|Federal subject||Ryazan Oblast|
|o Body||City Duma|
|o City manager||Oleg Bulekov|
|o Total||224.163 km2 (86.550 sq mi)|
|Elevation||130 m (430 ft)|
| o Estimate |
|o Rank||31st in 2010|
|o Density||2,300/km2 (6,100/sq mi)|
|o Subordinated to||city of oblast significance of Ryazan|
|o Capital of||Ryazan Oblast, Ryazansky District|
|o Urban okrug||Ryazan Urban Okrug|
|o Capital of||Ryazan Urban Okrug, Ryazansky Municipal District|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 4912|
Ryazan (Russian: , IPA: [r'zan?] ) is the largest city and administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, Russia. The city is located on right bank of the Oka River in Central Russia, 196 kilometers (122 mi) southeast of Moscow. Ryazan is among the most ancient cities of Russia.
As of the 2010 Census, Ryazan had a population of 524,927, an increase from 521,560 in 2002, making it the 33rd most populated city in Russia, and the 4th most populated in Central Russia after Moscow, Voronezh, and Yaroslavl.
An older city, now named Staraya Ryazan (Russian: , lit. 'Old Ryazan'), was located near modern-day Ryazan during the late Middle Ages, and served as capital of the Principality of Ryazan. During the Mongol invasion of Rus, the one was one of the first in Russia to be besieged and completely razed. The capital was subsequently moved to Peryslavl-Ryazansky (Russian: -), and renamed into Ryazan by the order of Catherine the Great in 1778 later.
The city is known for the Ryazan kremlin, a historic museum; the Pozhalostin Ryazan Regional and State Art Museum, one of the oldest art museums in Russia; the Memorial Museum-Estate of Academician I.P. Pavlov; and the Ryazan Museum of Long-Range Aviation.
The area of Ryazan was settled by Slavic tribes around the 6th century.
It is argued that the Ryazan kremlin was founded in 800, by Slavic settlers, as a part of their drive into territory previously populated by Volga Finnic peoples. Initially, it was built of wood, gradually replaced by masonry. The oldest preserved part of the Kremlin dates back to the 12th century.
However, the first written mention of the city, under the name of Pereslavl, dates to 1095. At that time, the city was part of the independent Principality of Ryazan, which had existed since 1078 and which was centered on the old city of Ryazan. The first ruler of Ryazan was supposedly Yaroslav Sviatoslavich, Prince of Ryazan and Murom (cities of Kievan Rus').
The lands of Ryazan, situated on the border of forest and steppe, suffered numerous invasions from the south as well as from the north, carried out by a variety of military forces including Cumans, but particularly the Principality was in a conflict with Vladimir-Suzdal. By the end of the 12th century, the capital of Duchy was burnt several times by the armies of Suzdal. Ryazan was the first Russian city to be sacked by the Mongol horde of Batu Khan. On December 21, 1237, it was thoroughly devastated and never fully recovered. As result of the sack, the seat of the principality was moved about 55 kilometers (34 mi) to the town of Pereslavl-Ryazansky, which subsequently took the name of the destroyed capital. The site of the old capital now carries the name of Staraya Ryazan (Old Ryazan), close to Spassk-Ryazansky.
In 1380, during the Battle of Kulikovo, the Grand Prince of Ryazan Oleg and his men came under a coalition of Mamai, a strongman of the Tatar Golden Horde, and the Grand Duke of Lithuania, against the armies under the command of the Grand Prince of Vladimir, Dmitry Donskoy.
Late in the 13th century, the Princes of Ryazan moved their capital to Pereslavl, which is known as Ryazan from the 16th century (officially renamed in 1778). The principality was finally incorporated into that of Moscow in 1521.
Ryazan was bombed by Germany in World War II.
Immediately after the war, rapid development of the city began. Ryazan became a major industrial, scientific, and military center of the European part of Russia. Massive factories were constructed in the city, occupying the entire urban areas. Such establishments included the largest refinery in Europe, the Soviet Union's only producer of potato-harvesting equipment - Ryazselmash Plant, accounting machines, a machine-tool plant, heavy forging equipment, foundry Centrolit, chemical fiber company, instrument factory and others. Leading areas of industry are heavy and non-ferrous metallurgy, oil refining and machine-tool industry, mechanical engineering and food industries. More than half of the plants produce for export.
The military potential of the city has also developed: Ryazan became the main training center of the Airborne Forces of the Soviet Union - a city surrounded by numerous training centers and military training-grounds. Several positioned MANPADS protect the urban sky. Besides the Airborne School, Ryazan hosts the Automobile School and Institute of Communications, a regiment of railway troops, airbase strategic bombers, and a training center in Diaghilev.
