'boiled'
iacinctinas[?] hyacinth.F.PL.ACC.ADJ PR. [?akíntu]
Fr. [?ast?]fem
Occ. [d?as?ín]
Cat. [s?ín]
persas Ultimately from Persia, perhaps because garments imported from there had this color. Fr. [ps?]
'blue-green'
hiems winter -- ibernus Nominalization of CL hibernus 'wintry', an adjective derived from hiems. PR. [irn?s]nom
OFr. [ivrs]
OOcc. iverns
PR. [irnu~imrnu]acc
OFr. [ivrn]
Fr. [iv]
Occ. [i?]
Cat. [i?n]
Rib. [i?t]
Ara. [i?jé?no]
Sp. [imbjé?no]
Ast. [i?jé?nu]
Pt. [?mbnu]
Rms. inviern
Vgl. [invjarn?]
It. [i?vrno]
Srd. [i?érru]
Ro. [járn?]fem
horreis granaries.DAT/ABL PR. [rr?u]
Cat. [ri]
Ast. [óru]
Srd. orriu
spicariis Compound based on CL spica 'ear of grain' + -arium 'place for keeping'. PR. [?spiká:r?u]
OWal. [18]
'room for provisions'
Grm. [?pá?ç?]
'granary'
iacere throw.INF -- iactare CL frequentative of iacere. PR. [?ektá:re]
OFr. [dté:r]
Fr. [te]
Occ. [d?etá]
Cat. [?itá]
Ara. [t?itá]
Sp. [et?á?]
It. [d?ettá:re]
Nap. [ttá]
Srd. [g?tá:?e]
ictus strike PR. [ktu]acc
Pt. [i?tu]
'
row'
colpus CL borrowing of Greek ?. PR. [klp?s]nom
OFr. [ks]
PR. [klpu]acc
OFr. [kp]
Fr. [kú]
Occ. [kp]
Cat. [klp]
It. [kólpo]
id it.NEUT -- hoc CL for 'this'. PR. [k]
OFr. [uk]
Cat. [ú]
'this'
Occ. []
OCat. oc
'yes'
iecore liver.ABL PR. [?ekwá:r?a][VI]
'giblets'
Pt. [igwí?][xii]
'delicacies'
ficato CL ficatum 'foie gras', lit. 'fig-fattened liver', calqued from Greek ?. PR. [fkatu]
Fr. [fwa?]
Ast. [fé?aðu]
It. [fé:?ato]
PR. [fiká:tu]
Frl. [fiá:t]
Ro. [fikát]
PR. [fí:katu]
Sp. [í?aðo]
Pt. [fíðu]
Rms. fio
Nap. [fí:k?t?]
Srd. [fí:?aðu]
PR. [ftaku][19]
Occ. [féd?e]
Cat. [féd]
Pie. [fíðik]
Lmb. [fídek]
indutus dress.PASS.PTCP -- uestitus CL synonym. PR. [?estí:tu]acc
OFr. [vestí?]
Occ. [bes?tít]
Cat. [b?s?tít]
Ara. [bes?títo]
Sp. [bes?tíðo]
Pt. [vtíðu]
Vgl. [vestját]
Lmb. [vestí:]
It. [vestí:to]
Srd. [bestí:ðu]
PR. [?estútu]acc
OFr. [vesty?]
Fr. [v?ty]
OIt. [vestú:to]
institis bandages.ABL -- fasciolis CL synonym. PR. [fasc:las]
OIt. [faw:le]
Ro. [fio?áre]
nasculis Frankish *nastila. OFr. [názl?s]
Wal. nâles
It. [nástri]masc
insultaret offend.3SG.IMPF.SBJV -- inganaret Based on CL gannire 'snarl' with a prefix and a change in conjugation. PR. [ganná:re]
OFr. [d?ãné:r]
Occ. [eaná]
Cat. [gá]
Sp. [ea?á?]
It. [i?ganná:re]
Ro. [g?náre]
isset go.3SG.PLUP.SBJV PR. [ísset]
Ara. [ís?e]
Lad. jissa
OIt. [d?ísse]
Nap. [ss?]
Ro. [íse]
ambulasset CL for 'walk'. PR. [amblásset]
OFr. [alást]
Fr. [al?t]
Sp. [amblás?e]
It. [ambjásse]
Ro. [umbláse]
ita yes -- sic Already used in the sense of 'yes' in Old Latin. PR. [sík]
Fr. [si]
Occ. [s?í]
'actually, yes'
Cat. [s?í]
Sp. [s?í]
Pt. [s][xiii]
Lmb. [s?é~?í]
Rms. [?í]
It. [sí]
'yes'
Ro. [?í]
'and'
iuger acre -- iornalis Rendering of *diurnalis, a postclassical compound based on CL diurnus 'daily' + -alis, an adjective-forming suffix. In France this term developed the sense of 'land that can be worked by oxen in a day'. PR. [rná:le]
OFr. [d?urnál]
'journal,
measure of land'
Fr. [?u?nal][xiv]
Occ. [d?u?nál]
It. [d?orná:le]
'journal'
iugulate kill.IMP.PL PR. [glá:t?s]
Ro. [?ungiáts]
occidite CL synonym See necetur.
ius law PR. [?ú:re]
OSp. [?ú?]
OPt. [?ú?]
It. [d?úre]
legem CL near-synonym. PR. [lé?e]
OFr. [léi?]
Fr. [lwa]
Occ. [léi?]
Cat. [i?]
Sp. [léi?]
Pt. [léi?]
Pie. [léi?]
Vgl. [líg]
It. [lédd?e]
Ro. [léd?e]
potestatem CL for 'power, authority'. PR. [potestá:te]
OFr. [puðesté:?]
OOcc. [pozes?tát][20]
OIt. [podestá:de]
It. [podestáx]
labium[a] tub -- conca[b] Could designate a sort of vessel in CL, but the main sense was 'shell'. Borrowed from Greek . PR. [kka]
Fr. [k?]
Occ. [kú?k?]
Cat. [kó?k?]
Sp. [kwé?ka]
It. [kó?ka]
'basin, watershed'
lamento wail.1SG -- ploro CL for 'weep'. PR. [pló:ro]
OFr. [plóu?r]
Fr. [ploe?]
Occ. [plú?i]
Cat. [p?u]
Rib. [p?ó?o]
Ara. [pló?o]
Sp. [?ó?o]
Pt. [?u]
Pie. [pjú?]
OIt. [pjó:ro]
laterum bricks.GEN.PL -- teularum[c] CL for 'roof-tiles'. PR. [té:las]
OFr. [tíu?l?s~tés]
Fr. [t?il?.z]
Occ. [téu?l?s?]
Cat. [tus?]
Sp. [téxas?]
Ast. [té?as?]
Pt. [té]
Vgl. [tákle]
It. [tégole]
'tiles'
Tsc. [téggje]
It. [tée]
'baking-trays'
lebes boiler -- chaldaria[d] LL compound based on CL calid- (obl. stem of calidus 'hot') + -aria, a noun-forming suffix. PR. [kaldá:r?a]
OFr. [t?a?djé:r?]
Fr. [?odj?]
Gsc. [kau?ð?]
Cat. [kdé]
Sp. [kaldé?a]
Pt. [kaldi]
Pie. [kau?dra]
Vgl. [kaldíra]
It. [kaldá:ja]
Ro. [k?ldáre]
leua[e] left.F.SG.ADJ -- sinistra CL synonym. PR. [s?nstra][xv]
Fr. [s?nst??]
Occ. [s?ens?tre]
OSp. [s?injés?t?a]
OPt. [s?s?t?a]
Rms. saniestra
OIt. [sinstra]
liberos children.ACC -- infantes CL for 'babies'. PR. [ifántes~?nfántes]
OFr. [?nfá?nts]
Fr. [fz]
Occ. [efáns?]
Cat. [i?fáns?]
'id.'
OSp. [i?ántes?]
OPt. [ifántes?]
'heirs-apparent'
Rms. uffants
'
id.'
It. [fánti]
'infantry'
litus shore PR. [lí:tu]
It. [lí:do]
ripa CL synonym. PR. [rí:pa]
OFr. [rív?]
Fr. [?iv?]
