Romanian Cyrillic Alphabet
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Romanian Cyrillic Alphabet
Romanian Cyrillic
Script type
Time period
16th-19th centuries
LanguagesRomanian
Related scripts
Parent systems
Sister systems
Early Cyrillic alphabet
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet is the Cyrillic alphabet that was used to write the Romanian language before the 1860s, when it was officially replaced by a Latin-based Romanian alphabet.[] Cyrillic remained in occasional use until the 1920s, mostly in Russian-ruled Bessarabia.[1]

From the 1830s until the full adoption of the Latin alphabet, the so-called Romanian transitional alphabet was in place, combining Cyrillic and Latin letters, and including some of the Latin letters with diacritics that remain in the modern Romanian alphabet.[2] The Romanian Orthodox Church continued using the alphabet in its publications until 1881.[3]

The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet is not the same as the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet (which is based on the Russian alphabet) that was used in the Moldavian SSR for most of the Soviet era and that is still used in Transnistria.

Table of correspondence

The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet was close to the contemporary version of the Early Cyrillic alphabet of the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language.

Letter Numerical
value
Romanian
Latin
equivalent
Transitional
alphabet
Moldovan
Cyrillic
equivalent
Phoneme Romanian
name[4]
Slavonic
equiv.
name
? ? 1 a A a ? /a/ az (az?)
? ? b ? ? ? /b/ buche ? (buky)
? ? 2 v ? ? ? /v/ vede ? (v?d?)
? ? 3 g, gh G g ? /?/ glagol ? (glagoli)
? ? 4 d D d ? /d/ dobru (dobro)
? ?, ? e[5] 5 e E e ? /e/ est ? (est?)
? ? j ? ? ? /?/ juvete (?iv?te)
? ? 6 dz ? ? /d?z/ zalu ? (dz?lo)
? ? 7 z Z z ? /z/ zemle (zemlja)
? ? 8 i I i ? /i/ ije (i?e)
? ?[6] i ? ? ? /j/, /?/
? ?[7] 10 i I i ? /i/ i ? (i)
? ? 20 c, ch ? ?
or
K k
? /k/ kaku ? (kako)
? ? 30 l ? ? ? /l/ liude (ljudije)
? ? 40 m M m ? /m/ mislete ? (myslite)
? ? 50 n N n ? /n/ na? ? (na)
? ?, ? o[5] 70 o O o ? /o?/ on (on?)
? ? 80 p ? ? ? /p/ pocoi (pokoi)
? ? 100 r ? ? ? /r/ ? (r?ci)
? ? 200 s S s ? /s/ slov? (slovo)
? ? 300 t T t ? /t/ tferdu (tvr?do)
[5] 400 u ? ?[8] (?, ?, ?) ? /u/ upsilon (uk?)
?, ? ?[5] ucu
? ? 500 f F f ? /f/ fârta (fr?t?)
? ? 600 h ? ? ? /h/ heru ? (x?r?)
? ?[9] 800 o O o ? /o/ omega (ot?)
? ? ?t ? ? /?t/ ?tea (?ta)
? ? 900 ? ? ? ? /t?s/ ?i
? ? 90 c (before e, i) ? ? ? /t/ cervu (?r?v?)
? ? ? ? ? ? /?/ ?a (?a)
? ? ?, ?[10] ? ? ? /?/ ier (jer?)
? ?, ? ? â, î, ?, ?[10] Î î ? /?/ ieri (jery)
? ? ?, ?, ?[10] ? -- (jer?)
? ? ea Ea ea ? /e?a/ eati(u) (?t?)
? ? iu ? /ju/ Io / iu ? (ju)
? ?, IA[5] ia ?a ?a /ja/ ia ? (ja)
? ?, IE[5] ie ?e ?e /je/ ? (je)
? ? ?a, ea[10] ?a ?a, Ea ea ? /ja/ ia (?s?)
? ? î Î î ? /?/ (?s?)
? ?[11] 60 x Ks ks /ks/ csi (ksi)
? ?[11] 700 ps ?s ?s /ps/ psi (psi)
? ?[11] 9 th, ft T t, Ft ft ?, /t/ and approx. /?/ or /f/ thita ? (fita)
? ?[11] 400 i, u I i; ? ? ?, ? /i/, /y/, /v/ (i?ica)
? ?, ? ? în îm În în Îm îm , /?n/, /?m/ în
? ? g (before e, i) ? ? ? /d/ gea

Unregulated transitional alphabets

Starting with the 1830s and ending with the official adoption of the Latin alphabet, there were no regulations for writing Romanian, and various alphabets using Cyrillic and Latin letters, besides the mid-transitional version in the table above, were used, sometimes two or more of them in a single book. The following table shows some of the many alphabets used in print.

