Selichot
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Selichot

Selichot prayer leaf (c. 8th-9th century) discovered in the famous Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, Gansu, China in 1908 by Paul Pelliot.

Selichot or slichot (Hebrew: ‎; singular , selichah) are Jewish penitential poems and prayers, especially those said in the period leading up to the High Holidays, and on fast days. The Thirteen Attributes of Mercy are a central theme throughout these prayers.

Selichot of the High Holidays

In the Sephardic tradition, recital of Selichot in preparation for the High Holidays begins on the second day of the Hebrew month of Elul. In the Ashkenazic tradition, it begins on the Saturday night before Rosh Hashanah. If, however, the first day of Rosh Hashanah falls on Monday or Tuesday, Selichot are said beginning the Saturday night prior to ensure that Selichot are recited at least four times. This may be because originally the pious would fast for ten days during the season of repentance, and four days before Rosh Hashanah were added to compensate for the four of the Ten days of Repentance on which fasting is forbidden - the two days of Rosh Hashanah, Shabbat Shuvah, and the day preceding Yom Kippur--and, while the fasts have since been abandoned, the Selichot that accompanied them have been retained. Alternatively, the Rosh Hashanah liturgy includes the Biblical phrase, "you shall observe a burnt offering", and like an offering which needs to be scrutinised for defects for four days, so too four days of self-searching are needed before the day of judgment.[1] In the Italian rite, Selichot always begin on a Monday or Thursday shortly before Rosh Hashanah. If Rosh Hashanah falls on Monday, they begin the previous Monday. If Rosh Hashanah falls on a Tuesday, they begin on the Monday eight days before. If Rosh Hashana falls on Thursday, they begin the previous Thursday. If Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbat, they begin the Monday of that week.[2]

Selichot refers to both the poetic piyyutim that compose the service as well as to the service itself. In most modern Sephardic communities, Selichot services are identical each day. However, some North African communities still recite different Selichot on Mondays, Thursdays and Shabbat, following the order in Siftei Renanot, while keeping the "standard" order on days without Torah Reading.[3] In the Eastern Ashkenazic tradition, although the text and length of specific prayers varies from day to day, the overall format remains the same and is prefaced by Ashrei (Psalms 145) and the Half-Kaddish. In the Western Ashkenazic tradition, there is similarly an overall format, but it begins with Adon Olam or Lecha Hashem Ha'Tzedaka, and the Half-Kaddish follows the first set of the thirteen attributes.[4]

Selichot are usually recited between midnight and dawn. Some recite it at night after the Maariv prayer, or in the morning before the Shacharit prayer, due to the convenience of synagogue attendance when a prayer is already taking place there.

The most popular night of Selichot in the Ashkenazi tradition is the first night, when many women and girls as well as men and boys attend the late-night service on Saturday night. In some communities, the hazzan wears a kittel and sings elaborate melodies. In some congregations, it is not unusual for a choir to participate in this first night's service.[5] In the Eastern Ashkenazic tradition, this night also has more Selichot than any other night prior to Rosh Hashanah eve. The other nights are more sparsely attended and those services are often led by a layperson, rather than a trained musician, and with melodies that are less elaborate than the first night.

In addition to the Selichot of the High Holiday period, the recitation of Selichot on Yom Kippur itself is the centerpiece and most important part of the liturgy,[6] recited in all of the prayers of the day. Beginning in the late 19th Century,[7] many communities in Eastern European stopped reciting Selichot except at Maariv and Neilah.[8] Western Ashkenazic communities, as well as a small number Eastern Ashkenazic communities, maintain the recitation of Selichot in all of the prayers of Yom Kippur. Italian rite communities recite Selichot on Yom Kippur in all of the prayers except Musaf. Sephardic communities also recite Selichot at all of the prayers of Yom Kippur, although they recite them after the Chazzan's repetition rather than as a part of it.