Occ. [rí]
Cat. [rí]
Sp. [rí?a]
Pt. [?í]
Rms. riva
Vgl. [rái?pa]
It. [rí:va]
Ro. [rp?]
ludebant play.3PL.IMPF -- iocabant Regularization of the CL deponent verb iocari 'jest, joke'. PR. [?oká:?ant]
OFr. [d?ué:v?nt]
Fr. [?w??.t]
Occ. [d?u?án]
Cat. [?u?án]
Sp. [xu?á?an]
Pt. [?u?áv?]
Rms. giogavan
Vgl. [dzokúa]
It. [d?oká:vano]
Ro. [?ukáu?]
luto mud.DAT/ABL PR. [ltu]
It. [ló:to]
Sp. [lóðo]
Pt. [lóðu]
Ro. [lút]
Srd. [lú:ðu]
fecis[f] CL for 'dregs, sediment'. PR. [f:kes]
It. [ft?i]
Sp. [é?es?]
Pt. [féz]
mala punica pomegranates -- mala granata Periphrase, lit. 'seeded apples'. PR. [má:la ?raná:ta]
Occ. [milán?]
Rib. [ming?ána]
Cat. [mán?]
Ara. [men?rána]
OSp. [milána]
Sp. [anáða]
Pt. [náð?]
It. [mela?rá:na]
PR. [pó:ma ?raná:ta]
OFr. [púm? gr?nád?][xvi]
Fr. [nad?]
Pie. [pum graná]
malus mast -- mastus Frankish *mast. OFr. [mást]acc
Fr. [m?]
Occ. [más?t]
manipulos bundles.ACC PR. [mankli]nom
OFr. [mãnú?]
OIt. [manókki]
Ro. [m?núnk?]
garbas Frankish *garba. Fr. [b?.z]
Occ. [gás?]
Cat. [?á?b?s?]
Ara. [gá?bas?]
Lig. [gárbe]
PR. [manklos]acc
OFr. [mãnú?ts]
Cat. [m?nó?s?]
Sp. [manóxos?]
Pt. [mu?]
mares male animals -- masculi CL diminutive of mas, the singular of mares. PR. [másk?li]nom
OFr. [mázl?]
Pie. [mast?]
Lmb. [mast?]
Vnz. [mást?i]
Frl. [máskli]
It. [máski]
Ro. mascuri
'male pigs'
PR. [másk?los]acc
OFr. [mázl?s]
Fr. [m?l?.z]
Occ. [más?kles?]
Cat. [más?kl?s?]
Rib. [más?k?os?]
Ara. [más?klos?]
Sp. [mát?os?]
Pt. [má?u?]
Rms. mascels
Srd. [máskz?]
mergulum diver_bird.ACC -- coruum marinum Lit. 'sea-crow'. PR. [kr?u marí:nu]
Fr. [km?]
Occ. [kp marí]
Cat. [kp mí]
Sp. [kwéo ma?íno]
Pt. [kó?vu mí?u]
milites soldiers -- seruientes CL for 'servants'. PR. [ser?ntes]
OFr. [serdnts]
'servants, sergeants'
Fr. [sz]
'sergeants'
Occ. [s?i?béns?]
Cat. [s?éns?]
Sp. [s?ijéntes?]
'servants'
minas threats.ACC -- manaces Feminine noun based on CL minacia 'menacing'. PR. [m?náccas]
OFr. [mãnáts?s]
Fr. [m?nás?.z]
Gsc. [mjáss?]
Occ. [menáss?]
Ara. [menás?as?]
OSp. [menátsas?]
OPt. [m?átsas?]
Pie. [m?nás?e]
It. [minát?e]
mutuo acceperam borrow.1SG.PLUP -- impruntatum habeo *Impruntare is a rendering of *impromutuare, a postclassical compound based on mutuare (a regularization of the CL deponent verb mutuari 'borrow') with the prefixes in- and pro-. The overall expression impruntatum habeo (lit. 'I have [it] borrowed) reflects the characteristic Romance periphrastic preterite. PR. [á?o ?mprumutá:tu]
OFr. [ái? ?mprynté:?]
Fr. *[e p?oe?te]
Occ. [ai? emp?yntát]
Ro. [ám ?mprumutát]
mutuum dare lend.INF -- prestare[g] CL for 'provide, furnish'. PR. [prestá:re]
OFr. [presté:r]
Fr. [pte]
Occ. [p?es?tá]
Cat. [ps?tá]
Sp. [p?es?tá?]
Pt. [ptá?]
It. [prestá:re]
necetur kill.3SG.PASS.SBJV PR. [neká:re]
OFr. [nei?é:r]
Fr. [nwaje]
Occ. [ne?á]
Sp. [ane?á?]+pref
Pie. [nijé]
It. [anne?á:re]+pref
ARo. [nekáre]
occidetur CL synonym. In all of Romance the sense of necare specialized to 'kill by drowning', so this gloss serves to clarify the intended meaning 'kill'. PR. [okkí:ðere~au?kkí:ðere]
OFr. [?tsíðr?]
Occ. [au?sí]
It. [utt?í:dere]
Ro. [ut?ídere]
Srd. [?kkí:ðe?e]
nemini nobody.DAT PR. [né:m?ni]
Ro. [nímen?]
nulli CL synonym. PR. [núu]acc
Fr. [nyl]
Occ. [nýl]
Cat. [núl]
Vgl. [núl]
It. [núllo]
Sic. [núu]
'none, futile'
nent weave.3PL -- filant Verb based on CL filum 'thread'. PR. [fí:lant]
OFr. [fíl?nt]
Fr. [fil?.t]
Gsc. [híl?n]
Occ. [fíl?n]
Cat. [fín]
Pie. [fílo]
Lmb. [fí:len~fí:lon]
It. [fí:lano]
Sp. [ílan]
Pt. [fj]
nonnulli several -- multi CL synonym. PR. [mlti]nom
OFr. [mú?t]
OOcc. [myt?]
It. [mólti]
Ro. [múlts?]
PR. [mltos]acc
OFr. [mú?ts]
Cat. [mó?s?]
Rib. [mól(to)s?]
Ara. [mútos?]
Sp. [mút?os?]
Ast. [múnt?os?]
Pt. [m?ntu?][xvii]
non pepercit not spare.3SG.PRT -- non sparniauit Frankish *sparanjan. OFr. [nun espar?á?]
Fr. *[nepaa][xviii]
Gsc. *[nu espaá]
It. [non spara?x]
nouacula razor PR. [no?á:kla]
Cat. [ná]
Sp. [na?áxa]
Ast. [na?á?a]
Pt. [n?vá]
rasorium CL rad-, stem of radere 'shave'), + -sorium, a postclassical suffix denoting an instrument.[21] PR. [rasó:r?u]
OFr. [razói?r]
Fr. [?azwa?]
Occ. [raz?ú]
Cat. [r?ó]
Sp. [ras?éro]
Pie. [raz?ú]
It. [razó:jo]
nouerca stepmother PR. [norka]
ARo. nuearcã
matrastra Compound based on CL matr- (oblique stem of mater 'mother') + -astra 'wannabe' (feminine variant of -aster). PR. [matrástra]
Fr. [mat??]
Occ. [mai?rás?tr?]
Cat. [m?ð?ás?t]
Sp. [mað?ás?t?a]
Pt. [m?ð?á?t?]
Pie. [ma?ás?t?a]
Lmb. [mad?ás?t]
nosse know.INF -- scire CL near-synonym. PR. [?skí:re]
Ro. [?tíre]
Srd. [iskí:re]
nutare wobble.INF -- cancellare CL for 'criss-cross'. The Romance sense developed from the notion of crossing one's legs while walking. PR. [kankeá:re]
OFr. [t?ãnts?lé:r]
Fr. [s?le]
ocreas greaves.ACC -- husas Frankish *hosa. OFr. [huz?s]
OSp. [wéz?as?]
OPt. [z?as?]
OIt. [w:se]
offendas drive_away.2SG.SBJV -- abattas Prefixed alteration of CL battuas. PR. [abbáttas]
Fr. [abát?.z]
Occ. [a?át?s?]
Cat. [átis?]
