Rudraksha
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Rudraksha

Rudraksha beads are the dried stones of the fruit of the Elaeocarpus ganitrus tree

Rudraksha (IAST: rudr?k?a) refers to a stonefruit, the dried stones of which are used as prayer beads by Hindus (especially Shaivas), as well as by Buddhists, Sikhs, and Muslims.[1] When they are ripe, rudraksha stones are covered by an inedible blue outer fruit so they are sometimes called "blueberry beads".[2] The rudraksha stones are produced by several species of large, evergreen, broad-leaved tree in the genus Elaeocarpus, the principal species of which is Elaeocarpus ganitrus.[3]

The stones are associated with the Hindu deity Shiva and are commonly worn for protection and for chanting mantras such as Om Namah Shivaya (Sanskrit: ? ; Om Nama? ?iv?ya). The stones are primarily sourced from India, Indonesia, and Nepal for jewellery and malas (garlands); they are valued similarly to semi-precious stones.[] Various meanings and interpretations are attributed to rudraksha stones with different numbers of "faces" (Sanskrit: , romanizedmukha, lit.'face') or locules, and rare or unique stones are highly prized and valued.

Etymology

Rudraksha is a Sanskrit compound word consisting of Rudra (Sanskrit: ) and ak?a (Sanskrit: ?).[4][5] Rudra is one of Shiva's Vedic names and ak?a means 'teardrops'; thus, the name literally means "Rudra's teardrops".

Sanskrit dictionaries translate ak?a (Sanskrit: ?) as eye,[6] as do many prominent Hindus such as Sivaya Subramuniyaswami and Kamal Narayan Seetha; accordingly, rudraksha may be interpreted as meaning "eye of Rudra".[7]

Description

Rudraksha tree

Rudraksha tree, Elaeocarpus ganitrus

Of the 300 species of Elaeocarpus, 35 are found in India. The principal species of this genus is Elaeocarpus ganitrus, which has the common name of "rudraksha tree", and is found from the Gangetic plain in the foothills of the Himalayas to Nepal, South and Southeast Asia, parts of Australia, Guam, and Hawaii.[8]

Elaeocarpus ganitrus trees grow to 60-80 ft (18-24 m) and can be found from sea level to 3,000 m (9,800 ft). They are evergreen trees which grow quickly, and as they mature their roots form buttresses, rising up near the trunk and radiating out along the surface of the ground. The species tends to grow in narrow spaces rather than on open ground. Its leaves resemble those of the tamarind or nux vomica but are longer.[]

Fruit

Blue rudraksha fruits

The rudraksha tree starts bearing drupes (fruit) in three to four years from germination. It yields between 1,000 and 2,000 fruits annually. These fruits are commonly called "rudraksha fruit", but are also known as amritphala (fruits of ambrosia).[]

The pyrena of the fruit, commonly called the "pit" or "stone", is typically divided into multiple segments by seed-bearing locules. When the fruit is fully ripe, the stones are covered with a blue outer fleshy husk of inedible fruit. The blue colour is not derived from a pigment but is due to structural colouration.[9] Rudraksha beads are sometimes called "blueberry beads" in reference to the blue colour of the fruit.

Chemical composition

Rudraksha fruits contain alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, triterpenes, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides. They also contain rudrakine,[10][11] an alkaloid which had been discovered in rudraksha fruit in 1979.[12]

Types of rudraksha stones

5-faced (pañcamukhi) rudraksha stone with the lines delineating its faces labelled

Rudraksha stones are described as having a number of facets or "faces" (mukhi) which are separated by a line or cleft along the stone. Stones typically have between 1 and 21 faces, although most have between 4 and 6 faces. Those with a single face are the rarest. Rudrakshas from Nepal are between 20 and 35 mm (0.79 and 1.38 in) and those from Indonesia are between 5 and 25 mm (0.20 and 0.98 in). Rudraksha stones are most often brown, although white, red, yellow, or black stones may also be found.[]

Many types of stone are described. Gauri shankar are two stones which are naturally conjoined. Sawar are gauri shankar in which one of the conjoined stones has just one face. Ganesha are stones which have a trunk-like protrusion on their bodies. Trijuti are three stones which are naturally conjoined. Other rare types include veda (4 conjoined sawars) and dwaita (2 conjoined sawars).[13]