Categories of Selichot

Categories of Selichot in the Ashkenazic tradition may include:

  • Selichah () - Hebrew for "forgiveness." This is the default Selichah and comprises the vast majority of the Selichot service.
  • Pizmon () - Hebrew for "chorus." These central Selichot vary according to the day and contain a chorus which is repeated after each stanza.
  • Akeidah () - Hebrew for "binding", a word which specifically refers to the Binding of Isaac. This Selichah contains the theme of the Akeidah as a merit for God answering our prayers. It begins to appear on Rosh Hashanah eve and is placed immediately before or after the Pizmon.
  • Chatanu () - Hebrew for "we have sinned." Starting on the evening before Rosh Hashanah [and in the Western rites, even on the first days] and continuing through Yom Kippur, this Selichah is said after the final recitation of the Thirteen Attributes and before the Vidui confessional. It contains as its refrain, " ", "We have sinned, our Rock, forgive us, our Creator". Perhaps the most famous Chatanu Selichah is the Eleh Ezkera Martyrology recited in the Eastern Ashkenazic rite during Musaf on Yom Kippur or at other times in other rites, though the recitation of the aforementioned refrain is not always followed in this particular Chatanu.
  • Techinah () - Hebrew for "petition". This Selichah begins to appear on the eve of Rosh Hashanah in the Tachanun section and other days in some rites, at the very end of the Selichot service.

Selichot of Fast Days

On minor fast days (besides the Fast of Gedaliah, whose Selichot are preempted by the Selichot of the High Holidays), some communities recite Selichot after the conclusion of the Shacharit Amidah.[9][10] The content of these prayers is related to the specific fast day. Western Ashkenazic communities, and a very few Eastern Ashkenazic communities, maintain the older practice to insert the recitation of the Selichot of minor fast days in the middle of the blessing for forgiveness ( ) in the repetition of the Shacharit Amidah.

Selichot are not recited in any community today on the major fast day of Tisha B'Av, although they were recited by the Geonim of Babylonia.[11]

Selichot on other occasions

In addition to High Holidays and Fast Days, there were communities that recited Selichot on Hoshana Rabbah.[12]

Additionally, in the early modern period, there were "shomerim la-boker societies" which recited Selichot on every day of the year that Tachanun is recited.[13]

Selichot rites

There are at least thirteen printed rites for selichot:[14] The following eight are variations of the Western Ashkenazic rite:

  1. Frankfurt and its surroundings
  2. Alsace
  3. Italian Ashkenazim
  4. Nuremberg and Fürth
  5. Switzerland and Swabia
  6. Worms
  7. Cologne
  8. Floß

The follow five are variations of the Eastern Ashkenazic rite:

  1. Poland (Polin)
  2. Bohemia, Moravia and Hungary
  3. Lithuania and Samogitia (Lita and Zamut)
  4. Pozna? and Grodno
  5. Old Synagogue in Prague

Among 21st century Ashkenazi Jewish communities, the Polin and Lita variations are dominant, although Bohemia is the most common in England. Some associate Lita with Nusach Ashkenaz and Polin with Nusach Sefard, likely because in early 20th Century most Jews in Poland had adopted Nusach Sefard, whereas most Jews in Lithuania maintained Nusach Ashkenaz. However, the differences between Polin and Lita Selichot have origins several hundred years before the advent of Nusach Sefard, and the minhagim were geographic rather than ideological. Chabad recites Selichot according to Nusach Lita because they are from Lithuania, and there are Polish mitnagdim who recite Selichot according to Nusach Polin.

The poems recited in the major variations, with their assigned numbers, are as follows (page numbers in square brackets):