Sp. [a?átas?]
Pt. [?bát]
It. [abbátta]
onager wild donkey -- asinus saluaticus Asinus is CL for 'donkey'. For saluaticus, see entry for aper. PR. [á:s?n?s]nom
OFr. [ázn?s]
PR. [á:s?nu]acc
OFr. [ázn?]
Fr. [?n?]
Gsc. [áz?u]
Occ. [áz?e]
Cat. [áz]
Sp. [áz?no]
Pt. [á?nu]
Lig. [á:ze]
Pie. [az?u]
Lmb. [á:z]
Rms. asen
Vnz. [ázeno]
It. [á:zino]
Ro. asen
Srd. [á:inu]
onustus burden.PASS.PTCP -- carcatus Past participle of *carricare, a verb based on CL carr- (obl. stem of carrus 'wagon') + icare, a verb-forming suffix. PR. [karr?ká:t?s]nom
OFr. [t?ard?jé:ts]
OOcc. [ka?gáts]
PR. [karr?ká:tu]acc
OFr. [t?ard?jé:?]
Fr. [?ae]
Occ. [kaát]
Cat. [k?rát]
Sp. [kaáðo]
Pt. [k?áðu]
Pie. [karjá]
Lmb. [kar(e)gá:]
Vgl. [karikút]
It. [kariká:to]
Ro. [k?rkát]+pref
oppidis towns.DAT/ABL -- ciuitatibus LL for 'cities', a semantic alteration of CL ciuitas 'citizenry'. PR. [kitá:tes]
OFr. [tsité:ts]
Fr. [sitez]
Occ. [s?iu?táts]
Cat. [s?iu?táts?]
Sp. [?juðáðes?]
Pt. [siðáð]
Rms. citads
Vnz. [sitá]
OIt. [t?ittá:di]
It. [t?ittáx]
'cities'
Ro. [t?etts?]
'fortresses'
castellis CL for 'fortresses'. PR. [kast?i]nom
OFr. [t?astl]
OOcc. [kas?tl]
Pie. [kas?ti?]
Lmb. [kas?ti?]
Vnz. [kasti]
OIt. [kast?i]
It. [kastlli]
Sic. [ka?t?i]
PR. [kast?os]acc
OFr. [t?asts]
Fr. [toz]
Gsc. [kas?tts]
Occ. [kas?tls?]
Cat. [k?s?té?s?]
Sp. [kas?tí?os?]
Ast. [kastjé?os?]
Pt. [ktlu?]
Rms. chastès
Srd. [kastz?]
opilio shepherd -- berbicarius Compound based on CL ueruex 'ram' + -arius, a suffix denoting occupation. PR. [berká:rs]nom
OFr. [berd?jé:rs]
PR. [berká:r?u]acc
OFr. [berd?jé:r]
Fr. [be]
Lim. [ba?dzjéi?]
PR. [ber?eká:r?u]
Ro. [berbekár]
Srd. [b?ká:?ju]
oportet be_fitting.3SG -- conuenit Had this sense in CL as well. PR. [kom:n?t]
OFr. [kunvint]
Fr. [kvjt]
Occ. [kumbén]
Cat. [kumbé]
Sp. [kombjéne]
Pt. [kõv]
It. [ko?vj:ne]
Ro. [kuvíne]
optimos best.ACC.PL -- meliores CL for 'better'. In Romance it also came to mean 'best'. PR. [meó:res]
OFr. [me?óu?rs]
Fr. [m?joe?z]
Gsc. [mjé?es?]
Occ. [me?ús?]
Cat. [mi?ós?]
Ara. [mi?ós?]
Sp. [mexó?es?]
Ast. [me?ó?es?]
Pt. [m?]
Rms. megliers
It. [mió:ri]
optimum best.ACC.SG -- ualde bonum Periphrase, lit. 'very good'. Valde survived as the first element of OFr. vaudoux and vaupute.[22] PR. [b:nu]
OFr. [bun]
Fr. [b]
Occ. [bú]
Cat. [b]
Sp. [bwéno]
Pt. [bó?]
Rms. [bún]
Vgl. [bún]
It. [bw:no]
Ro. [bún]
ore mouth -- bucca CL for 'cheek'. PR. [bkka]
OFr. [bút]
Fr. [bu??]
Occ. [búk?]
Cat. [bók?]
Sp. [bóka]
Pt. [bók?]
Rms. [bk?]
Vgl. [búka]
It. [bókka]
'mouth'
Ro. [búk?]
'cheek'
ostendit show.3SG.PRT -- monstrauit CL synonym. PR. [mostrát~mostráu?t]
OFr. [mustrá?]
Fr. [mt?a][xix]
Gsc. [mus?t?á]
Cat. [mus?t?á]

Ara. [mos?t?é]
Sp. [mos?t?ó]
Glc. [mos?t?óu?]
Pt. [mu?t?óu?]
It. [mostrx]
Ro. [mustr]

oues sheep.PL PR. [:?es]
Ro. [ói?]
berbices CL ueruex 'castrated ram'. PR. [ber?í:kes]
OFr. [berbíts]
Fr. [bbiz]
OOcc. berbitz[23]
OIt. [berbí:t?i]
PR. [oklas]dim
OFr. [ués]
Fr. [waj?.z]
Occ. [ués?]
Lim. [au?véja:]
Cat. [us?]
Ara. [ué?as?]
Sp. [o?éxas?]
Pt. [?v]
PR. [ber?é:kes]
Srd. [ba?:z?]
Ro. [be?bét]
paliurus Christ's thorn -- cardonis A compound based on CL cardus 'thistle' + -o, -onis, originally a noun-forming suffix but serving here merely as an extender. Note the Gallo-Romance analogical nominative in place of the expected *cardo PR. [karðó:ne]acc
OFr. [t?ardún]acc
Fr. [?a?d]
Occ. [ka?ðú]
It. [kardó:ne]
Sic. [ka?dúni]
PR. [kárðo]nom
Sp. [ká?ðo]
Pt. [ká?du]
It. [kárdo]
Sic. [ká?du]
pallium cloak -- drappum Frankish *dr?pi. OFr. [dráp]
Fr. [d?a]
Occ. [d?áp]
Cat. [d?áp]
Sp. [t?ápo]
Pt. [t?ápu]
Vgl. [dráp]
It. [dráppo]
Srd. [d?ápu]
papilionis tent.GEN.SG PR. [papó:ne]
OFr. [pave?ún]
'butterfly, pavilion'
Fr. [pavij]
Occ. [pa?a?ú]
Sp. [pa?e?ón]
It. [padió:ne]
'pavilion'
Fr. [papij][xx]
Occ. [pa?pa?ú]
Cat. [p?pón?]

Pie. [pa?pajú?]
OIt. [parpaó:ne]
'butterfly'

trauis Gallo-Romance analogical nominative in place of CL trabs 'beam' or 'structure built around a beam' (obl. stem trab-). OFr. [tré:s]nom
PR. [trá:?e]acc
OFr. [tré:f]
'tent, beam'
OOcc. [tráu?][24]
Pt. [t?áv?]
It. [trá:ve]
pabula[h] blister -- uisica[i] Could have this meaning in CL as well, but its main sense was 'bladder'. PR. [?essí:ka]
Fr. [vesí?]
Gsc. [beií]
Occ. [bes?í?o]
Ara. [bo?íka]
Rib. [buj?í?a]
Cat. [bí]
Sp. [bexí?a]
Ast. [be?í?a]
Pt. [bí]
Pie. [v?s?ía]
Lmb. [vis?í:g?]
It. [veí:ka]
Srd. [bussí:ka]
Ro. [bík?]
'blister, bladder'
paria alike.NEUT.PL.ADJ PR. [pá:r?a]
OFr. [pái?r?]
Fr. [p?]
Pie. [pái?ra]
It. [pá:ja]
'pair(s)'
similia CL synonym in this context. PR. [s?má:re]verb
Pie. [smijé]
Sp. [s?emexá?]
Pt. [s?má?]
Glc. [seme?á?]