Ryazan developed particularly rapidly while Nadezhda Nikolaevna Chumakova served as Chair of the Council of People's Deputies of Ryazan and Ryazan mayor. Under Chumakova, the city's population increased more than seven times: from 72 to 520 thousand people. Chumakova oversaw the construction of social and cultural amenities, more than 20 urban areas, and hundreds of kilometers of trolleybus, tram and bus routes. Landscaping became a fundamental strategy for the development of the city at that time. A "green" ring of forests, parks, and garden associations surrounded Ryazan, with large parks located in each area of the city, and compositions of flowers and vertical gardening became customary, not only for the main streets, but also for industrial zones and factory buildings. Ryazan repeatedly won recognition among the cities of the Soviet Union for its landscaping. During her 26 years in office, Nadezhda Chumakova often accepted awards of the Red Banner of the USSR on behalf of Ryazan.
In September 1999, Ryazan became one of the cities involved in the Russian apartment bombings episode, though it did not actually experience a successful bomb attack.
Ryazan's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style. Many noted Russian architects worked in Ryazan, including Kazakov, who worked and died in this city, and built the house of Politech University.
Ryazan's churches were built between the 15th and 19th centuries. In 1900s style moderne was popular. Soviet Constructivism was an important step in Ryazan architecture.
Civil society plays an extensive role in city life Ryazan has several public oversight organizations. The Committee to Protect The Ryazan Kremlin, founded in 2006 to oppose the transfer of the site's ownership to the Archdiocese, now operates all architectural and cultural supervision in the city. Environmental organizations in Ryazan adopted a program to clean illegal dumping sites, whose presence is flagged by citizens themselves, created an arboretum, and helped to clean water areas.
Ryazan Cycling is building bike paths in the central part of the city. This activity attracted the attention of the authorities, who promise to build several similar paths passing through the whole territory of Ryazan.
Public hearings, which at construction sites in the city is required by law, are well attended.
Ryazan is the seat of Diocese of Ryazan and Kasimov, an eparchy of the Russian Orthodox Church. Assumption Cathedral of the Ryazan Kremlin is one of the most important cathedrals in the city. Metropolia is the holder of the majority of religious temples in the city and the sole holder of the monasteries.
Believers is the cathedral church of All Who Sorrow Church. In addition to them, the city is also located confessional institution Catholics, Lutherans, Baptists, autonomous church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Pentecostals, Seventh-day Adventists (their church is featured on a 2001 Russian stamp), Mormons, Charismatics and Muhtasibat Muslims for whom built the Islamic Cultural Center.
Church of the Saint Saviour on Yar commemorating Transfiguration of Jesus.
Church of Annunciation of Saint Mary. Built in 1673. One of the oldest churches built in Ryazan. There are many scattered throughout Ryazan Oblast.
Ryazan is one of the leading tourist destinations in Central Russia. The monuments of history and culture attract many tourists. The Ryazan Kremlin is a symbol and the main landmark in Ryazan. It is an ensemble of the old main of Ryazan fortress (11 cen.), churches (15 - 20 cen.) and the Palace of Oleg. Sobornaia Bell is one of the highest bells of the Orthodox Church.
Ryazan State Museum of Art is one of the largest museums of Russian and European arts. It has paintings of F. Guardi, A. van Ostade, V. V. Kandinsky and others.
Ryazan has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). The highest temperature recorded is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) in August 2010 while the lowest temperature recorded is -40.9 °C (-41.6 °F) in January 1940.
|Climate data for Ryazan|
|Record high °C (°F)||6.3
|Average high °C (°F)||-4.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||-7.5
|Average low °C (°F)||-10.5
|Record low °C (°F)||-40.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||42
|Average rainy days||4||4||5||11||13||15||14||13||14||15||11||5||124|
|Average snowy days||23||20||13||4||1||0||0||0||0.4||4||14||22||101|
|Average relative humidity (%)||85||82||76||67||61||70||72||74||77||82||86||85||76|
The Ryazan city governing body is divided among City's legislature (Ryazan City Duma), City administration and district's courts.
Executive powers of the city are administered by a city governour, his advisers and deputies. Formal control over activities of authorities is exercised by the Public Chamber of the city of Ryazan, who work with youth involved in the headquarters of youth activists.
The City Duma is a local parliament authorized to make city-wide laws. It's divided into sub-committees.
Ryazan is also a system of community councils areas which are deliberative bodies coordinating the work of services housing and communal services and the Department of Public Works on urban areas.
The city also hosts different regional governing bodies: Ryazan Oblast Duma (regional parliament), Government and the Governor of the Ryazan Oblast. In two urban and one suburban residence being received at the highest level.
Ryazan is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Ryazansky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of regional significance of Ryazan--an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city is incorporated as Ryazan Urban Circuit.