Title Frankfurt[15][16] Bohemia,
Moravia
,
Hungary[17]
Lita[18] Polin[19]
Day No. Day No. Day No. Day No.
? ? ?‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 104[15] Erev RH 37[18]
? ? ‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 93[15]
? ‎ ‎ 6 31[15]
? ‎ ‎ FG 61[15] FG 44[17] FG 48[18] FG 44[19]
, ? ?‎ ‎ 1 6[15] 2 of TDR 67[18]
, ? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 38[15] Erev RH 29[17] Erev RH 34[18] Erev RH 29[19]
, ? ‎ ‎ Erev YK 113[15] Erev YK 88[17] Erev YK 98[18] Erev YK 86[19]
, ? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 39[15] Erev RH 28[17] Erev RH 35[18] Erev RH 30[19]
, ? ‎ ‎ Erev YK 114[15]
, ?‎ ‎ Erev RH 48[15] Erev RH 34[17] Erev RH 28[19]
, ?‎ ‎ Erev YK 122[15] Erev YK 89[17] Erev YK 99[18] Erev YK 85[19]
, ‎ ‎ Erev RH 40[20][15] Erev RH 25[17] Erev RH 25[18] Erev RH 27[19]
, ‎ ‎ Erev YK 112[15]
, ‎ ‎ 7 36[15]
‎ ‎ Erev RH 33[17] Erev RH 32[19]
? ? ?‎ ‎ 4 20[15]
? ? ‎ ‎ Erev YK 126[15] 5 of TDR 86[17]
? ‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 96[15]
‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 98[15]
? ?‎ ‎ Erev RH 32[17]
‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 108[15]
? ‎ ‎ 4 18[15] 2 7[17] 2 6[18] 5 14[19]
? ?‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 83[17] 5 of TDR 91[18]
?‎ ‎ FG 64[15]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 47[15] 2 of TDR 55[17] FG 50[18] FG 46[19]
? ‎ ‎ Erev YK 121[15]
?‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 106[15] Erev RH 39[17] 5 of TDR 92[18] FG 49[19]
? ? ‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 100[15] FG 42[17] FG 46[18] FG 42[19]
?‎ ‎ 4 21[15]
‎ ‎ 5 24[15] 5 of TDR 84[17] 5 of TDR 89[18] 5 of TDR 81[19]
?‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 80[17]
? ‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 64[17] Erev RH 36[18] 2 of TDR 55[19]
‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 74[18]
? ‎ ‎ FG 66[15] 4 of TDR 76[17] 2 of TDR 65[18] 3 of TDR 66[19]
? ‎ ‎ 3 14[15] 4 12[17] 4 12[18] 4 12[19]
? ?‎ ‎ 2 6[17] 6 18[18] 5 15[19]
? ? ‎ ‎ FG 56[18]
?‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 91[15] 2 of TDR 64[18] 3 of TDR 64[19]
? ‎ ‎ 1 1[21][15] 1 1[17] 1 1[18] 1 1[19]
? ‎ ‎ FG 60[15]
? ?‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 103[15] Erev RH 24[18] Erev RH 24[19]
? ? ‎ ‎ 3 12[15] 5 15[17] 3 8[18] 2 6[19]
? ? ?‎ ‎ 5 22[15] 1 2[17] 1 2[18] 1 2[19]
? ?‎ ‎ 7 21[17]
‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 76[15] 3 of TDR 67[17] 4 of TDR 83[18] 2 of TDR 58[19]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 43[15] Erev RH 31[17] Erev RH 31[19]
? ‎ ‎ Erev YK 117[15]
? ? ?‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 92[15] 2 of TDR 61[18] 3 of TDR 61[19]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 41[15] Erev RH 30[17] Erev RH 33[19]
? ‎ ‎ Erev YK 115[15]
‎ ‎ Erev RH 27[17] Erev RH 28[18] Erev RH 26[19]
‎ ‎ Erev YK 128[15]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 29[18] Erev RH 34[19]
? ? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 44[15]
? ? ‎ ‎ Erev YK 118[15]
?‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 86[15] 2 of TDR 58[17] 5 of TDR 83[19]
? ‎ ‎ 7 22[17]
‎ ‎ 5 26[15]
?‎ ‎ Erev RH 42[15]
?‎ ‎ Erev YK 116[15]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 37[19]
?‎ ‎ Erev RH 55[15]
? ?' ? ‎ ‎ 6 27[15] 4 of TDR 69[19]
? ?' ‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 75[15] 4 of TDR 72[17] 3 of TDR 62[19]
? ‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 70[18]
? ‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 70[15] 3 of TDR 60[17] 2 of TDR 60[18] 2 of TDR 52[19]
? ? ‎ ‎ 4 17[15] 3 9[19]
? ?‎ ‎ Erev RH 41[18]
? ‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 63[17] 2 of TDR 54[19]
? ‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 52[17]
? ‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 73[17] 5 of TDR 90[18]
? ?‎ ‎ Erev RH 46[15] FG 46[17] 2 of TDR 63[18] 3 of TDR 63[19]
? ?‎ ‎ Erev YK 120[15]
?‎ ‎ Erev RH 50[15]
?‎ ‎ Erev YK 124[15]
, ‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 105[15]
? ? ?‎ ‎ 7 33[15] 5 15[18] 5 of TDR 78[19]
? ? ?‎ ‎ Erev RH 30[18]
? ‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 81[15] 5 16[17]
‎ ‎ FG 49[17] FG 52[18] 4 of TDR 74[19]
‎ ‎ 6 30[15] 7 22[18]
? ‎ ‎ 2 9[15] 1 3[17] 2 5[18] 2 5[19]
‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 96[18]
‎ ‎ Erev RH 52[15]
? ‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 79[18]
? ‎ ‎ FG 62[15] FG 45[17] FG 49[18] FG 45[19]
‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 84[15] 4 of TDR 74[17] 2 of TDR 56[19]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 31[18]
‎ ‎ Erev RH 58[15]
‎ ‎ Erev YK 130[15]
?‎ ‎ Erev RH 26[17] Erev RH 27[18] Erev RH 25[19]
?, ? ‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 101[15] 3 of TDR 62[17]
?, ? ?‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 82[15] 3 of TDR 61[17]