It. [somiá:re]
'resemble'
PR. [s?m?lá:re]verb
OFr. [s?mblé:r]
Fr. [sble]
Occ. [s?emblá]
Cat. [smb?á]
Ro. [sem?náre]
'
resemble'
pera bag -- sportellam CL for 'little basket'. PR. [?sport?a]
OOcc. esportèla[25]
Sp. [es?portí?a]
OIt. [sportlla]
peribet[j] bear.3SG -- perportat The context is Ioannes testimonium perhibet (John 1:15), 'John bears witness'. Fr. il porte témoignage
It. porta testimonianza
pes foot -- pedis Gallo-Romance analogical nominative in place of CL pes (obl. stem ped-). OFr. [pits]nom
OOcc. [ps?]
PR. [p:ðe]acc
OFr. [pi]
Fr. [pje]
Occ. [p]
Cat. [pu?]
Ara. [pjét]
Sp. [pjé]
Pt. [p]
Lmb. [p]
Rms. [p]
Vgl. [pí]
It. [pj:de]
Srd. [p:]
ORo. piez
pignus pledge PR. [pn?s]
OSp. [pé?os?]
Sp. [pé?o]
uuadius Frankish *waddi. OFr. [gwád]
Fr. [?a??]
Occ. [gád?e]
'will, testament'
PR. [pnu]
Rms. pegn
It. [péo]
PR. [pnora]
Sp. [p?énda]
OIt. [péora]
PR. [pnó:re]
Pt. [pó?]
pingues fat.PL.ADJ -- grassi An alteration of CL crassi. PR. [?rássi]nom
OFr. [grás]
Vgl. [grés]
It. [?rássi]
Ro. [?rá]
PR. [?rássos]acc
OFr. [grás]
Fr. []
Cat. [ás?us?]
Sp. [ás?os?]
Pt. [ásu?]
Rms. [grás]
Srd. [áss?z?]
plaustra carts -- carra Alteration of CL carrus 'wagon' to the neuter gender. PR. [kárri]nom
OFr. [t?ár]
It. [kárri]
Ro. [káre]
PR. [kárros]acc
OFr. [t?árs]
Fr. [?a?z]
Occ. [káris?]
Cat. [kárus?]
Sp. [káros?]
Pt. [ká?u?]
pulempta[k] barley PR. [polnta]
Vgl. [poljánta]
It. [polnta]
farina CL for 'flour'. PR. [farí:na]
Fr. [fa?in?]
Gsc. [harí?]
Occ. [fa?ín?]
Cat. [fín?]
Sp. [a?ína]
Pt. [fí]
Pie. [fari?a]
Rms. farina
Vgl. [farái?na]
It. [farí:na]
Ro. [f?ín?]
pupillam pupil.ACC -- nigrum in oculo Periphrase, lit. 'the black (part) in an eye'. Fr. le noir de l'oeil
ponatur put.3SG.PASS.SBJV PR. [pó:nere]
OFr. [púnd]
Fr. [pd??]
Gsc. [púne]
Occ. [púnd?e]
Cat. [pnd]
Rib. [pón?e]
'lay an egg'
Ara. [póne?]
Sp. [poné?]
OPt. [pó?e?]
Pt. [pó?]
It. [pórre]
Ro. [púnere]
'put, place'
mittatur CL mittere 'send' came to mean 'put' in LL. PR. [mttere]
OFr. [métr?]
Fr. [m?t??]
Gsc. [méte?]
Occ. [mét?e]
Cat. [mt]
Rib. [mét?e]
Ara. [méte?]
Sp. [meté?]
Pt. [m?té?]
It. [méttere]
Srd. [mínt]
ponderatus burdened -- grauiatus Past participle of *grauiare, postclassical verb based on CL grauis 'heavy, burdened'. PR. [graá:tus]
OFr. [gr?d?jé:ts]
poplite hock.ABL -- iuncture ianiculorum[l] Periphrase, lit. 'junctions of the knees'. PR. [?u?tú:ras]
Fr. [?wty??.z]
Occ. [d?u?t?ýr?s?]
Cat. [?untús?]
Sp. [xuntú?as]
Pt. [ntú]
It. [d?untú:re]
PR. [genkli]nom
OFr. [dnú?]
Vgl. [dzenákle]
It. [d?inkki]
Ro. [d?enúnk?]
PR. [genklos]acc
OFr. [dnú?ts]
Fr. [nuz]
Occ. [d?enúls?]
Cat. [nó?s?]
Ara. [t?enú?s?]
Sp. [inóxos?]
Pt. [?wu?]
Pie. [nói?]
Lmb. [d?en?t?]
Rms. schanugls
Srd. [?enú:z?]
pruina frost PR. [pruí:na]
OFr. [brúi?n?]
Fr. [bin?]
'drizzle'
OOcc. bruina[26]
'frost'
Vnz. [puína]
'ricotta cheese'
It. [brí:na]
'frost'
gelata Compound based on CL gel- (obl. stem of gelus 'frost') + -ata, a Romance noun-forming suffix. PR. [gelá:ta]
OFr. [dlé:ð?]
Fr. [le?]
Occ. [d?eláð?]
Cat. [áð?]
Sp. [eláða]
Pt. [?jáð?]
Pie. [?eláða]
It. [d?elá:ta]
pugione dagger.ABL -- lancea CL for 'spear'. PR. [lánca]
OFr. [lá?nts?]
Fr. [ls?]
Occ. [láns]
Cat. [?áns]
Sp. [lán?a]
Pt. [ls?]
It. [lá?t?a]
pulchra beautiful.F.SG -- bella CL synonym. PR. [b?a]
OFr. [bl?]
Fr. [b?l?]
Occ. [bl?]
Cat. [bé]
Ara. [bélla]
Lmb. [b:l?]
Rms. bella
Vgl. [bjála]
It. [blla]
Sic. [b?a]
pusillum small.ACC -- paruum CL synonym. PR. [pár?u]
OFr. [párf]
'small'
Glc. [páo?]
'dumb'
Pt. [pá?vu]
'small, dumb'
PR. [párlu]dim
OIt. [párvolo]
It. [párgolo]
'boy'
pustula blister -- malis clauis[m] Clauus had this sense in CL as well, although its main meaning was 'nail'. PR. [klá:?u]
OFr. [klu?]
Fr. [klu]
'nail, pustule'
OOcc. [kláu?][xxi]
Cat. [k?áu?]
Rib. [k?áu?]
Ara. [kláu?]
Sp. [klá?o]
Pt. [k?ávu]
Pie. [t(u?)]
Lmb. [t(u?)]
OIt. [kjá:vo][VII]
'nail'
regit rule.3SG PR. [r?t]
It. [rdd?e]
gubernat CL synonym borrowed from Greek . PR. [g?rnat]
OFr. [guvrn]
Fr. [guvn?]
Occ. [?u?n?]
Cat. [gurn?]
Sp. [?o?jé?na]
Pt. [?uvé?n?]
It. [govrna]
remetieur remeasure.3SG.FUT PR. [metí:re]
Sp. [meðí?]
Pt. [m?ðí?]
Srd. [meðí:]
remensurabit Verb based on CL mensura 'measure'. PR. [mesurá:re]
OFr. [m?zyré:r]
Fr. [m?zy?e]
Occ. [mez?y?á]
Cat. [m?z?u?á]
Sp. [mes?u?á?]
Pt. [m?zu?á?]
Rms. mesirar
It. [mizurá:re]
Ro. [m?suráre]
repente suddenly -- subito CL synonym. PR. [s?to]
OFr. [súd?][VIII]
Occ. [s?úpte]
Cat. [s?ópt?][IX]
PR. [s?tá:nu]
OFr. [sud?n]
Fr. [sud]
reppererunt find.3PL.PRET -- inuenerunt CL synonym. OFr. *envindrent[X]
O.Sd *imbennerun
res thing PR. [rés]
Occ. [rés?]
Cat. [rs?]
'nothing'
Sp. [rés?]
'head of cattle'
causa CL for 'subject matter'. PR. [káu?sa]
OFr. [t?óz?]
Fr. [?oz?]
Occ. [káu?z]
Cat. [kz]
OSp. [kóz?a]
Sp. [kós?a]
OPt. [kóu?z?a]
Pt. [kói?z?]
