Severe Weather Terminology (Japan)
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Severe Weather Terminology Japan

This article describes the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) severe weather terminology. The JMA defines precise meanings for nearly all its weather terms as the Information for Severe Weather Preparation (, Bousai Kish? J?h?). This article describes JMA terminology and related JMA weather scales. Some terms may be specific to certain regions.

Warning Categories

Severe weather bulletins are issued as an advisory or a warning, depending on the risk or severity of the event. Less severe events that could be a cause for concern will be issued as a bulletin or an advisory.

  • Advisories (, Ch?ih?)
  • Warnings (, Keih?)
  • Emergency Warnings (?, Tokubetsu Keih?)[1]
  • Bulletins (?, Kish? J?h?): provide information to supplement warnings and advisories.[2]

Meteorological Warnings

Weather advisories and warnings are issued when potentially hazardous weather is occurring or is forecast for the short term period.

General Warnings

Due to its local-scale nature, an advisory is typically issued in advance for public forecast areas where conditions may be favorable for the development of severe weather. A warning is issued for areas where severe weather is imminent or occurring.


  • Advisory for Gale and snow (, F?setsu Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Gale (, Ky?f? Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Heavy rain (, ?ame Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Heavy snow (, ?yuki Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Dense fog (, N?mu Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Thunderstorm (?, Kaminari Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Dry air (, Kans? Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Avalanche (, Nadare Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Ice/snow accretion (, Chakuhy? Chakusetsu Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Frost (?, Shimo Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Low temperature (, Teion Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Snow melting (, Y?setsu Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Storm surge (, Takashio Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for High waves (, Har? Ch?ih?)
  • Advisory for Flood (, K?zui Ch?ih?)


  • Warning for Storm (?, B?f? Keih?)
  • Warning for Snow-storm (, B?f?setsu Keih?)
  • Warning for Heavy rain (?, ?ame Keih?)
  • Warning for Heavy snow (?, ?yuki Keih?)
  • Warning for Storm surge (?, Takashio Keih?)
  • Warning for High waves (?, Har? Keih?)
  • Warning for Flood (?, K?zui Keih?)

Marine Warnings

  • Warning for Near Gale (, Kaij? Keih?)
  • Warning for Gale (, Kaij? Ky?f? Keih?)
  • Warning for Storm (, Kaij? B?f? Keih?)
  • Warning for Typhoon (, Kaij? Taif? Keih?)
  • Warning for Dense Fog (, Kaij? N?mu Keih?)
  • Warning for Icing (, Kaij? Chakuhy? Keih?)
  • Warning for Sea Swell (?, Kaij? Uneri Keih?)

Typhoons or Tropical Depressions

  • Typhoon Information (?, Taif? J?h?)

Flood Forecasting

  • Flood Forecasting (?, K?zui Yoh?)

Seismological Warnings

Earthquake Information

  • Earthquake Information (?, Jishin J?h?)
    • Seismic Intensity Information (?, Shindo Sokuh?)
    • Earthquake Information (, Shingen ni Kansuru J?h?)
    • Earthquake and Seismic Intensity Information (, Shingen/Shindo ni Kansuru J?h?)
    • Information on seismic intensity at each site (, Kakuchi no Shindo ni Kansuru J?h?)
    • Distant Earthquake Information (?, Enchi Jishin ni Kansuru J?h?)

Earthquake Early Warning

Tsunami Warnings

  • Tsunami Information (?, Tsunami J?h?)
    • Tsunami Forecast (?, Tsunami Yoh?)
    • Tsunami Advisory (, Tsunami Ch?ih?)
    • Tsunami Warning (?, Tsunami Keih?)

Volcano Information

  • Volcano Information (?, Kazan J?h?)
    • Volcanic Forecast (?, Funka Yoh?)
    • Volcanic Warning (?, Funka Keih?)

See also

External links

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Emergency Warning System to be Launched 30 August 2013". Japan Meteorological Agency. 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  2. ^ "JMA Brochure 2010" (PDF). Japan Meteorological Agency. 2010. Retrieved 2012.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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