? ?‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 54[17] 7 20[19]
‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 71[15] 5 of TDR 77[19]
? ? ?‎ ‎ 2 8[15] 6 18[17] 3 9[18] 4 11[19]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 53[15]
?‎ ‎ 4 11[18] 2 of TDR 53[19]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 43[18]
? ?‎ ‎ 1 2[15]
? ?‎ ‎ 1 3[15]
? ?‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 102[15] 7 21[18]
? ‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 85[15]
? ? ‎ ‎ 3 9[17] 6 17[18]
? ‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 80[18]
?‎ ‎ 3 16[15] 4 of TDR 85[18]
? ‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 83[15] 4 13[17] 2 of TDR 62[18] 7 21[19]
? ‎ ‎ 5 23[15] 6 18[19]
? ‎ ‎ 6 28[15]
‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 53[17]
? ? ‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 88[15]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 49[15]
? ‎ ‎ Erev YK 123[15]
?‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 69[17] 4 of TDR 78[18]
?' ?‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 72[15] FG 43[17] FG 47[18] FG 43[19]
? ? ? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 51[15]
? ? ? ‎ ‎ Erev YK 125[15]
?‎ ‎ 7 32[15]
? ‎ ‎ FG 63[15]
? ‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 70[17]
?‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 79[17]
? ?‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 95[15] 5 of TDR 82[17] 4 of TDR 81[18] 5 of TDR 79[19]
?‎ ‎ 3 13[15] 4 of TDR 70[19]
? ? ‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 87[15] 4 14[17] 2 of TDR 66[18] 4 13[19]
‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 57[17] 4 of TDR 84[18] 2 of TDR 57[19]
‎ ‎ 1 5[15] 1 5[17] 1 4[18] 1 4[19]
? ‎ ‎ 6 19[17] 7 20[18]
? ? ? ‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 78[15]
‎ ‎ FG 59[18]
?' ? ?‎ ‎ Erev RH 37[15] Erev RH 24[17] Erev RH 23[18] Erev RH 23[19]
?' ? ? ?‎ ‎ Erev YK 111[15]
?' ? ?‎ ‎ 7 34[15] 4 of TDR 71[17] 5 of TDR 88[18]
?' ? ?‎ ‎ Erev RH 45[15]
?' ? ?‎ ‎ Erev YK 119[15]
?' ?' ‎ ‎ 5 25[15] 5 of TDR 85[17] 5 of TDR 93[18] 5 of TDR 82[19]
?' ?‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 110[15]
?‎ ‎ FG 67[15] FG 48[17] FG 53[18] FG 48[19]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 57[15]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 56[15] Erev RH 40[17] Erev RH 42[18] Erev RH 40[19]
? ‎ ‎ Erev YK 129[15]
? ‎ ‎ FG 54[18] FG 50[19]
? ‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 95[18]
‎ ‎ 6 20[17] 4 13[18]
‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 94[18]
? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 32[18] Erev RH 35[19]
?' ‎ ‎ 7 23[17] 6 19[19]
? ? ‎ ‎ 2 11[15] 3 of TDR 76[18]
? ‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 75[17] 6 19[18] 7 22[19]
? ‎ ‎ 5 17[17] 3 of TDR 65[19]
‎ ‎ FG 57[18]
? ‎ ‎ FG 55[18]
? ?'‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 73[18]
? ? ?‎ ‎ Erev YK 127[15] Erev YK 90[17] Erev YK 100[18] Erev YK 87[19]
? ?‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 66[17] 5 16[18] 4 of TDR 73[19]
? ? ?' ? ‎ ‎ 3 15[15] 2 8[17] 2 7[18] 3 10[19]
? ? ‎ ‎ 2 7[15] 5 14[18] 3 8[19]
? ‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 107[15]
? ‎ ‎ FG 68[15]
? ? ? ‎ ‎ 7 35[15]
? ‎ ‎ 2 10[15] 3 10[18] 2 7[19]
?‎ ‎ Erev RH 36[17] Erev RH 33[18]
‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 79[15] 4 of TDR 77[17] 4 of TDR 86[18] 4 of TDR 75[19]
‎ ‎ Erev RH 39[18] Erev RH 39[19]
? ? ?‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 73[15] 5 of TDR 87[17] 5 of TDR 97[18] 5 of TDR 84[19]
? ?‎ ‎ Erev RH 26[18]
?' ? ‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 80[15] 5 of TDR 78[17] 5 of TDR 87[18] 5 of TDR 76[19]
? ?‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 77[15]
‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 89[15] 3 of TDR 68[17] 2 of TDR 68[18] 3 of TDR 67[19]
? ‎ ‎ FG 65[15] Erev RH 35[17] 3 of TDR 72[18] 4 of TDR 71[19]
? ? ?‎ ‎ Erev RH 54[15] Erev RH 38[17] Erev RH 40[18] Erev RH 38[19]
‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 68[19]
‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 97[15] 3 11[17] 3 of TDR 75[18] 5 16[19]
‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 90[15] 2 of TDR 51[17] 3 of TDR 69[18] 3 of TDR 60[19]
? ‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 82[18]
? ? ‎ ‎ Erev RH 37[17] Erev RH 38[18] Erev RH 36[19]
‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 99[15] 2 of TDR 59[17] 3 of TDR 77[18] 2 of TDR 59[19]
? ‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 109[15]
?‎ ‎ 1 4[15] 1 4[17] 1 3[18] 1 3[19]
?‎ ‎ 2 of TDR 74[15] 2 of TDR 56[17] 5 of TDR 80[19]
? ‎ ‎ FG 69[15] FG 50[17] FG 58[18] FG 51[19]
?‎ ‎ 3 of TDR 65[17] 4 of TDR 72[19]
? ?‎ ‎ 6 29[15]
? ‎ ‎ 4 19[15] 3 10[17] 3 of TDR 71[18] 6 17[19]
‎ ‎ Erev RH 59[15] Erev RH 41[17] Erev RH 44[18] Erev RH 41[19]
‎ ‎ 4 of TDR 94[15] FG 47[17] FG 51[18] FG 47[19]
? ‎ ‎ 5 of TDR 81[17]