Rms. chossa
Vgl. [káu?sa]
It. [k:za]
OSrd. casa
PR. [r:ne]
OFr. [rin]
'thing'
Fr. [?j]
Lim. [ré?]
OPt. ren
Glc. [ré?]
'nothing'
respectant look_back.3PL PR. [respktant]
Pt. [pi?t?]
It. [rispttano]
'respect'
reuuardant Compound based on Frankish *ward?n 'watch + re-. OFr. [r?gwárd?nt]
Fr. [a?d?.t]
Occ. [?á?ðan]-pref
Cat. [?wá?ð?n]-pref
Sp. [gwá?ðan]-pref
Pt. [?wá?ð?]-pref
Pie. [várðan/gárðan]
Lmb. [várd?n/gárd?n]
Rms. vurdan-pref
It. [rigwárdano]
Nap. [gwárd?n?]-pref
restant stay.3PL -- remanent CL synonym. PR. [remá:nent]
OFr. [r?mán?nt]
Cat. [rumán?n]
It. [rimá?gono]
Ro. [r?mn]
reus guilty PR. [r:u]
Vgl. [rí]
It. [río]
Ro. [ru?]
'bad, evil'
culpabilis LL synonym. PR. [k?lpá:le]
OFr. [ku?pábl?]
Fr. [kupabl?]
Occ. [kulpáble]
It. [kolpé:vole]
'guilty'
reueretur fear.3SG -- uerecundatur CL for 'feel shame'. PR. [?erekndat]
OFr. [vergúnd]
rostrum beak PR. [róstru]
Ro. [róst]
'mouth'
beccus A borrowing of Gaulish *bekkos. PR. [bkk?s]
OFr. [bs]
PR. [bkku]
OFr. [bk]
Fr. [b?k]
Occ. [bk]
Cat. [bék]
Sp. [píko]
Pt. [bíku]
Lmb. [bk]
It. [békko]
rufa reddish.3SG -- sora Frankish *saur. Fr. [s?]
'smoked'
Occ. [s?áu]
'yellow'
Cat. [s?áu]
'dark yellow'
ruga wrinkle PR. [rú:?a]
OFr. [rý?]
Fr. [?y?]
Lim. [rý?]
'street'
It. [rúga]
'id.'
ARo. [rúg?]
'sheep-gate'
fruncetura Compound based on Frankish *hrunkja 'wrinkle' + -tura, a noun-forming suffix. OFr. [frunts?ðýr?]
Fr. [fsy??]
Cat. [f?uns?iðú]
rupem rock.ACC PR. [rú:pe]
It. [rú:pe]
'cliff'
petram CL borrowing of Greek . PR. [p:tra]
OFr. [piðr?]
Fr. [pj?]
Occ. [pi]
Cat. [péð]
Sp. [pjeð?a]
Pt. [pð]
Pie. [pé?a]
Lmb. [péd]
Vgl. [pítra]
It. [pjtra]
Ro. [pjátr?]
saga blanket PR. [sá:?a]
Fr. [s??]
OSp. [s?á?a]
Pt. [sáj?]
'skirt'
cortina LL for 'curtain', from an earlier CL term for a type of cauldron. The sense evolution is unclear. PR. [kortí:na]
Fr. [ku?tin?]
Occ. [ku?tín?]
Cat. [kurtín?]
Sp. [ko?tína]
Pt. [ku?tín?]
Pie. [kurtí?a]
It. [kortí:na]
sagma packsaddle -- soma The same word after a number of sound changes. PR. [sáu?ma~sálma][XI]
Fr. [s?m?]
'packsaddle'
Occ. [s?áu?m?]
'female donkey'
Cat. [s?á?m?]
'ton'
It. [s:ma][XII]
'load, burden'
It. [sálma]
'corpse'
sella CL synonym PR. [s?a]
Fr. [s?l?]
Occ. [sl?]
Cat. [s?é]
Sp. [s?í?a]
Pt. [sl?]
Vgl. [sjála]
It. [slla]
Sic. [s?a]
Srd. [s?a]
Ro. [?á]
'saddle'
saniore healthy.COMP.ABL -- plus sano Periphrase, lit. 'more healthy'. Synthetic comparative characteristic of Romance. PR. [plus sá:nu]
OFr. [plys sán]
Fr. [ply s]
Occ. [pys? s?á]
OCat. [pus? s?án]
OPt. [t?us? s?á?o]
Lig. [t?u sá?]
Pie. [pi sá?]
Lmb. [py sá?:]
It. [pjus sá:no]
Srd. [p?us sánnu]
sarcina package PR. [sárk?na]
Ro. [sárt?in?]
ARo. sartsinã
bisatia Reinterpretation of CL bisaccia 'double-sacks' as a feminine singular noun. PR. [b?sácca]
OFr. [b?záts?]
Fr. [b?zás?]
Gsc. [bez?ás]
Occ. [bjás]
Pie. [bisáka]
It. [bizátt?a]
sartago pan PR. [sartáne]
Occ. [s?a?tá]
Nap. [sartá:n?]
Sp. [s?a?tén]
Glc. [stá]
Pt. [st]
patella CL synonym PR. [pat?a]
OFr. [paðl?]
Fr. [pw?l?]
Gsc. [pað??]
Occ. [paðl?]
Cat. [p?é]
Sp. [pái?la]
Lig. [pajla]
Pie. [pjla]
Lmb. [padl?]
Rms. padella
It. [padlla]
Sic. [par?a]
scinifes gnats -- cincellas Likely of onomatopoeic origin. PR. [ts?ints?á:las]
OFr. [tsintsé:l?s]
Vnz. [zd?insáe]
It. [dzandzá:re]
Ro. [ts?ntsár?]masc
segetes crops -- messes CL synonym. PR. [msses]
It. [mssi]
Sp. [mjés?es?]
Glc. [més?es?]
Pt. [més]
PR. [mess?ó:nes]
OFr. [mei?súns]
Fr. [mwasz]
Occ. [mei?s?ús?]
Pie. [m?s?ú?]
semel once -- una uice Romance periphrase, lit. 'one time'. In CL uice meant 'turn, instance'. PR. [una ke]
OFr. [yn? féi?ts][XIII]
Fr. [yn? fwa]
Occ. [yn? ?éts]
Sp. [una ?é?]
Glc. [u vés?~vé?]
Pt. [um? vé?]
sepulta interr.F.SG.PASS.PTCP PR. [seplta]
Vgl. [sepwálta]
It. [sepólta]lit
sepelita Rare CL variant. PR. [sepelí:ta]
OFr. [s?v?líð?]
Fr. [s?v?li?]+pref
Occ. [s?e?elíð?]
Cat. [su?íð?]
Pie. [s?epelía]
Lmb. [s?ubelí:d?]
It. [seppellí:ta]
sindone cloth PR. [sindó:ne]
It. [sindó:ne]
linciolo[n] CL synonym. PR. [l?nts:lu]
OFr. [lintsul]
Fr. [lsoel]
Occ. [lensl]
Cat. [ns?]
Sp. [len?wélo]
Pt. [l?s]
Glc. [l?(n)s~l?(n)?]
Lmb. [lins?ø:]
Rms. lenziel
Vgl. [lentsúl]
It. [lentsw:lo]
Srd. [lin?ó:lu]
singulariter individually -- solamente Compound based on CL sola ('alone') + mente, a Romance adverb-forming suffix derived from CL mente (abl. of mens 'mind'), often found in ablative absolutes such as sollicita mente 'assiduously', lit. 'with an assiduous mind'. PR. [solamnte]
OFr. [sul?mnt]
Fr. [soel?m]
Occ. [s?ul?mén]
Cat. [s?omén]
Sp. [s?olaménte]
Pt. [s?mnt?]
It. [solaménte]
si uis if want.2SG -- si uoles Regularization of uis, cf. CL conjugations such as uolunt.[27] PR. [si :les]
OFr. [si vus]
Fr. *[si vøz]
Occ. [s?e ls?]
Cat. [s?i ?s?]