Pre-1830 1833[12] 1838[13] 1846 (1)[14] 1846 (2)[15] 1848[16] 1858[17] 1860[18]
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A a A a
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? B b ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? V v ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? G g ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? D d ? ? D d D d D d
? ?, ? e ? ? ? ? E e ? ? E e E e E e
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? J j ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? Dz dz Dz dz Dz dz
? ? ? ? ? ? Z z ? ? Z z Z z Z z
? ? ? ? I i I i ? ? I i I i I i
? ? ? ? I i I i ? ? I i I i I i
? ? ? ? ? ? K k ? ? ? ? K k K k
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? L l L l
? ? ? ? ? ? M m ? ? M m M m M m
? ? ? ? ? ? N n N ? N n N n N n
? ?, ? o ? ? ? ? O o ? ? ? ? ? ? O ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? R r ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? S s ? ? ? ? S s S s
? ? ? ? ? ? T t ? ? ? ? T t T t
? ? (initial)
? ? (mid and final)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
?, ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? F f ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?[19] ? ? O o ? ? O o ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?t ?t ?t ?t
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? (initial)
? ? (mid and final)
? ? (initial)
? ? (mid and final)
? ? ? ? / Î î (transitional form) ? ? (initial)
? ? (mid and final)
Î î Î î
? ? ? ? ? ? Ea ea (ligature, small letter only) Ea ea Ea ea Ea ea
? ? ? ? I? i? (ligature) I? I? i? (ligature) I? I? (ligature, small letter only) I? i? I? i? (ligature)
? ? ? ? (initial)
? ? (mid and final)
? ? ? I? (ligature) ? I? I? ? Ia ia ?a ?a ?a ?a
? ? ?e ?e ?e ?e Ie ie ?e ?e ?e ?e
? ? ? ? (initial)
? ? (mid and final)
? ? ? I? (ligature) ? I? I? ? Ia ia ?a ?a ?a ?a
? ? ? ? (initial)
? ? (mid and final)
? ? (initial)
? ? (mid and final)
? ? ? ? / Î î (transitional form) ? ? (initial)
? ? (mid and final)
Î î Î î
? ? Ks ks Ks ks Ks ks
? ?[11] ?s ?s ?s ?s ?s ?s
? ?[11] ? ? ? ? T t ? ? ? ? T t T t
? ?[11] ?, ? I, ? I, ? ?, ? ?, ? I, ? I, ?
? ? ?n ?n ?m ?m În în Îm îm În în Îm îm
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

An example of Romanian Cyrillic text

According to a document from the 1850s,[20] this is how the Romanian Lord's Prayer looked in Cyrillic script. Transcriptional values correspond to the above table.

?á? ? Tat?l nostru

? ? ? ?: ? ?:
? ? ? , , .
, ?, .
? ,
? .
? . ?.
?, ?, ? , ?.

Tat?l nostru, carele e?ti în ceriuri, sfin?easc?se numele t?u:
Vie împ?ria ta: Fie voia ta, pre cumi în ceriu, ?i pre p?mânti.
Pâinea noastr?, cea de toate zilele, d?neo noua ast?zi.
?i ne iart? noua datoriile noastre,
pre cumi ?i noi iert?mi datornicilori no?tri.
?i nu ne duce pe noi în ispit?. Ci ne izb?vea?te de celi r?u.
C? ata iaste împria, ?i Putearea, ?i m?rirea în veaci, amini.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ileana-Stanca Desa, Dulciu Mor?rescu, Ioana Patriche, Adriana Raliade, Iliana Sulic?, Publica?iile periodice române?ti (ziare, gazete, reviste). Vol. III: Catalog alfabetic 1919-1924, pp. 235-236, 264, 368, 374, 575, 708, 1024. Bucharest: Editura Academiei, 1987
  2. ^ George Baiculescu, Georgeta R?duic?, Neonila Onofrei, Publica?iile periodice române?ti (ziare, gazete, reviste). Vol. II: Catalog alfabetic 1907-1918. Supliment 1790-1906, pp. 763, 801, 810, 813, 832, 867. Bucharest: Editura Academiei, 1969
  3. ^ Grigore Chiri, Societatea din Principatele Unite Române în perioada constituirii statului na?ional (1856-1866), p. 134. Bucharest: Editura Academiei Române, 2004, ISBN 978-973-270-984-9
  4. ^ According to Costache Negruzzi, "Cum am învat române?te", first published in Curier de Ambe Sexe, I, nr. 22, p.337-343
  5. ^ a b c d e f Initial vs. non-initial shapes/?, ?/?, /?, IA/?.
  6. ^ ? is hardly a separate letter of the alphabet; the letters ?, ? and ? also accept a brevity sign.
  7. ^ In loanwords of Greek origin (or ones adopted through the Greek language), letters ? and ? correspond to eta and iota, respectively. In the words of Romanian origin and in Slavic loanwords, their usage follows pre-1917 Russian rules, namely, ? before vowels, otherwise ?.
  8. ^ Book written in the transitional alphabet showing various letter forms
  9. ^ The distinction of ? and ? is present not only in loanwords, but in Romanian words as well.
  10. ^ a b c d Letters ? and ? represent a barely spoken/heard i or u.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Letters ?, ?, ? and ? are used for copying Greek spelling of loanwords (especially for names and toponyms).
  12. ^ Grammatic? practic? romano-fran?ozease? compus? dupre autorii clasicii cei ... - George Vida. Retrieved .
  13. ^ Filosofice ?i politice prin falule învatur? morale - Dimitrie ?ichindeal, Dositej Obradovi?. Retrieved .
  14. ^ Magazinu istoriku pentru Dacia - Treboniu A. Laurian, Nicolae B?lcescu. Retrieved .
  15. ^ Noul Testament al Domnulu? sh? Mîntu?torulu? nostru sus Khr?stos. Retrieved .
  16. ^ Biografia lui Viliam G. Shecspri dupe Le Fourneur: Urmat? de Romeo cu ... - William Shakespeare. Retrieved .
  17. ^ Istoria Moldo-Rom?nie?: ar?tînd? neamurile de ?are s'a? lo?uit? aceste ... - George Ioanid. Retrieved .
  18. ^ Cîntece na?ionale: Tip?rite cu fondul d-lor librar? Pusu i Petriu. A treia ... - O. Dumitrescu. Retrieved .
  19. ^ - only
  20. ^ File:Romanian-kirilitza-tatal-nostru.jpg

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