Shanghainese
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Shanghainese

Shanghainese
/ , Zaon6 he5 gho6
? / ?, Zaon6 he5 ghe6 gho6
/ , Wu6 gniu6
Pronunciation[zh ?ò], [?ù]
Native toChina
RegionCity of Shanghai and surrounding Yangtze River Delta
EthnicityShanghainese
Native speakers
14 million (2013)
Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
-
suji
wuu-sha
Glottologshan1293  Shanghainese
Linguasphere79-AAA-dbb >
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Shanghainese
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Shanghainese
Romanization
Zaon6 he5 gho6
[zhò]
Literal meaningShanghai language
Shanghainese
Traditional Chinese?
Simplified Chinese?
Shanghainese
Romanization
Zaon6 he5 ghe6 gho6
[zh ?ò]
Literal meaningShanghai speech
Hu language
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Shanghainese
Romanization
Wu6 gniu6
[?ù]
Literal meaningHu (Shanghai) language

The Shanghainese language, also known as the Shanghai dialect, or Hu language, is a variety of Wu Chinese spoken in the central districts of the City of Shanghai and its surrounding areas. It is classified as part of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Shanghainese, like the rest of the Wu language group, is mutually unintelligible with other varieties of Chinese, such as Mandarin.[1]

Shanghainese belongs to the Taihu Wu subgroup and contains vocabulary and expressions from the entire Taihu Wu area of southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang. With nearly 14 million speakers, Shanghainese is also the largest single form of Wu Chinese. Since the late 19th century it has served as the lingua franca of the entire Yangtze River Delta region, but in recent decades its status has declined relative to Mandarin, which most Shanghainese speakers can also speak.[2]

Shanghainese is rich in vowels [i y ? ? e ø ? ? ? a ? ? ? o ? u] (twelve of which are phonemic) and in consonants. Like other Taihu Wu dialects, Shanghainese has voiced initials [b d ? ? z v d? ?]: neither Cantonese nor Mandarin has voiced initial stops or affricates. The Shanghainese tonal system is also significantly different from other Chinese languages, sharing more similarities with the Japanese pitch accent, with two level tonal contrasts (high and low), whereas Cantonese and Mandarin are typical of contour tonal languages.

History

Shanghai did not become a regional center of commerce until it was opened to foreign investment during the late Qing dynasty. Consequently, languages and dialects spoken around Shanghai had long been subordinate to those spoken around Jiaxing and later Suzhou. In fact "speakers of other Wu dialects traditionally treat the Shanghai vernacular somewhat contemptuously as a mixture of Suzhou and Ningbo dialects."[3] In the late 19th century, most vocabulary of the Shanghai area had been a hybrid between Southern Jiangsu and Ningbonese.[4] Since the 1850s, owing to the growth of Shanghai's economy, Shanghainese has become one of the fastest-developing languages of the Wu Chinese subgroup, undergoing rapid changes and quickly replacing Suzhounese as the prestige dialect of the Yangtze River Delta region. It underwent sustained growth that reached a hiatus in the 1930s during the Republican era, when migrants arrived in Shanghai and immersed themselves in the local tongue.

After 1949, the new People's Republic of China government imposed Mandarin (Putonghua) as the official language of the whole nation of China. The dominance and influence of Shanghainese began to wane slightly. Since Chinese economic reform began in 1978, especially, Shanghai became home to a great number of migrants from all over the country. Due to the national prominence of Mandarin, learning Shanghainese was no longer necessary for migrants, because those educated after the 1950s could generally communicate in Mandarin. However, Shanghainese remained a vital part of the city's culture and retained its prestige status within the local population. In the 1990s, it was still common for local radio and television broadcasts to be in Shanghainese. In 1995, the TV series Sinful Debt featured extensive Shanghainese dialogue; when it was broadcast outside Shanghai (mainly in adjacent Wu-speaking provinces) Mandarin subtitles were added. The Shanghainese TV series Lao Niang Jiu (Old Uncle) was broadcast from 1995 to 2007[5] and was popular among Shanghainese residents. Shanghainese programming has since slowly declined amid regionalist/localist accusations.