References

  1. ^ Rabbi Raymond Apple. "Soul Searching in the Selichot". oztorah.com.
  2. ^ Machzor Shadal, Livorno 1856, Volume 2, Folio 1a.
  3. ^ " - ?' ?- ? -".
  4. ^ , ?; Cohen, Shalom ben Jacob (1 January 1833). " ? ? ". ?. ? – via Google Books.
  5. ^ What Are Selichot?
  6. ^ See Jacob ben Asher, Tur OC 620.
  7. ^ Daniel Goldschimdt, Yom Kippur Machzor, page 13 if the introduction.
  8. ^ A practice very strongly criticized by Rabbi Yechiel Michel Epstein in Aruch Hashulchan OC 620:1.
  9. ^ Rabbi Naftali Silberberg. "What are "Selichot" and when are they recited?". AskMoses.com.
  10. ^ "Selichot, Basic Questions & Answers". ou.org.
  11. ^ Daniel Goldschmidt, Kinot, pages 7-8 of the introduction.
  12. ^ See Machzor Kol Bo.
  13. ^ See the order of one such group here. See also the Shlomo Zalman Geiger, Divre Kehilot, who describes such a group that had once existed in Frankfurt.
  14. ^ Goldschmidt, Daniel (1970). Machzor leyamim hanoraim - Yom kippur (in Hebrew). Jerusalem: Koren. p. xiii.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea Machzor - Chelek rishon keminhag kk. ashkenazim (in Hebrew). Homburg. 1737.
  16. ^ Seder selichot mikol hashana keminhag ashkenaz (in Hebrew). Rödelheim: Lehrberger. 1833.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm Selichot leyamim noraim keminhag Ungarn, Mehren, Behmen, Shlezien vekhol Gelilot (in Hebrew). Vienna: Schlesinger. 1929.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv Seder selichot keminhag Lita, Reysin veZamut (in Hebrew). Vilna: Romm. 1879.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj Seder selichot meforeshot Beer Yaakov keminhag Polin (in Hebrew). Jerusalem: Feldheim. 1995.
  20. ^ Different word order: ,
  21. ^ Only in few congregations

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