Uses

Religious uses in Indian-origin religions

A 108+1 rudraksha mala constructed with 5-faced stones[14]

Rudraksha stones may be strung together as beads on a garland (mala) which can be worn around the neck. The beads are commonly strung on silk, or on a black or red cotton thread. Less often, jewellers use copper, silver or gold wires. The rudraksha beads may be damaged if strung too tightly. The Devi-Bhagavata Purana describes the preparation of rudraksha garlands.[15]

Much as Christians use prayer beads and rosaries to count repetitions of prayer, Hindus often use rudraksha garlands aids to prayer and meditation, and to sanctify the mind, body, and soul.[16] There is a long tradition of wearing 108 rudraksha beads in India, particularly within Shaivism, due to their association with Shiva, who wears rudraksha garlands. Most garlands contain 108 beads plus one because as 108 is considered sacred and a suitable number of times to recite a short mantra. The extra bead, which is called the "Meru", bindu, or "guru bead", helps mark the beginning and end of a cycle of 108 and has symbolic value as a 'principle' bead. Rudraksha garlands usually contain beads in combinations 27+1, 54+1, or 108+1. The mantra Om Namah Shivaya, associated with Shiva, is often chosen for repetitions (japa) using rudraksha beads.[17]

History

In Hindu religious texts

14-faced rudraksha stone made into pendant.

Upanishads

The Upanishads describe the construction, wearing, and use rudraksha garlands as well as their mythological origin as the tears of Rudra.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?[18]

Sage Guha replied: (It is made of any one of the following 10 materials) Coral, Pearl, Crystal, Conch, Silver, Gold, Sandal, Putra-Jivika, Lotus, or Rudraksha. Each head must be devoted and thought of as presided over by the deities of Akara to Kshakara. Golden thread should bind the beads through the holes. On its right silver (caps) and left copper. The face of a bead should face, the face of another head and tail, the tail. Thus a circular formation must be made.[19]

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?[20]

Sage Sanatkumara approached Lord Kalagni Rudra and asked him, "Lord, kindly explain to me the method of wearing Rudraksha." What he told him was, "Rudraksha became famous by that name because initially, it was produced from the eyes of Rudra. During the time of destruction and after the act of destruction, when Rudra closed his eye of destruction, Rudraksha was produced from that eye. That is the Rudraksha property of Rudraksha. Just by touching and wearing this Rudraksha, one gets the same effect of giving in charity one thousand cows."[21]

? [22]

He should count using a rosary (mala) whose beads are either made of the tulsi plant or rudraksha.[23]

? ? ? ? [24]

After prostrating himself before the celebrated form of Sri Mahadeva-Rudra in his heart, adoring the sacred Bhasma and Rudraksha and mentally reciting the great Mahavakya-Mantra, Tarasara, Sage Shuka asked his father Geat Sage Vyasa.[25]

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  ? ? ? ? ?[26]

Sage Bhusunda questioned Lord Kalagni-Rudra: What is the beginning of Rudraksha beads? What is the benefit of wearing them on the body? Lord Kalagni-Rudra answered him thus: I closed my eyes for the sake of destroying the Tripurasura. From my eyes thus closed, drops of water fell on the earth. These drops of tears turned into Rudrakshas. By the mere utterance of the name of 'Rudraksha', one acquires the benefit of giving ten cows in charity. By seeing and touching it, one attains double that benefit. I am unable to praise it anymore.[27]

Tirumurai

Like the Upanishads, the Tirumurai describes the wearing of rudraksha garlands and their use as prayer beads for chanting mantras. Accordingly, the Tirumurai identifies wearing a pair of rudraksha garlands as a sign of piety.

They who walk the twin paths of charya and kriya ever praise the twin feet of the Lord. They wear holy emblems--the twin rings in earlobes, the twin rudraksha garland around the neck--and adopt the twin mudras, all in amiable constancy.

-- Tirumantiram 1423. TM[28]

Thinking of Him, great love welling up in their heart, if they finger the rudraksha beads, it will bring them the glory of the Gods. Chant our naked Lord's name. Say, "Namah Shivaya!"

