Samogitia
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Samogitia

Samogitia

?emaitija

?emait?j?
Samogitian landscape near Tverai
Samogitian landscape near Tverai
Flag of Samogitia
Flag
Coat of arms of Samogitia
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
Patria una
Map of Europe indicating Lithuania and Samogitia
Location of Samogitia in Europe
Coordinates: 56°00?0?N 22°15?0?E / 56.00000°N 22.25000°E / 56.00000; 22.25000Coordinates: 56°00?0?N 22°15?0?E / 56.00000°N 22.25000°E / 56.00000; 22.25000
CountryLithuania
CapitalTel?iai
Largest city?iauliai
Area
 o Total21,000 km2 (8,000 sq mi)
Population
(2020)
 o Total~400,000[1]
 o Ethnicity
Samogitians Lithuanians
 o Languages
Lithuanian (Samogitian)
Demonym(s)

Samogitia or ?emaitija (Samogitian: ?emait?j?; Lithuanian: ?emaitija; see below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania.[2] ?emaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is ?iauliai. ?emaitija has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect.[2][3]

Etymology and alternative names

Ruthenian sources mentioned the region as ? , jemotskaia zemlia; this gave rise to its Polish form, ?mud?, and probably to the Middle High German Sameiten, Samaythen. In Latin texts, the name is usually written as Samogitia, Samogetia etc.[4] The area has long been known to its residents and to other Lithuanians exclusively as ?emaitija (the name Samogitia is no longer in use within Lithuania and has not been used for at least two centuries); ?emaitija means "lowlands" in Lithuanian.[5] The region is also known in English as Lower Lithuania or, in reference to its Yiddish names, Zamet or Zhamot.[4][6][7][8]

Geography

?emaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania in the territories of:

Eastern parts of:

Western part of:

The largest city is ?iauliai, or Klaip?da if the latter is considered in the region. Tel?iai is the capital, although Medininkai (now Varniai) was once the capital of the Duchy of Samogitia.

The largest cities are (Samogitian name, if different, is provided after slash):

  • ?iauliai/?iaul? (127,059 inhabitants)
  • Ma?eikiai/Ma?eik? (40,572 inhabitants)
  • Tel?iai/Tel (30,011 inhabitants) - considered capital
  • Taurag?/Tauragie (27,862 inhabitants)
  • Plung?/Plongi, Plong? (23,187 inhabitants)
  • Kretinga (21,452 inhabitants)
  • Skuodas/Skouds (7,358 inhabitants)

Demographics and language

Samogitian sub-dialects are marked in brown, red, pink, yellow and orange
In the context of the other Baltic tribes, ?emai?iai (Samogitians) are shown as an ethnic group of Lithuanians.

The people of ?emaitija speak Samogitian, a dialect of the Lithuanian language that was previously considered one of 3 main dialects (modern linguists have determined that it is one of two dialects, the other being Auk?taitian and that both of these dialects have 3 subdialects each). Samogitian has northern and southern subdialects (which are further subdivided). A western subdialect once existed in the Klaip?da region, but it became extinct after World War II after its inhabitants fled the region as a result of being expelled or persecuted by the Soviet authorities. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Samogitians of the Klaip?da region called themselves "Lietuvininkai",[] whereas at the end of the 19th century when the area, known in German as the Memelland, was part of Prussia (Germany), they were known as "Pr?sai." After World War II, the territory of the western subdialect was resettled mainly by northern and southern ?emai?iai and by other Lithuanians. Samogitian has a broken intonation ("lau?tin? priegaid?", a variant of a start-firm accent) similar to that of the Latvian language.[9] In 2010, the Samogitian dialect was assigned with an ISO 639-3 standard language code ("sgs"), as some languages, that were considered by ISO 639-2 to be dialects of one language, are now in ISO 639-3 in certain contexts considered to be individual languages themselves.[10]

?emaitija is one of the most ethnically homogeneous regions of the country, with an ethnic Lithuanian population exceeding 99.5% in some districts. During the first part of the 19th century, ?emaitija was a major center of Lithuanian culture (?emai?iai traditionally tended to oppose any anti-Lithuanian restrictions). The local religion is predominantly Roman Catholic, although there are significant Lutheran minorities in the south.

The use of the Samogitian dialect is decreasing as more people tend to use standard Lithuanian, although there have been some minor attempts by local councils, especially in Tel?iai, to write certain roadside information in Samogitian as well some schools teach children Samogitian dialect in schools.