From 1992 onward, Shanghainese use was discouraged in schools, and many children native to Shanghai can no longer speak Shanghainese.[6] In addition, Shanghai's emergence as a cosmopolitan global city consolidated the status of Mandarin as the standard language of business and services, at the expense of the local language.[4]

Since 2005, new movements have emerged to protect Shanghainese from fading away. At municipal legislative discussions in 2005, former Shanghai opera actress Ma Lili moved to "protect" the language, stating that she was one of the few remaining Shanghai opera actresses who still retained authentic classic Shanghainese pronunciation in their performances. Shanghai's former party boss Chen Liangyu, a native Shanghainese himself, reportedly supported her proposal.[4] There have been talks of re-integrating Shanghainese into pre-kindergarten education, because many children are unable to speak any Shanghainese. A citywide program was introduced by the city government's language committee in 2006 to record native speakers of different Shanghainese varieties for archival purposes and, by 2010, many Shanghainese-language programs were running.[7]

The Shanghai government has begun to reverse its course and seek fluent speakers of authentic Shanghainese, but only two out of thirteen recruitment stations have found traditional Shanghainese speakers; the rest of the 14 million people of Shanghai speak modern Shanghainese,[clarification needed] and it has been predicted that local variants will be wiped out. Professor Qian Nairong is working on efforts to save the language.[8][9] In response to criticism, Qian reminds people that Shanghainese was once fashionable, saying, "the popularization of Mandarin doesn't equal the ban of dialects. It doesn't make Mandarin a more civilized language either. Promoting dialects is not a narrow-minded localism, as it has been labeled by some netizens".[10] The singer and composer Eheart Chen sings many of his songs in Shanghainese instead of Mandarin to preserve the language.[11]

Since 2006, the Modern Baby Kindergarten in Shanghai has prohibited all of its students from speaking anything but Shanghainese on Fridays to preserve the language amongst younger speakers.[12] In 2011, Professor Qian said that the sole remaining speakers of real Shanghainese are a group of Shanghainese peoples over the age of 60 and native citizens who have little outside contact, and he strongly urges that Shanghainese be taught in the regular school system from kindergarten all the way to elementary, saying it is the only way to save Shanghainese, and that attempts to introduce it in university courses and operas are not enough.

Fourteen native Shanghainese speakers had audio recordings made of their Shanghainese on May 31, 2011. They were selected based on accent purity, way of pronunciation and other factors.[13]

By June 2012, a new television program airing in Shanghainese was created.[14]

Chinese policy toward Shanghainese

Han Chinese, who make up 90% of the Chinese population, speak seven topolect groups that each contain many subdivisions and are not mutually intelligible. The remaining 10% of people, who belong to minor ethnic groups, speak more than 300 languages. Before the establishment of the People's Republic of China, there were already attempts to establish a common language system. Therefore, the language issue has always been an important part of the Chinese Communist Party policy. Other than the government language-management efforts, the rate of rural-to-urban migration in China has also accelerated the shift to Standard Chinese and the disappearance of native languages and dialects in the urban areas.[15]

As more people moved into Shanghai, the economic center of China, Shanghainese has been threatened despite it originally being a strong topolect of Wu Chinese. According to Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau, the population of Shanghai was estimated to be 24.28 million in 2019, of whom 14.5 million are permanent residents and 9.77 million are migrant residents.[16] To have better communication with foreign residents and develop a top-level financial center among the world, the promotion of the official language, Standard Mandarin, became very important. Therefore, the Shanghai Municipal Government banned the use of Shanghainese in public places, schools, and work.[15]

A survey of students from the primary school in 2010 indicated that 52.3% of students believed Mandarin is easier than Shanghainese for communication, and 47.6% of the students choose to speak Mandarin because it is a mandatory language at school. Furthermore, 68.3% of the students are more willing to study Mandarin, but only 10.2% of the students are more willing to study Shanghainese.[17]

Many youth can no longer speak Shanghainese fluently because they had no chance to practice it at school. Also, they were unwilling to communicate with their parents in Shanghainese, which has accelerated its decline.[18] The survey in 2010 indicated that 62.6% of primary school students use Mandarin as the first language at home, but only 17.3% of them use Shanghainese to communicate with their parents.[17]

Immigrants' opinions toward Shanghainese

Shanghainese is sometimes viewed as a tool to discriminate against immigrants.[19] Migrants who move from other Chinese cities to Shanghai have little ability to speak Shanghainese. Among the migrant people, some believe Shanghainese represents the superiority of native Shanghainese people. Some also believe that native residents intentionally speak Shanghainese in some places to discriminate against the immigrant population to transfer their anger to migrant workers, who take over their homeland and take advantage of housing, education, medical, and job resources.[20]

Intelligibility and variations

Map of dialects of Wu: Shanghainese is in dark red, in the top-right

Shanghainese is part of the larger Wu Chinese group of Chinese languages. It is not mutually intelligible with any dialects of Mandarin Chinese, or Cantonese, Southern Min (such as Taiwanese Hokkien), and any other Chinese languages outside Wu. Shanghainese has about 28.9% lexical similarity with standard Mandarin (English and French for example have around 27%). Newer varieties of Shanghainese, however, have been influenced by standard Chinese as well as Cantonese and other varieties, making the Shanghainese idiolects spoken by young people in the city different from that spoken by the older population. Also, the practice of inserting Mandarin into Shanghainese conversations is very common, at least for young people[21] Like most subdivisions of Chinese, it is easier for a local speaker to understand Mandarin than it is for a Mandarin speaker to understand the local language.