-- Tirumurai 3.307.3. PS, 217[29]

Cultivation

Herbal and sacred groves

Ch. Devi Lal Rudraksha Vatika, is a 184 acres (0.74 km2) grove dedicated to rudraksha which also has over 400 endangered ayurvedic medicinal herbs in Yamunanagar district of Haryana state in India.[30]

Gallery

Tree

Fruit

Stones

See also

References

  1. ^ Singh M Parashar (13 November 2019). Inner and Outer Meanings of Hinduism. Xlibris UK. pp. 229-. ISBN 978-1-984592-11-8.
  2. ^ Singh, B; Chopra, A; Ishar, MP; Sharma, A; Raj, T (2010). "Pharmacognostic and antifungal investigations of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudrakasha)". Indian J Pharm Sci. 72 (2): 261-5. doi:10.4103/0250-474X.65021. PMC 2929793. PMID 20838538.
  3. ^ "What Significance Rudraksha holds in Hinduism?". NewsGram. 19 June 2017.
  4. ^ The translation of rudr?k?a as "Rudra's teardrops" and definition as berries of Elaeocarpus ganitrus see: Stutley, p. 119.
  5. ^ Stutley, M. (1985). The Illustrated Dictionary of Hindu Iconography. New Delhi, India: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. ISBN 978-81-215-1087-5.
  6. ^ "Aksa: English Translation of the Sanskrit word: Aksa-- Sanskrit Dictionary".
  7. ^ Subramuniyaswami, Sivaya (1997). Dancing with Siva. USA. Search for "Rudraksha"in the page. ISBN 9780945497974.
  8. ^ Koul, M. K. (2001-05-13). "Bond with the beads". Spectrum. India: The Tribune.
  9. ^ Lee, D. W. (1991). "Ultrastructural Basis and Function of Iridescent Blue Color of Fruits in Elaeocarpus". Nature. 349 (6306): 260-262. Bibcode:1991Natur.349..260L. doi:10.1038/349260a0. S2CID 13332325.
  10. ^ "Rudrakine chemical". Research gate.
  11. ^ Jawla, Sunil; Rai, D. V. (2016-06-08). "QSAR Descriptors of Rudrakine Molecule of Rudraksha (Elaeocarpus ganitrus) Using Computation Servers". German Journal of Pharmacy and Life Science (GJPLS). 1 (1).
  12. ^ Ray, A.B.; Chand, Lal; Pandey, V.B. (January 1979). "Rudrakine, a new alkaloid from Elaeocarpus ganitrus". Phytochemistry. 18 (4): 700-701. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)84309-5.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  13. ^ Seetha, Kamal Narayan (2005). Power of rudraksha. India. pp. 15, 20 and 21. ISBN 9788179929810.
  14. ^ For the five-division type as signifying Shiva's five faces and terminology pañc?nana, see: Stutley, p. 119.
  15. ^ Seetha, Kamal Narayan (2008). Power of Rudraksha (4th ed.). Mumbai, India: Jaico Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-7992-844-8.
  16. ^ Laatsch, M. (2010). Rudraksha. Die Perlen der shivaitischen Gebetsschnur in altertümlichen und modernen Quellen. Munich: Akademische Verlagsgemeinschaft München. ISBN 978-3-89975-411-7.
  17. ^ "Dancing with Siva". www.himalayanacademy.com. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "AkShamalika Upanishad sanskrit\" (PDF).
  19. ^ "AkShamalika Upanishad english".
  20. ^ "Brihat-Jabala Upanishad sanskrit".
  21. ^ "Brihad Jabala Upanishad english".
  22. ^ "shrIRamarahasya Upanishad sanskrit".
  23. ^ "Rama Rahasya Upanishad english".
  24. ^ "Rudrahridaya Upanishad sanskrit".
  25. ^ "Rudra Hridaya Upanishad english".
  26. ^ "rudrakshajabala sanskrit" (PDF).
  27. ^ "Rudraksha Jabala Upanishad english".
  28. ^ Dancing with Siva. Himalayan Academy. 1997. ISBN 9788120832657.
  29. ^ Dancing with Siva. Himalayan Academy. 1997. ISBN 9780945497479.
  30. ^ PM News Bureau. "Herbal Park at Hisar". old.projectsmonitor.com. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 2014.



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