History

"We do not know on whose merits or guilt such a decision was made, or with what we have offended Your Lordship so much that Your Lordship has deservedly been directed against us, creating hardship for us everywhere. First of all, you made and announced a decision about the land of Samogitia, which is our inheritance and our homeland from the legal succession of the ancestors and elders. We still own it, it is and has always been the same Lithuanian land, because there is one language and the same inhabitants. But since the land of Samogitia is located lower than the land of Lithuania, it is called as Samogitia, because in Lithuanian it is called lower land [ ?emaitija ]. And the Samogitians call Lithuania as Auk?taitija, that is, from the Samogitian point of view, a higher land. Also, the people of Samogitia have long called themselves as Lithuanians and never as Samogitians, and because of such identity (sic) we do not write about Samogitia in our letter, because everything is one: one country and the same inhabitants."

-- Vytautas the Great, excerpt from his 11 March 1420 Latin letter sent to Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, in which he described the core of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, composed from ?emaitija (lowlands) and Auk?taitija (highlands).[11][12] Term Auk?taitija is known since the 13th century.[13]

Borders of Samogitia in 1659

The modern concept of "dialectological" ?emaitija appeared only by the end of the 19th century. The territory of ancient Samogitia was much larger than current ethnographic or "dialectological" ?emaitija and embraced all of central and western Lithuania.

The very term "Samogitians" is a Latinized form of the ancient Lithuanian name for the region's lowlanders, who dwelt in Central Lithuania's lowlands. The original subethnic Samogitia, i.e. Central Lithuania's flat burial grounds culture, was formed as early as the 5th-6th centuries. Before that, it was inhabited by southern Semigallians and southern Curonians. The western part of historical ?emaitija became ethnically Lithuanian between the 13th and 16th centuries. The primal eastern boundary of historical Samogitia was the ?ventoji River (a tributary of the Neris River) since the end of the 13th century (at about that time, the Lithuanian ruler Vytenis had expanded the territory of his domain in Auk?taitija along the Nevis River at the expense of ?emaitija).

Because during the 13th through 16th centuries the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order bordered ?emaitija, it was always threatened by their expansionist aims. As such, the Samogitian territory was offered to these orders, or exchanged in peace treaties, a number of times. Lithuania would then regain ?emaitija during subsequent conflicts.

For more than two hundred years, old Samogitia played a central role in Lithuania's wars against the crusading order of the Teutonic Knights (Knights of the Cross and Knights of the Sword). Invasions started in Lithuania in 1229. Combined military forces undertook numerous campaigns against Samogitians and Lithuanians. Saule (1236), Skuodas (1259), Durbe (1260), Lievarde (1261) are just a few of the battles that took place. Since ?emaitija was the last pagan region in Europe left to be invaded and christened, the Teutonic Order set their sights on this last mission. Between 1345 and 1382, the Knights of the Cross attacked from Prussia some 70 times, while the Livonian Knights of the Sword made 30 military forays. Year after year, fortresses were attacked, farms and crops were put to the torch, women and children enslaved and men killed. Despite all their effort, the ?emai?iai managed to defend their lands until 1410 decisive Battle of Grunwald or ?algiris, where united Polish-Lithuanian forces defeated the Teutonic Order and ended their crusading era.[14]

In the 15th century, ?emaitija was the last region in Core Europe to be converted to Christianity. During the 15-18th centuries, it was known as the Duchy or Eldership of ?emaitija, which included some territories of what is now considered Auk?taitija and Suvalkija as well. The Duchy of ?emaitija was an autonomous administrative unit in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with some similarities to a voivodeship.

After the partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, ?emaitija was incorporated into the Russian Empire along with the rest of Lithuania. ?emaitija was the main source of the Lithuanian cultural revival during the 19th century and was a focal point for the smuggling of books printed in the Lithuanian language, which was banned by the occupying Russians.

In 1883, Edmund Veckenstedt published a book Die Mythen, Sagen und Legenden der Zamaiten (Litauer) (English: The myths, sagas and legends of the Samogitians (Lithuanians)).[15]

After World War I, ?emaitija became a part of the newly re-established Lithuanian State. The ?emai?iai resisted the Bolsheviks and the Bermontians. During World War II, Lithuania was occupied in turn by both Nazi Germany and Soviet Russians as the Eastern Front shifted. At the end of the war, all of Lithuania was surrendered to the Soviet Union, along with the other Baltic states of Latvia and Estonia, as a consequence of the Yalta Agreement. Although the United States maintained after Yalta that the Baltic states had been illegally annexed to the Soviet Union, this meant little until the administration of Mikhail Gorbachev conceded that the departure of the Baltic states was inevitable, and the Soviet Union, at last, recognized their independence on 6 September 1991. The last Soviet troops withdrew in August 1994.

In 1945, the Soviets denied the existence of the Lithuania Minor ethnographic region, out of political advantage, and declared the Klaip?da region a part of ?emaitija.