Shanghainese is somewhat similar to the speech of neighboring cities of Changshu, Jiaxing and Suzhou, categorized into Su-Hu-Jia dialect subgroup () of Wu Chinese by linguists. People mingling between those areas do not need to code-switch to Mandarin when they speak to each other. However, there are noticeable tonal and phonological changes, which do not impede intelligibility. As the dialect continuum of Wu continues to further distances, however, significant changes occur in phonology and lexicon to the point that it is no longer possible to converse intelligibly. Most Shanghainese speakers find that by Wuxi, differences become significant and that the Wuxi dialect would take weeks to months for a Shanghainese-speaker to learn fully. Similarly, Hangzhou dialect is understood by most Shanghainese-speakers, but it is considered "rougher", as well as being significantly more influenced by Mandarin, due to its status as the national capital during the Southern Song. The language evolved in and around Taizhou, Zhejiang, where it becomes difficult for a Shanghainese speaker to comprehend. Wenzhounese, spoken in the southernmost part of Zhejiang province, is considered part of the Wu group but mutually unintelligible with Shanghainese.

Phonology

Following conventions of Chinese syllable structure, Shanghainese syllables can be divided into initials and finals. The initial occupies the first part of the syllable. The final occupies the second part of the syllable and can be divided further into an optional medial and an obligatory rime (sometimes spelled rhyme). Tone is also a feature of the syllable in Shanghainese.[22] Syllabic tone, which is typical to the other Sinitic languages, has largely become verbal tone in Shanghainese.[]

Initials

Shanghainese has a set of tenuis, lenis and fortis plosives and affricates, as well as a set of voiceless and voiced fricatives. Alveolo-palatal initials are also present in Shanghainese.

Voiced stops are phonetically voiceless with slack voice phonation in stressed, word initial position.[23] This phonation (often referred to as murmur) also occurs in zero onset syllables, syllables beginning with fricatives, and syllables beginning with sonorants. These consonants are true voiced in intervocalic position.[24]

Finals

The table below lists the vowel nuclei of Shanghainese[25]

Vowel nuclei
Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close /i/ /y/ /u, o/
Mid /?/ /ø/ /?/ /?/
Open /a/ /?/
Diphthong /e(i), ?(?)/

The following chart lists all possible finals (medial + nucleus + coda) in Shanghainese represented in IPA.[25][26][22]

Finals
Coda Open Nasal Glottal stop
Medial ? j w ? j w ? j w
Nucleus a a ja wa j w j w
?       j w      
e e   we            
? ? j? w?        
?       ?n   w?n   w
? ? j?              
o o                
? ? j?      
ø ø        
i i            
u u     j   j  
y y            
Syllabic continuants: [z?] [m?] [] [l?]

The transcriptions used above are broad and the following points are of note when pertaining to actual pronunciation:[25]

  • /u, o/ are similar in pronunciation, differing slightly in lip rounding ([, ?] respectively). /i, j?/ are also similar in pronunciation, differing slightly in vowel height ([i, i?] respectively). These two pairs are each merged[specify] in younger generations.
  • Many in younger generations diphthongize /e, ?/ to [ei, ].
  • /j/ is pronounced [?] before rounded vowels.

The Middle Chinese [-?] rimes are retained, while [-n] and [-m] are either retained or have disappeared in Shanghainese. Middle Chinese [-p -t -k] rimes have become glottal stops, [-?].[27]

Tones

Shanghainese has five phonetically distinguishable tones for single syllables said in isolation. These tones are illustrated below in Chao tone names. In terms of Middle Chinese tone designations, the yin tone category has three tones (yinshang and yinqu tones have merged into one tone), while the yang category has two tones (the yangping, yangshang, and yangqu have merged into one tone).[28][22]

Five Shanghainese Citation Tones
with Middle Chinese Classifications
Ping (?) Shang (?) Qu (?) Ru (?)
Yin (?/?) 52 (T1) 34 (T2) 44? (T4)
Yang (?/?) 14 (T3) 24? (T5)

The conditioning factors which led to the yin-yang split still exist in Shanghainese, as they do in other Wu dialects: yang tones are only found with voiced initials [b d ? z v d? ? m n ? ? l ?], while the yin tones are only found with voiceless initials.[]

The ru tones are abrupt, and describe those rimes which end in a glottal stop /?/. That is, both the yin-yang distinction and the ru tones are allophonic (dependent on syllabic structure). Shanghainese has only a two-way phonemic tone contrast,[29] falling vs rising, and then only in open syllables with voiceless initials.