The city of Ryazan is divided into four administrative districts:
An economically important educational institution in the city is the Ryazan State Radio Engineering University. The Higher Paratrooper Command Academy used to be Russia's only military school training officers for the airborne forces, giving Ryazan the reputation as the "paratrooper capital". However, in 2010 the institution discontinued enrollment to its paratrooper program, and now focuses on training professional sergeants for the armed forces. The Gorky Library serves Ryazan as well as Ryazan Oblast. It is the largest library in the region. Located In the city center is Ryazan only medical University Ryazan State Medical University.
Ryazan is one of the leading hubs for high-tech innovation and development in Russia. Thousands of students learn mathematics and engineering at Ryazan State University and Ryazan State Radio Engineering University. It is home to iAGE , whose solutions and technologies help companies automate their digital marketing data-driven campaigns. Software engineering company EPAM Systems has an office in Ryazan . In 2012 Russian search giant Yandex launched the 40MW data center in Sasovo; it's expected to accommodate 100,000 servers by 2019. In addition, one of the company operates in Ryazan is BiznesInterSoft, which develops latest-generation technologies - NoSQL-databases. 
Ryazan, like many cities in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union, saw a spike in crime during the 1990s. Slonovskaya organized criminal group (Russian: ? ) (Slony for short), one of the largest gangs in Russia active in the city where they managed to monopolize the downtown area and the criminal underworld in Ryazan. The name is literally translated as «Elephants», after one of its leaders' height and power: Vyacheslav Ermolov (born in 1962) who was a taxi driver before his criminal career had started. The other leader of the gang was a personal driver of the vice prosecutor of the city In 1991, the gang became heavily involved in racketeering, newly-privatized industries, motor vehicle sales, real estate, contract killings, participated in gang violence, kidnappings and committed at least one armed attack on rivals. According to Russian propaganda channel, NTV - the gang was linked to local authorites. By 1995, Slony managed to briefly seize control over almost all businesses in Ryazan up until 1996 when local law enforcement managed to apprehend some suspects linked to the gang. By 2000 the gang was almost completely eliminated. Some members were either sentenced to jail or were on the run. Though there are allegations that some cases were made up. One member of the group has allegedly "committed suicide" in a detention center of Tolyatti in 2016 and the other one in Ryazan according to Russian sources. Slony's chief leader, Ermolov is still wanted as of August 2021.
In the same period of time evidence was gathered against former (4th) mayor and chairman of city duma, Fyodor Provotorov. Provotorova held powerful positions in the city for 8 years, and, according to local authorities, was associated with the activities of the Slony's gang.
Besides Slony, there were also two other powerful criminal groups which have rivaled with Slony and were active in 1996-2001: Osokyn's gang and Airapetov's gang . Some of members of the Osokyn's gang were sentenced up to 20 years in 2011. Its leader who is currently a fugitive was allegedly apprehended in 2016 by Ukrainian authorities in Ukraine.
In 1999 the Ryazan came to a light of Russia's public attention when a group of allegedly plain-clothes FSS officers attempted to blow up a building on the East side of the city. The event known as Ryazan incident.
Today, the crime rate in Ryazan is one of the lowest among the cities of the Central Federal District according to the Russian Interior Ministry. In the first six-months of 2012, 579.6 crimes were reported per hundred-thousand people, almost half the Central Federal District average of 839 reported crimes per hundred-thousand people. The low crime rate in Ryazan is often attributed to increased number of police patrols, high number of military schools, and voluntary militias headquarters distributed throughout the city's districts.
In 2021 the city saw a spike in protest activity. Up to 2000 people have participated in Russia-wide protests known as 2021 Russian protests of April 21.
Major industry enterprises in the city include military communication electronics production plant and oil refinery (subsidiary of Rosneft).
Ryazan has a reputation of being one of Russia's electronics hubs. Around a quarter of the city's population is affected by the electronics industry. The most notable company in this sector is Plazma (company), which produces plasma screens for products including tanks and locomotives. In 1994, the company created a 50-50 research and development joint-venture with the South Korean company Orion PDP. Plazma's expertise helped Orion PDP become one of the world's leading manufacturers of plasma television panels. In addition to plasma technology, Plazma produces LCD screens, industrial gas lasers and medical lasers. The company exports its products to foreign countries, including to the United States, China and Israel.
The economy of Ryazan benefits from a large number of skilled engineers graduating from the State Radioengineering University, and from the city's close proximity to Moscow, which can be reached in 90 minutes by car.
A LiAZ-5280 trolleybus in Ryazan
A railway connects city to the Moscow (since 1864) via two train stations: Ryazan I [ru] and Ryazan II [ru]; both of which are part of the Ryazan railroad transit system within the city's borders.