Pie. [s?e v?le]
Rms. sche vuls
Vgl. [se vúle]
It. [sev vwi]
solutis free.PASS.PTCP.DAT/ABL.PL PR. [solú:tos]acc
OFr. [sulýts]
'resolved, paid'
disligatis Past participle of disligare, a compound based on CL dis-, a negating prefix, + ligare 'tie'. PR. [d?slá:tos]
OFr. [dezlié:ts]
Fr. [delje]
OSp. [dez?le?áðos?]
OPt. [dez?le?áðos?]
PR. [sltos]acc
OFr. [sts]
OOcc. [slts][28]
OCat. [slts]
'resolved, paid'
Sp. [s?wéltos?]
Pt. [só?tu?]
'loose, free'
PR. [d?slá:ti]
It. [sligá:ti]
Ro. [dez?legáts?]
PR. [slti]nom
It. [slti]
'released'
sortileus[o] fortune-teller -- sorcerus Rendering of *sortiarius, a postclassical compound based on CL sors, sortis 'fortune' + -arius, a suffix denoting occupation. PR. [sorts?á:r?u]acc
OFr. [surtsjé:r]
Fr. [ssje]
spatula palm-frond -- rama palmarum Periphrase, lit. 'palm-tree branch'. Rama reflects a collective form[29] based on CL ramus 'branch'. PR. [rá:ma]
OFr. [rám?]
Fr. [?am?][XIV]
OOcc. [ráma]
Occ. [rám?]
Cat. [rám?]
Sp. [ráma]
'branch'
PR. [pálmas]
OFr. [pá?m?s]
Fr. [pom?.z]
Occ. [pálm?s?]
Cat. [pá?m?s?]
Sp. [pálmas?]
Pt. [pá?m]
Pie. [pá?m]
Vgl. [púlme]
It. [pálme]
Srd. [pá?maza]
Ro. [pálme]
stercora excrement PR. [?strku]
OSp. [es?tjé?ko]
Pt. [tku]
It. [strko]
Ro. [?térk]
femus[p] CL synonym. PR. [f:m?s]
OFr. [fins]
Occ. [féns?]
Cat. [fém]
Ara. [fjémo]
PR. [?strkore]
Sp. [es?tjé?kol]
submersi drown.PASS.PTCP.PL PR. [s?mmrsi]
It. [sommrsi]
necati CL for 'murdered'. See necetur.
subtilissima very.thin.F PR. [s?ptí:le]
OFr. [sutíl]
OOcc. [s?otíl]
OCat. [s?otíl]
It. [sottí:le]
Srd. suttile
Ro. [suptsíre]
perpittita Compound based on CL per-, an intensifying prefix, + pittita 'small', a postclassical word of obscure origin. PR. [p?ttí:ta]
Fr. [p?tit?]
Cat. [p?tít?]
Occ. [petít?]
Lmb. [pít?]
succendunt ignite.3PL -- sprendunt Rendering of *exprendunt, a postclassical compound based on CL ex- + prehendere 'seize'. PR. [?sprnd?nt]
OFr. [esprn?nt]
Fr. [epn?.t]
sudario priest's_gown.DAT/ABL PR. [suðar:lu]dim
Vgl. [sedarúl]
'handkerchief'
fanonem Compound based on Frankish *fano 'cloth' + -o, -onis, originally a noun-forming suffix but now serving merely as an extender. OFr. [fanún]
Fr. [fan]
'papal gown'
sulcis ridges.DAT/ABL PR. [slki]nom
It. [sólki]
Nap. [sú?k?]
ORo. [súlk?]
rige Gaulish *rica. OFr. [réis]
Fr. [?.z]
Occ. [rés?]
PR. [slkos]acc
Gsc. [s?úkes?]
Cat. [s?ó?ks?]
Sp. [s?ú?kos?]
Pt. [súku?]
Srd. [sú?k?z?]
sus pig Srd. sue porcus CL synonym. See entry for aper.
talpas moles.ACC PR. [tálpas]
OFr. [tá?p?s]
Fr. [top?.z]
Occ. [tálp?s?]
Cat. [tá?ps?]masc
Sp. [tópos?]masc
Glc. [tóu?p?s?]
It. [tálpe]
Srd. [tá?paza]
muli Borrowing of Frankish *mul. Fr. [mylo]dim
'field mouse'
tectum roof PR. [téktu]
OFr. [téi?t]
Fr. [twa]
Gsc. [téi?t]
Occ. [tét?~tét]
Sp. [tét?o]
Glc. [téi?to?]
Pt. [ttu]
Pie. [ti?t]
Lmb. [tét?]
Rms. tetg
Vgl. [tját]
It. [tétto]
solarium CL for 'roof-terrace'. PR. [solá:r?u]
OFr. [suljé:r]
Fr. [s?lje]
Gsc. [s?ul]
'loft'
Cat. [s?u]
'ground'
Lmb. [suré:]
'attic'
tedet[q] annoy.3SG -- anoget Rendering of *inodiat, a postclassical verb based on CL odium 'hate'. Note that the intervocalic ⟨g⟩ represents /j/.[30] PR. [?nat]
OFr. [?núi]
Fr. [n?i?]
Occ. [anýd]
Cat. [?núd]
Sp. [enóxa]
Pt. [inó]
It. [úda]-pref
tedio monotony.DAT/ABL -- tepiditas Compound based on CL tepid- (obl. stem of tepidus 'lukewarm') + -itas, a suffix denoting quality. PR. [t:p?ðu]
OFr. [tiv?]
Fr. [tj?d?]
Lim. [tédde]
Occ. [te]
Cat. [ti]
Sp. [tí?jo]
Pt. [tí?ju]
Pie. [ti]
Lmb. [tévet]
It. [tj:pido]
'lukewarm'
tereo[r] thresh.1SG -- tribulo Verb based on CL tribulum 'threshing-board', ultimately a derivative of tero. PR. [trí:?lo]
OFr. [tríbl?~tríu?l?]
Cat. [t?í?u]
Sp. [t?í?o]
Pt. [t?í?u]
It. [tríbbjo]
Srd. triulo
teristrum[s] garment -- cufia Frankish *kuffja. OFr. [kófj?]
Fr. [kwáf?]
Gsc. [kh?]
Occ. [kf?]
Pt. [kói?f?]
uitta CL for 'headband'. PR. [tta]
OFr. [vét?]
Cat. [bt?]
Sp. [béta]
Pt. [fít?]
It. [vétta]
Ro. [bát?]
torax[t] cuirass -- brunia Frankish *brunnia. OFr. [brónj?]
Fr. [b?wa??]
OOcc. bronha
trabem beam.ACC See entry for mastus. trastrum[u] CL for 'crossbeam'. OFr. tref < trabem could mean 'tent' as well, so this gloss serves to clarify the intended meaning. PR. [trástu]
OFr. [trást?]
'crossbeam'
Sp. [t?ás?to]
Pt. [t?á?t?]
'junk'
PR. [trast?u]dim
OFr. [trestl]
Fr. [t?eto]
'trestle'
transferent carry_across.3PL.FUT -- transportent CL synonym. PR. [trasprtant]
OFr. [tresprt?nt]
OIt. [traprtano]
transgredere pass_by.IMP.SG -- ultra alare Ultra is CL for 'beyond'. Alare is a Latinized spelling of OFr. aler 'go'.[31] OFr. *[ú?tr? alé:r]
transmeare swim_across.INF -- transnotare Notare is an alteration of CL natare 'swim' via vowel dissimilation. PR. [trasnotá:re]
OFr. *tres-noder
OIt. [tranotá:re]
PR. [notá:re]-pref
OFr. [nuðé:r]
Pie. [nuvé]
Lmb. [nuá:]
Rms. nodar
Vgl. [notúr]
OIt. [notá:re][XV]
Rm [?notáre]+pref
PR. [natá:re]
Occ. [naðá]
Cat. [n?ðá]
Sp. [naðá?]
Pt. [n?ðá?]
Nap. [natá]
tugurium hut -- cauana Of obscure origin. PR. [kapánna]
OFr. [t?avá?n?]
Occ. [ka?án?]
Ara. [kapánna]
Sp. [ka?á?a]
Pt. [k?n?]