Tone sandhi

Tone sandhi is a process whereby adjacent tones undergo dramatic alteration in connected speech. Similar to other Northern Wu dialects, Shanghainese is characterized by two forms of tone sandhi: a word tone sandhi and a phrasal tone sandhi.

Word tone sandhi in Shanghainese can be described as left-prominent and is characterized by a dominance of the first syllable over the contour of the entire tone domain. As a result, the underlying tones of syllables other than the leftmost syllable, have no effect on the tone contour of the domain. The pattern is generally described as tone spreading (T1-4) or tone shifting (T5, except for 4- and 5-syllable compounds, which can undergo spreading or shifting). The table below illustrates possible tone combinations.

Left-Prominent Sandhi Tone Values
Tone One syllable Two syllables Three syllables Four syllables Five syllables
T1 52 55 22 55 44 22 55 44 33 22 55 44 33 33 22
T2 34 33 44 33 44 22 33 44 33 22 33 44 33 33 22
T3 14 11 44 11 44 11 11 44 33 11 11 44 33 22 11
T4 44 33 44 33 44 22 33 44 33 22 33 44 33 22 22
T5 24 11 24 11 11 24 11 22 22 24
22 44 33 11
11 11 11 11 24
22 44 33 22 11

As an example, in isolation, the two syllables of the word for China are pronounced with T1 and T4: /ts?/ and /kw/. However, when pronounced in combination, T1 from /ts/ spreads over the compound resulting in the following pattern /tskw/. Similarly, the syllables in a common expression for foolish have the following underlying phonemic and tonal representations: /z?/ (T5), /s/ (T1), and /ti/ (T2). However, the syllables in combination exhibit the T5 shifting pattern where the first-syllable T5 shifts to the last syllable in the domain: /zsti/.[22]

Phrasal tone sandhi in Shanghainese can be described as right-prominent and is characterized by a right syllable retaining its underlying tone and a left syllable receiving a mid-level tone based on the underlying tone's register. The table below indicates possible left syllable tones in right-prominent compounds.[22]

Possible Left Syllable Tone Values in Right-Prominent Sandhi
Tone Underlying Tone Neutralized Tone
T1 52 44
T2 34 44
T3 14 33
T4 44 44
T5 24 22

For instance, when combined, /ma/ ("buy") and /t?j/ ("wine") become /ma?t?j/ ("buy wine").

Sometimes meaning can change based on whether left-prominent or right-prominent sandhi is used. For example, /ts?/ ("fry") and /mi/ ("noodle") when pronounced /tsmi?/ (i.e., with left-prominent sandhi) means "fried noodles". When pronounced /tsmi/ (i.e., with right-prominent sandhi), it means "to fry noodles".[22]

Common words and phrases

Note: Chinese characters for Shanghainese are not standardized and are provided for reference only. IPA transcription is for the Middle Period of modern Shanghainese (), pronunciation of those between 20 and 60 years old.