Tourism

Samogitian Alkas - reconstructed pagan observatory in ?ventoji
Windmill in Lazdininkai

Tourist destinations in Samogitia include Palanga, Kretinga and ?emai?i? Kalvarija. The majority of tourists come from Latvia, Poland, Belarus, Russia, Germany, Spain, Finland and Sweden.[]

Palanga is a tourist destination among tourists from the United Kingdom, Germany and Russia.[]

?emai?i? Kalvarija (or New Jerusalem as it used to be called) is visited by pilgrims from all around the world, due to its annual The Great ?emai?i? Kalvarija Church Festival (usually in June or July).

Politics

?emaitija historically was an autonomous region in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, although it lost this status once Lithuania was annexed by the Russian Empire following the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795 as a part of the Vilnius Governorate. In 1843, ?emaitija was incorporated into the Kaunas Governorate, with a minor part attached to the Courland Governorate. Since then, ?emaitija has not had separate political status, but there were attempts to create a separate state during the uprising in February 1831.

Currently, ?emaitija is represented by the Samogitian cultural society, a group interested in preserving Samogitian culture and language.

Symbols

Flag of Samogitia

The coat of arms depicts a black bear with silver claws and collar on a red shield topped with a crown. The greater arms are supported by a knight with a sword and a woman with an anchor, and has the motto Patria Una (Latin: One Fatherland).

Emblem of the Samogitian Infantry Brigade

The flag of ?emaitija depicts the coat of arms on a white background. It is a swallowtail flag.[16]

Both symbols are assumed to have been used for centuries, especially the coat of arms (differing claims assert it was first used in the 14th or 16th centuries). The symbols were used by the Eldership of ?emaitija. These are the oldest symbols of the Lithuanian ethnographic regions.

Because ?emaitija (Samogitia) does not correspond to any current administrative division of Lithuania, these symbols are not officially used anymore. However, they might come back into use if Lithuania undergoes administrative reform in the future.

On 21 July 1994, these symbols were recognized by the government of Lithuania.

Emblem of the Lithuanian Armed Forces Motorized Infantry Brigade ?emaitija (Samogitia) is the griffin with a sword in his right hand and a shield, which features the Samogitian bear, in his left hand.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Gyventojai - Oficialiosios statistikos portalas". Osp.stat.gov.lt. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ a b Gudavi?ius, Edvardas. "?emaitija". Vle.lt (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 2021.
  3. ^ Mika?yt?, Vilma (October 2017). "Is the Samogitian dialect going to die out? Implications of showing pride in being a Samogitian and attitudes towards Samogitianness on Samogitian Facebook pages" (PDF). Kaunas University of Technology. Retrieved 2021. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ a b Östen Dahl, Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm (2001). The Circum-Baltic Languages: Typology and Contact. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 42. ISBN 978-90-272-3057-7.
  5. ^ Saulius A. Suziedelis (7 February 2011). Historical Dictionary of Lithuania. Scarecrow Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-8108-7536-4.
  6. ^ Kevin O'Connor (2006). Culture and customs of the Baltic states. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-313-33125-1. Retrieved 2011.
  7. ^ Dagmar C. G. Lorenz; Gabriele Weinberger (1994). Insiders and outsiders: Jewish and Gentile culture in Germany and Austria. Wayne State University Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8143-2497-4. Retrieved 2011.
  8. ^ Nancy Schoenburg; Stuart Schoenburg (1996). Lithuanian Jewish Communities. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 502. ISBN 978-1-56821-993-6.
  9. ^ "Standard Lithuanian and its Dialects". Lituanus.org. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ "sgs - ISO 639-3". Sil.org. Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ Vytautas the Great; Valk?nas, Leonas (translation from Latin). Vytauto lai?kai [ Letters of Vytautas the Great ] (PDF) (in Lithuanian). Vilnius University, Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore. p. 6. Retrieved 2021.
  12. ^ "Lietuvos etnografiniai regionai - ar pastate juos visus?". DELFI (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 2021.
  13. ^ "Auk?taitija". Ekgt.lt (in Lithuanian). Etnin?s kult?ros globos taryba (Council for the Protection of Ethnic Culture). Retrieved 2021.
  14. ^ "Samogitia (History)". Samogitia.mch.mii.lt. Retrieved 2018.
  15. ^ Veckenstedt, Edmund (1883). Die Mythen, Sagen und Legenden der Zamaiten (in German). Heidelberg: C. Winter. Retrieved 2021.
  16. ^ "Kokia tur?t? b?ti ?emaitijos v?liava?". DELFI. 20 June 2012. Retrieved 2021.
  17. ^ "D?l kra?to apsaugos ministro 2012 m. bir?elio 13 d. ?sakymo Nr. V-630 ,,D?l Kra?to apsaugos sistemos medali? ir pasi?ym?jimo ?enkl? nuostat? patvirtinimo" pakeitimo". e-seimas.lrs.lt (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 2021.

External links


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Samogitia
 



 



 
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