It. [kapánna]
turibulum[v] incense burner -- incensarium LL incens- (obl. stem of incensum 'incense') + -arium 'place for keeping'. PR. [?nkensá:r?u]
OFr. [?nts?nsjé:r]
'incense burner'
Fr. [ssje]
'rosemary'
thurmas[w] crowds.ACC PR. [trmas]
It. [tórme]
Frl. torme
Ro. [túrme]
Srd. [t?ú:maza]
fulcos A borrowing of Frankish *folc 'people'. OFr. [fó?s]
Fr. [ful?.z]fem
OOcc. folcs
Gsc. [hús?]fem
Occ. [fúl?s?]fem
Glc. [fóu?l?s?]fem
tutamenta defenses -- defendementa Compound based on CL defendere 'protect' + -mentum, a noun-forming suffix. OFr. [d?f?nd?mnts]
uecors senseless -- esdarnatus Past participle of *esdarnare, a verb based on es- (later form of CL ex-)+ Frankish *darn 'bewildered'.[33] Fr. dial. [da?n?]
'stumbling, impulsive'
ueru roasting-spit PR. [?errklu][XVI]
OFr. [verrú?]
Fr. [vu][XVII]
Prv. [ferúl]
Occ. [barú?]
Cat. [foró?]
Ara. [biról]
Sp. [?eróxo]
Pt. [fó?u][XVIII]
spidus Frankish *spit. OFr. [espéi?ts]nom
OFr. [espéi]acc
Fr. [epwa]
Sp. [es?péto]
Pt. [i?pétu]
uespertiliones bats PR. [?espert?u]dim
Ast. [es?pe?té?u]
OIt. [vispistrllo]
It. [pipistrllo]
calues sorices[x] An expression based on CL caluas 'bald' + sorices 'shrewmice'. PR. [kál?as sorí:kes]
OFr. [t?á?v?s suríts]
Fr. [?ofsu?iz]
uestis garment PR. [?est?mntu]
OFr. [vest?mnt]
Fr. [v?t?m]
Rms. büschmaint
Vgl. [vestemjánt]
Ro. [ve?mnt]
rauba Frankish *rauba 'spoils of war, garments' OFr. [rb?]
Fr. [b?]
Occ. [ráu]
Cat. [r?]
Sp. [rópa]
Pt. [?óu?p?]
It. [r:ba]
uim power.ACC -- fortiam Reinterpretation of CL fortia 'strong' as a feminine noun. PR. [frts?a]
OFr. [frts?]
Fr. [fs?]
Pie. [fs?a]
Occ. [fs]
Cat. [fs]
Sp. [fwéa]
Glc. [fó?s?/fó]
Pt. [fó?s?]
Rms. forza
It. [frtsa]
uiscera guts -- intralia Analogous to CL interanea, both ultimately compounds based on Archaic Latin *inter- 'inside' + -anea or -alia, both adjective-forming suffixes. PR. [?ntráas]
OFr. [?ntrás]
Fr. [t?aj?.z]
Occ. [ent?ás?]
Pie. [ventráje]
PR. [?ntráas]
OFr. [?ntrás]
Cat. [?nt?ás?]
Sp. [ent?á?as?]
Pt. [?nt]
ungues fingernails -- ungulas CL diminutive of ungues. PR. [glas]
OFr. [úl?s]
Fr. [l?.z]
Occ. [úl?s?]
Cat. [ú?s?]
Sp. [ú?as?]
Pt. [ú]
Rms. [ú?gl?s]
Vgl. [jó?gle]
It. [úje]
Ro. [ú]
Srd. [ú?g?aza]
uorax devouring -- manducans CL for 'chewing'. Manducare went on to become the standard word for 'eat' in many Romance languages. PR. [mand?kándo]ger
OFr. [mã?d?já?nt]
Fr. [m]
Occ. [ma?d?ján]
Cat. [mán]
Ara. [mi?t?ándo]
Rms. mangiond
OIt. [manikándo]
Ro. [mknd]
Srd. [mandi?ánd?]
urguet urge_forward.3SG -- adastat Frankish *haist 'haste'. OOcc. adasta[34]
usuris loan_interest.DAT/ABL.PL -- lucris CL for 'profits, wealth'. PR. [lkri]nom
ARo. lucri
'objects'
PR. [lkros]acc
OFr. [lói?rs]
'revenues, assets'
Sp. [lóos?]
Pt. [lóu?]
'achievements'
utere use.IMP.SG -- usitare CL freq. of utere. PR. [ú:sa]
Fr. [yz?]
Occ. [ýz]
Cat. [úz]
Sp. [ús?a]
Pt. [úz?]
It. [ú:za]
utres wineskins PR. [tres]
Fr. [út??.z]fem
Sp. [óð?es?]
Pt. [óð]
It. [ótri]
ARo. utri
folli CL folles 'leather bags, bellows'. PR. [f?es]
OFr. [fs]
Fr. [fuz]
Occ. [fls?]
Cat. [fó?s?]
'madmen, fools'
Sp. [fwé?es?]
Pt. [fl]
OIt. [flli]
Ro. [fo?ále]
Srd. [fz?]
'bellows'
uuas grapes.ACC PR. [ú:?as]
Sp. [ú?as?]
Pt. [úv]
Rms. ieuvas
It. [ú:ve]
Vgl. [jói?ve]
Srd. [ú:aza]
ARo. aue
racemos CL for 'clusters, bunches' often in reference to grapes. PR. [rakí:mos]
OFr. [rai?zíns]
Fr. [zz]
Occ. [raz?íns?]
Cat. [r?íns?]
'grapes'
Sp. [ra?ímos?]
Pt. [símu?]
'clusters'
PR. [rakí:m?li]dim
It. [ra?í:moli]
'clusters'

Notes

  1. ^ Read: abeo.
  2. ^ Read: abietarii.
  3. ^ Read: absinthio.
  4. ^ Read: aeramen.
  5. ^ Read: siluaticus porcus.
  6. ^ Read: calumniam.
  7. ^ Read: castro.
  8. ^ Read: caementarii.
  9. ^ Read: caementariis.
  10. ^ Read: caesis.
  11. ^ Read: cliuum.
  12. ^ Read: collyridam.
  13. ^ Read: crabrones.
  14. ^ Read: cribro.
  15. ^ Read: minata.
  16. ^ Read: pharetra.
  17. ^ Read: cingulum.
  18. ^ Read: sufflare.
  19. ^ Read: plangitur.
  20. ^ Read: furentur.
  21. ^ Read: habenas.
  22. ^ Read: harundine.
  23. ^ Read: hebetatum.
  24. ^ Read: hyacinthinas.
  1. ^ Read: labrum.
  2. ^ Read: concha.
  3. ^ Read: tegularum.
  4. ^ Read: caldaria.
  5. ^ Read: laeua.
  6. ^ Read: faecis.
  7. ^ Read: praestare.
  8. ^ Read: papula.
  9. ^ Read: uesica.
  10. ^ Read: perhibet.
  11. ^ Read: polenta.
  12. ^ Read: iuncturae geniculorum.
  13. ^ Read: malus clauus.
  14. ^ Read: linteolo.
  15. ^ Read: sortilegus.
  16. ^ Read: fimus.
  17. ^ Read: taedet.
  18. ^ Read: tero.
  19. ^ Read: theristrum.
  20. ^ Read: thorax.
  21. ^ Read: transtrum.
  22. ^ Read: thuribulum.
  23. ^ Read: turmas.
  24. ^ Read: caluas sorices.
  1. ^ Clearly borrowed words are not counted as descendants. This excludes, for instance, the Italian words formaggio 'cheese' and pallio 'cloak', which were taken from Old French and Latin respectively.

    List of abbreviations:

    PR. -- Proto-Romance
    Pic. -- Picard
    Wal. -- Walloon
    Fr. -- French (central)
    Lim. -- Limousin
    Prv. -- Provençal
    Gsc. -- Gascon
    OOcc. -- Old Occitan
    Occ. -- Occitan (central)
    OCat. -- Old Catalan
    Cat. -- Catalan (central)
    Rib. -- Ribagorçan
    Ara. -- Aragonese (northern)
    OSp. -- Old Spanish
    Sp. -- Spanish (central)
    Ast. -- Asturian
    Glc. -- Galician
    OPt. -- Old Portuguese
    Pt. -- Portuguese (central)
    Lig. -- Ligurian
    Pie. -- Piedmontese
    Lmb. -- Lombard (Milanese)
    Rms. -- Romansh
    Lad. -- Ladin
    Vnz. -- Venetian
    Frl. -- Friulan
    Vgl. -- Vegliote
    Tsc. -- Tuscan
    OIt. -- Old Italian
    It. -- Italian
    Nap. -- Neapolitan
    Sic. -- Sicilian
    Srd. -- Sardinian (Logudorese)
    Ro. -- Romanian
    ARo. -- Aromanian
    IRo. -- Istro-Romanian
  2. ^ With the additional prefix con-. Note that abs- is simply a variant of ab-.