Translation Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese IPA[missing tone] Romanisation[a]
Shanghainese (language) ? or ? ? or ? [z²² he?³³ ?e?²² ?o³³] zaon6 he ghe gho
Shanghainese (people) [zh.?] zaon6 he gnin
I ?, ? [?u] ngu6
we or I [.la] aq7 la
he/she ?(?, ?, ?) [?i] yi6
they (, ) [?i.la] yi6 la
you (sing.) ? ? [n] non6
you (plural) ?[b] [na] na6
hello [n.h?] non6 hau
good-bye [ts?.?we] tse1 we
thank you [?ja.ja.n] or [?ja.?ja.n] zhia6 zhia non, zhia6 ya non
sorry [te.v.ti] te5 veq chi
but, however , [d?.z?], [d?.z?.ni] de6 zy (gni)
please ? ? [t?] chin5
that one , , [?.ts], [i.ts] e1 tsaq, i1 tsaq
this one [.ts] geq8 tsaq
there , [?.t], [i.t] e1 taq, i1 taq
over there , [?.mi.t], [i.mi.t] e1 mi taq, i1 mi taq
here [.t] geq8 taq
to have [?j?.t] yeu6 teq
to exist, here, present , , [l.h?] laq8 he
now, current [?i.z?] yi6 ze
what time is it? [?i.z? t?i.ti ts] yi6 ze ci5 ti tson
where , , [?a.li.t], [sa.di.f] gha6 li taq, sa5 di6 faon
what () [sa.] sa5 gheq8
who , [sa.] or [?a.li.?we] sa5 gnin6, gha6 li we
why () [?we.sa] we6 sa
when [sa.z?n.kw] sa5 zen6 kuaon
how (), ( [na.n?n], [na.n?n.ka] na3 nen, na3 nen ka
how much? [t?i.di] ci5 di
yes ? [?] e1
no ?,,,? ?, , , ? [m?], [v.z?], [m?.m], [vj?] m6, veq8 zy, m6 meq, viau6
telephone number ? ? [di.?o .d?] di6 gho ghau6 deu
home [.li] oq7 li
Come to our house and play. ! ()! [t? .la .li.?j l? b.?j] tau1 aq7 la oq7 li shiaon le6 beq8 shian
Where's the restroom? [da.s?.k? l.l ?a.li.t] da6 seu ke leq8 leq gha6 li taq
Have you eaten dinner? ? ?[c] [?ja.v? t?.ku.l va] ya6 ve chiq7 ku leq va
I don't know [?u v.?j?.t] ngu6 veq8 shiau teq
Do you speak English? [c] [n .v?n k.t.l? va] non6 in1 ven kaon5 teq le6 va
I adore you ?! ? [?u ?.mu n] ngu6 e1 mu non6
I like you a lot ! ! [?u l? hwø.?i n ] ngu6 lau6 huoe1 shi non6 eq7
news [.v?n] shin1 ven
dead [?i.t.l] shi5 theq leq
alive () [?w.l.h?] weq8 leq he
a lot [t?j?.kw?] ciau1 kue
inside, within [li.?j] li6 shian
outside [?a.d?] nga6 deu
How are you? ? ?[c] [n h? va] non6 hau5 va
  1. ^ Based on wugniu.com online lookup service. Tones omitted for non-first characters due to sandhi.
  2. ^ modern Mandarin-based approximation
  3. ^ a b c Commonly substituted with ? due to computer support issues.

Literary and vernacular pronunciations

? Literary Vernacular English translation Mandarin
? t?ia ka house ji?
? ?i? face yán
? ?i cherry y?ng
? ?i? h? filial piety xiào
? ?j ? learning xué
? v m? thing
? ?w m web w?ng
? vo? bo? male phoenix fèng
? vi bi fat féi
? z i sun
? z?n in person rén
? i? ti?[30] bird ni?o

Grammar

Like all Sinitic languages, Shanghainese is an isolating language[31] that lacks marking for tense, person, case, number or gender. Similarly, there is no distinction for tense or person in verbs, with word order and particles generally expressing these grammatical characteristics. There are, however, three important derivational processes in Shanghainese.[32]

Although formal inflection is very rare in all varieties of Chinese, there does exist in Shanghainese a morpho-phonological tone sandhi[33] that Zhu (2006) identifies as a form of inflection since it forms new words out of pre-existing phrases.[34] This type of inflection is a distinguishing characteristic of all Northern Wu dialects.[34]

Affixation, generally (but not always) taking the form of suffixes, occurs rather frequently in Shanghainese, enough so that this feature contrasts even with other Wu varieties,[35] although the line between suffix and particle is somewhat nebulous. Most affixation applies to adjectives.[34] In the example below, the suffix -deusir changes an adjective into a noun.

ex:

geqtsung

this kind

angsae-deusir

disgusting-deusir

veq-dae

not-mention

leq

Q

geqtsung angsae-deusir veq-dae leq

{this kind} disgusting-deusir not-mention Q

"Forget that disgusting thing!"[36]

Words can be reduplicated in order to express various differences in meaning. Nouns, for example, can be reduplicated to express collective or diminutive forms;[34] adjectives so as to intensify or emphasize the associated description; and verbs in order to soften the degree of action.[34] Below is an example of noun reduplication resulting in semantic alteration.

ex:

tseutseu

walk-walk

tseutseu

walk-walk

"take a walk"

Word compounding is also very common in Shanghainese, a fact observed as far back as Edkins (1868),[37] and is the most productive method of creating new words.[34] Many recent borrowings in Shanghainese originating from European languages are di- or polysyllabic.[38]

Word order

Shanghainese adheres generally to SVO word order.[39] The placement of objects in Wu dialects is somewhat variable, with Southern Wu varieties positioning the direct object before the indirect object, and Northern varieties (especially in the speech of younger people) favoring the indirect object before the direct object. Owing to Mandarin influence,[40] Shanghainese usually follows the latter model.[41]

Older speakers of Shanghainese tend to place adverbs after the verb, but younger people, again under heavy influence from Mandarin, favor pre-verbal placement of adverbs.[42]

The third person singular pronoun xii (he/she/it) or the derived phrase xii ka ("he says") can appear at the end of a sentence. This construction, which appears to be unique to Shanghainese,[43] is commonly employed to project the speaker's differing expectation relative to the content of the phrase.[44]

xii xii ka, ka veq ho
"Unexpectedly, he says no."[45]

Nouns

Except for the limited derivational processes described above, Shanghainese nouns are isolating. There is no inflection for case or number, nor is there any overt gender marking.[32] Although Shanghainese does lack overt grammatical number, the plural marker -la, when suffixed to a human denoting noun, can indicate a collective meaning.[46]

xuqsang-la xeq sir
"students' books"

There are no articles in Shanghainese,[46] and thus, no marking for definiteness or indefiniteness of nouns. Certain determiners (a demonstrative pronoun or numeral classifier, for instance) can imply definite or indefinite qualities, as can word order. A noun absent any sort of determiner in the subject position is definite, whereas it is indefinite in the object position.[46]

ex:

laothabu

old lady

ceqlae

get-out

leq

P

laothabu ceqlae leq

{old lady} get-out P

"The old lady is coming out."

ex:

lae

come

banxieu

friend

leq

P

lae banxieu leq

come friend P

"Here comes a friend."

Classifiers

Shanghainese boasts numerous classifiers (also sometimes known as "counters" or "measure words"). Most classifiers in Shanghainese are used with nouns, although a small number are used with verbs.[47] Some classifiers are based on standard measurements or containers.[48] Classifiers can be paired with a preceding determiner (often a numeral) to form a compound that further specifies the meaning of the noun it modifies.[47]

ex:

geqtsaq

this-CL

biidjieu

ball

geqtsaq biidjieu

this-CL ball

"this ball"[49]

Classifiers can be reduplicated to mean "all" or "every", as in:

penpen
(CL-RD for "book")
"every [book]"[50]

Verbs

Shanghainese verbs are analytic and as such do not undergo any sort of conjugation to express tense or person.[51] However, the language does have a richly developed aspect system, expressed using various particles.

Aspect

Some disagreement exists as to how many formal aspect categories exist in Shanghainese,[52] and a variety of different particles can express the same aspect, with individual usage often reflecting generational divisions. Some linguists identify as few as four or six, and others up to twelve specific aspects.[53] Zhu (2006) identifies six relatively uncontroversial aspects in Shanghainese.[54]

Progressive aspect expresses a continuous action. It is indicated by the particles laq, laqlaq or laqhae, which occur pre-verbally.[53]

ex:

xii

he

laq

PROG

tsu

do

kungkhu

homework

va

Q

xii laq tsu kungkhu va

he PROG do homework Q

"Is he doing his homework?"

The resultative aspect expresses the result of an action which was begun before a specifically referenced timeframe, and is also indicated by laq, laqlaq or laqhae, except that these occur post-verbally.[51]

ex:

pensir

skill

xuq

learn

laqhae

RES

jinglae

future

phaxiongzang

take-advantage

pensir xuq laqhae jinglae phaxiongzang

skill learn RES future take-advantage

"Acquire the skill and take advantage of it later."

Perfective aspect can be marked by leq, tsir, hao or lae. Notably, tsir is regarded as an old-fashioned usage.[55]

ex:

iizong

clothes

ma

buy

lae

PFV

leq

P

iizong ma lae leq

clothes buy PFV P

"The clothes have been bought."

Zhu (2006) identifies a future aspect, indicated by the particle iao.[51]

ex:

mentsao

tomorrow

iao

FUT

luqxy

fall-rain

xeq

P

mentsao iao luqxy xeq

tomorrow FUT fall-rain P

"It's going to rain tomorrow."

Qian (1997) identifies a separate immediate future aspect, marked post-verbally by khua.[55]

ex:

di'in

movie

saezang

finish

khua

IMM.FUT

leq

P

di'in saezang khua leq

movie finish IMM.FUT P

"The movie will finish soon."

Experiential aspect expresses the completion of an action before a specifically referenced timeframe, marked post-verbally by the particle ku.[56]

ex:

ngu

I

dao

to

haelii

sea-inside

chii

go

xieuxiung

swim

xieu

swim

ku

EXP

ngthong

five-times

ngu dao haelii chii xieuxiung xieu ku ngthong

I to sea-inside go swim swim EXP five-times

"I have swum the sea five times (so far)."

The durative aspect is marked post-verbally by xochii, and expresses a continuous action.[56]

ex:

nung

you

djieu

even

njiang

let

xii

he

tsu

do

xochii

DUR

hao

good

leq

P

nung djieu njiang xii tsu xochii hao leq

you even let he do DUR good P

"Please let him continue to do it."