  3. ^ Conceivably a direct descendant of the original CL participle absconditus.
  4. ^ The [i?s] ending is of uncertain origin. It may have been taken from *trasjo < Classical Latin transeo 'I cross' (Pope 1934: 362). The resulting *vau?sjo would then yield vois by regular developments.
  5. ^ Old Spanish had the expected form [?o]. The origin of the later [i?] is debated. It may either reflect OSp. y 'there' or be the result of contamination from the following pronoun in the phrase vo-yo 'I go' (Lloyd 1987: 355-358).
  6. ^ The superscript x (as in Hall 1981: 21) indicates that this word causes syntactic doubling, i.e. it lengthens the initial consonant of a following word.
  7. ^ Compounded with [pku] 'pig'.
  8. ^ /s/ is a remnant of the Latin prefix ex- (Dexonline: "schimb").
  9. ^ Initial consonant probably taken from Latin perdix, 'partridge' (Dexonline: "potârniche").
  10. ^ Variant of OFr. [v?sp?s] (from Latin vespas) with the initial consonant taken from the Frankish word (TLFi: "guêpe"). Note that Romance generally rendered Germanic word-initial /w/ as /gw/ in borrowed vocabulary (Alkire & Rosen 2010: 53).
  11. ^ In the Sursilvan dialect, masculine singular -s survives as a predicative ending in adjectives. E.g. il paun ei cars 'the bread is expensive' (Loporcaro 2018: 76-77).
  12. ^ With an early change in suffix from -ia to -ía (Malkiel 1944: 108).
  13. ^ Nasalization possibly by contamination with não (=Lat. non), meaning 'no' (Williams 1962: 108).
  14. ^ Still refers to a measure of land in some dialects (TLFi: "journal").
  15. ^ Alteration of the Latin [s?n?stra] by influence of [d?kstra] 'right' (Lausberg 1970: §139).
  16. ^ [ad] possibly taken from OSp. granada (Etymonline: "grenade").
  17. ^ Word-initial /m/ often nasalizes a following vowel in modern Portuguese (Williams 1962: 62).
  18. ^ The preceding asterisk indicates that these words, in isolation, would be ungrammatical in modern French. The complete phrase would have to be il n'épargna pas.
  19. ^ Nasalization came from an /n/ that was added in Middle French under the influence of CL monstrare (TLFi: "montrer").
  20. ^ The substitution of /p/ for intervocalic /v/ may be a phonoaesthetic change inspired by an onomatopoeia for the flapping of a butterfly's wings (TLFi: "papillon").
  21. ^ Was a homophone for 'key' (=Lat. clavem) in Old Occitan (Levy 1923: 78), a problem that was eventually solved by substituting the diminutive [klal] as the term for 'nail'.
  1. ^ A verb based on the noun biastemmia, from Latin blasphemia. The modern form of the verb, bestemmiare, was possibly influenced by bestia 'animal' (Treccani: "bestemmiare").
  2. ^ Towards the thirteen century, the initial vowel of this verb could be either [a] or [?] depending on stress. Consider the following examples:
    Pr. /ámat/ 'he loves' > OFr. /ái?m/ > /m?/
    Pr. /amáta/ 'beloved' > OFr. /amé:ð?/ > /amé?/
    Subsequently /?/ spread to all conjugations, resulting in modern French /?me/ 'beloved' instead of */ame/ (Akire & Rosen 2010: 115).
  3. ^ However it could mean 'sword' in Old Franco-Provençal (TLFi: "glaive").
  4. ^ Modern [des?poxá?on] via substitution of the prefix.
  5. ^ Modern Italian rèdine has been re-analyzed as a singular noun with a new analogical plural rèdini (Treccani: "rèdine").
  6. ^ A compound based on iecor + -aria, originally an adjective-forming suffix but here serving merely as an extender.
  7. ^ Modern chiodo appears to have been influenced by words like chiudere 'shut'.
  8. ^ Feminine form of the adjective, found spelled as sode. The masculine form *sot is unattested.
  9. ^ Today found only in the expression de sobte.
  10. ^ There is a single attestation of the participle envengud in Old French. The word is otherwise nowhere to be found.
  11. ^ Grandgent 1907: §268
  12. ^ There is a single attestation of the participle envengud in Old French. The word is otherwise nowhere to be found.
  13. ^ The reason for the initial consonant devoicing to /f/ is unclear.
  14. ^ The expected outcome would have been [m?]. The modern form appears to have taken its initial vowel from the original diminutive rameau, where the a was unstressed and hence did not change to [?] (TLFi: "rame").
  15. ^ Modern Italian nuotare, with the extension of the /w?/ diphthong from rhizotonic conjugations such as nuoto to all other forms of the verb.[32]
  16. ^ Diminutive of ueru. Geminate r taken from ferru 'iron' (Malkiel 1983: 474).
  17. ^ Back-formation from OFr. plural [verús] < earlier [verú?ts] (TLFi: "verrou"). The expected outcome of the singular [veró?] would have been *[vuj], cf. fenouil < *fenuclu.
  18. ^ Old Portuguese had the expected form [?eró?o], which later acquired an initial [f] by analogy with ferro 'iron'. (This happened to the Provençal and Catalan cognates as well.) Similarly, Old Spanish had [?eró?o], which later acquired the initial consonant of cerrar, meaning 'shut' (Malkiel 1983: 474).

References

  1. ^ Engels 1968
  2. ^ Elcock 1960: 311-312
  3. ^ Alkire & Rosen 2010: 319
  4. ^ Quiros 1986: 43
  5. ^ Levy 1923: 164
  6. ^ Adams 2008: 333
  7. ^ Pei 1941: 150.
  8. ^ Marchot 1901: 75
  9. ^ TLFi: "viande"
  10. ^ Adams 2007: 611
  11. ^ Rossi 2004: 144
  12. ^ TLFi: "caille"
  13. ^ A prominent phenomenon in spoken Latin, as pointed out by Grandgent (1907: §292). Cf. the form criblare.
  14. ^ Levy 1923: 208
  15. ^ Levy 1923: 26
  16. ^ Levy 1923: 137
  17. ^ Alkire & Rosen: 176-177
  18. ^ Adams 2007: 315
  19. ^ Posner 1996: 14
  20. ^ Levy 1923: 300
  21. ^ Grandgent 1907: 21-22
  22. ^ Elcock 1960: 71
  23. ^ Levy 1923: 45
  24. ^ Levy 1923: 370
  25. ^ Levy 1923: 173
  26. ^ Levy 1923: 55
  27. ^ Andersen & Rochet 1979: 267
  28. ^ Levy 1923: 350
  29. ^ Jensen 1986: 3
  30. ^ Alkire & Rosen 2010: 320
  31. ^ Alkire & Rosen 2010: 320
  32. ^ Alkire & Rosen 2010: 113
  33. ^ TLFi: "darne"
  34. ^ Levy 1923: 6

Sources

General
  • Adams James Noel. 2007. The regional diversification of Latin. Cambridge University Press.
  • Alkire, Ti & Rosen, Carol. 2010. Romance languages: A historical introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Anderson, James Maxwell & Rochet, Bernard. 1979. Historical Romance Morphology. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International.
  • Elcock, William Dennis. 1960. The Romance languages. London: Faber and Faber.
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  • Malkiel, Yakov. 1944. The etymology of Portuguese iguaria. Language 20. 108-130.
  • Malkiel, Yakov. 1983. From particular to general linguistics: Selected essays 1965-1978. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Co.
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Online etymological dictionaries

External links


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