In some cases, it is possible to combine two aspect markers into a larger verb phrase.[56]

ex:

kungkhu

homework

tsu

do

hao

PFV

khua

IMM.FUT

leq

P

kungkhu tsu hao khua leq

homework do PFV IMM.FUT P

"The homework will have been completed before long."

Mood and Voice

There is no overt marking for mood in Shanghainese, and Zhu (2006) goes so far as to suggest that the concept of grammatical mood does not exist in the language.[57] There are, however, several modal auxiliaries (many of which have multiple variants) that collectively express concepts of desire, conditionality, potentiality and ability.[57]

"can" nen / nenkeu / hao
"be able" ue / ueteq
"may" khu'ii
"would like" iao
"should" inkae
"willing to" zjinngjioe / ngjioe'ii
"happy to" kaosjin
"want to" sjiang / hao

Shen (2016) argues for the existence of a type of passive voice in Shanghainese, governed by the particle be. This construction is superficially similar to by-phrases in English, and only transitive verbs can occur in this form of passive.[58]

Pronouns

Personal pronouns in Shanghainese do not distinguish gender or case.[59] Owing to its isolating grammatical structure, Shanghainese is not a pro-drop language.[42]

Singular Plural
1st person ?
ngu aqla
2nd person ? ? ?
nung nna
3rd person ?
xii xiila

There is some degree of flexibility concerning pronoun usage in Shanghainese. Older varieties of Shanghainese featured a different 1st person singular, ngunjii or njii,[59][60] and newer varieties feature a variant of the 2nd person plural as aqlaq.[60][61] While Zhu (2006) asserts that there is no inclusive 1st person plural pronoun,[59] Hashimoto (1971) disagrees, identifying aqlaq as being inclusive.[60] There are generational and geographical distinctions in the usage of plural pronoun forms,[61] as well as differences of pronunciation in the 1st person singular.[59]

Reflexive pronouns are formed by the addition of the particle zirka,[62] as in:

ex:

xii

he

tseqhao

can only

kua

blame

zirka

self

xii tseqhao kua zirka

he {can only} blame self

"He can only blame himself."

Possessive pronouns are formed via the pronominal suffix -xeq.[63]

Singular Plural
1st person nguxeq aqlaxeq
2nd person nungxeq nnaxeq
3rd person xiixeq xiilaxeq

Adjectives

Most native Shanghainese adjectives are monosyllabic.[64] Like other parts of speech, adjectives do not change to indicate number, gender or case.[32] Adjectives can take semantic prefixes, which themselves can be reduplicated or repositioned as suffixes according to a complex system of derivation,[65] in order to express degree of comparison or other changes in meaning.[66] Thus:

lang ("cold")
pinlang ("ice-cold")
pinpinlang ("cold as ice")[67]

Interrogatives

The particle va is used to transform ordinary declarative statements into yes/no questions. This is the most common way of forming questions in Shanghainese.

ex:

nong

2s

hao

good

va

Q

nong hao va

2s good Q

"How are you?" (lit. "Are you good?")[68]

Negation

Nouns and verbs can be negated by the particle mmeq, whereas in most cases only nouns can be negated by veqzir[69] or just veq.[70]

geq veqzir daetsir
(this not-be table)
"This is not a table."[71]

Writing

A table of Shanghai Phonetic Symbols by the Rev. J. A. Silsby

Chinese characters are used to write Shanghainese. Romanization of Shanghainese was first developed by Protestant English and American Christian missionaries in the 19th century, including Joseph Edkins.[72] Usage of this romanization system was mainly confined to translated Bibles for use by native Shanghainese, or English-Shanghainese dictionaries, some of which also contained characters, for foreign missionaries to learn Shanghainese. A system of phonetic symbols similar to Chinese characters called "New Phonetic Character" were also developed by in the 19th century by American missionary Tarleton Perry Crawford.[73]

Shanghainese is sometimes written informally using homophones: "lemon" (níngméng), written in Standard Chinese, may be written ?? (person-door; rénmén in standard pinyin) in Shanghainese; and "yellow" (?; huáng) may be written ? (meaning king; and wáng in standard pinyin) rather than the standard character ? for yellow. These are not homophones in Mandarin, but are homophones in Shanghainese. There are also some homophones in Mandarin which are not homophonic in Shanghainese, e.g. ?, ? and ?, all zuò in Standard Mandarin.[74]

Protestant missionaries in the 1800s created the Shanghainese Phonetic Symbols to write Shanghainese phonetically. The symbols are a syllabary similar to the Japanese Kana system. The system has not been used and is only seen in a few historical books.[75][76]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Chinese languages at the Encyclopædia Britannica
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  3. ^ Moser, Leo J. (1985). The Chinese Mosaic: The Peoples and Provinces of China. Boulder, Colo.: Westview. p. 149.
  4. ^ a b c "Sh?n'ào zh?ng de Shàngh?ihuà" ?. Zh?ngguó x?nwén zh?uk?n (in Chinese). October 17, 2005. Archived from the original on March 14, 2008.
  5. ^ Chinese popflock.com resource page of Lao Niang Jiu , Wikipedia
  6. ^ Zat Liu (August 20, 2010). "Is Shanghai's Local Dialect, and Culture, in Crisis?". CNNGo. Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  7. ^ Xu, Chi; Liang, Yiwen (April 7, 2010). "Call Goes Out: Language, Please". Shanghai Daily. Retrieved 2021.
  8. ^ "Shanghai Struggles to Save Disappearing Dialect". CNNGO. November 22, 2010. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  9. ^ Ap, Tiffany (November 18, 2010). "That Ain't Shanghainese You're Speaking". Shanghaiist. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  10. ^ You, Tracy (June 3, 2010). "Word Wizard: The Man Bringing Shanghainese Back to the People". CNNGO. Archived from the original on August 8, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  11. ^ You, Tracy (July 26, 2010). "Eheart Chen: Shanghai's Modern Rocker with A Nostalgic Soul". CNNGO. Archived from the original on July 31, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  12. ^ Jia, Feishang (May 13, 2011). "Stopping the Local Dialect Becoming Derelict". Shanghai Daily. Archived from the original on February 12, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  13. ^ Liang, Yiwen (May 30, 2011). "14 Shanghainese Selected for Dialect Recording". Shanghai Daily. Archived from the original on September 11, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  14. ^ Yan, Alice (July 8, 2012). "Shanghainese Welcome Bid to Revive Dialect". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020.
  15. ^ a b Spolsky, Bernard (2014). "Language Management in the People's Republic of China" (PDF). Linguistic Society of America. 90 (4): e165-e179. doi:10.1353/lan.2014.0075. S2CID 73632643.
  16. ^ "2019 nián Shàngh?i Shì guómín j?ngjì hé shèhuì f?zh?n t?ngjì g?ngbào" 2019 [2019 Shanghai Municipal Economics and Social Development Statistical Report]. Shàngh?i Shì t?ngjì jú . March 9, 2020. Retrieved 2021.
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  30. ^ The Tangyun gives the Middle Chinese reading of ? as , readily accounting for the t initial of the more conservative Vernacular reading. This reading appears in the Shanghainese word 'sparrow'.
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  57. ^ a b Zhu 2006, pp.89.
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  60. ^ a b c Hashimoto 1971, pp.249.
  61. ^ a b Chao 1967, pp.99.
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  63. ^ Zhu 2006, pp.65-6.
  64. ^ Zhu 2006, pp.91.
  65. ^ Pan et al 1991, pp.286.
  66. ^ Zhu 2006, pp.95.
  67. ^ Zhu 2006, pp.93.
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  69. ^ Zhu 2006, pp.59-60.
  70. ^ Hashimoto 1971, pp.253.
  71. ^ Zhu 2006, pp.60.
  72. ^ Edkins, Joseph (1853). Grammar of the Shanghai Dialect.
  73. ^ "New Phonetic Character". December 10, 2012.
  74. ^ Hannas, William C. (1997). Asia's orthographic dilemma. University of Hawai?i Press. ISBN 0-8248-1892-X. Retrieved 2011. p. 20: Non-Mandarin speakers take their own shortcuts, such as ? (Shanghai) wang "king" for ? wang "yellow" (pronounced huáng in Mandarin) or (Shanghai) ningmeng (lit.) "person" and "door" for ningmeng "lemon," not to mention hundreds of unique forms and usages devised popularly that have no application to Mandarin at all.
  75. ^ "December - 2012 - SERICA". oldchinesebooks.wordpress.com. Archived from the original on December 20, 2014.
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Sources

  • Lance Eccles, Shanghai dialect: an introduction to speaking the contemporary language. Dunwoody Press, 1993. ISBN 1-881265-11-0. 230 pp + cassette. (An introductory course in 29 units).
  • Xiaonong Zhu, A Grammar of Shanghai Wu. LINCOM Studies in Asian Linguistics 66, LINCOM Europa, Munich, 2006. ISBN 3-89586-900-7. 201+iv pp.

Further reading

External links


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Shanghainese
 



 



 
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