Simon of Cyrene
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Simon of Cyrene

StationV.JPG
The fifth Station of the Cross, showing Simon of Cyrene helping Jesus carry his cross. St. Raphael's Cathedral, Dubuque, Iowa.
Bishop, and Martyr
Died100
Venerated inEastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, and the Church of the East
Feast1 December
AttributesCarrying God's Cross before His Crucifixion

Simon of Cyrene (Hebrew: ‎, Standard Hebrew ?im?on, Tiberian Hebrew ?im?ôn; Greek: , Sim?n Kyr?naios; died 100) was the man compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus of Nazareth as Jesus was taken to his crucifixion, according to all three Synoptic Gospels.[1][2][3] "And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross."[2] He was also the father of Rufus and Alexander.

Background

Cyrene was located in northern Africa in eastern Libya. A Greek city in the province of Cyrenaica, it had a Jewish community where 100,000 Judean Jews had been forced to settle during the reign of Ptolemy Soter (323-285 BCE) and was an early center of Christianity.

The Cyrenian Jews had a synagogue in Jerusalem, where many went for annual feasts.[4]

Biblical accounts

Simon's act of carrying the cross, patibulum (crossbeam in Latin), for Jesus is the fifth or seventh of the Stations of the Cross.[5] Some interpret the passage as indicating that Simon was chosen because he may have shown sympathy with Jesus.[4] Others point out that the text itself says nothing, that he had no choice, and that there is no basis to consider the carrying of the cross an act of sympathetic generosity.[6]

Mark 15:21 identifies Simon as "the father of Alexander and Rufus". Tradition states that they became missionaries; the inclusion of their names may suggest that they were of some standing in the Early Christian community at Rome. It has also been suggested that the Rufus (in Greek: or Rhouphon) mentioned by Paul in Romans 16:13 is the son of Simon of Cyrene.[7] Some also link Simon himself with the "men of Cyrene" who preached the Gospel to the Greeks in Acts 11:20.[4] On the other hand, Simon's name alone does not prove he was Jewish, and Alexander and Rufus were both common names and may have referred to others.[6]

A burial cave in the Kidron Valley discovered in 1941 by E. L. Sukenik, belonging to Cyrenian Jews and dating before AD 70, was found to have an ossuary inscribed twice in Greek "Alexander son of Simon." It cannot, however, be certain that this refers to the same person.[8][9]

Church tradition

One Catholic tradition holds that he was consecrated as the first bishop of the current Archdiocese of Avignon.[] Another holds that he was martyred by crucifixion in 100.[]

Simon of Cyrene is not included in the Old and Revised Roman Martyrology of the Catholic Church.

Gnostic views

According to some Gnostic traditions, Simon of Cyrene, by mistaken identity, suffered the events leading up to the crucifixion. This is the story presented in the Second Treatise of the Great Seth, although it is unclear whether Simon or another actually died on the cross.[10] This is part of a belief held by some Gnostics that Jesus was not of flesh, but only took on the appearance of flesh (see also Basilides, and Swoon hypothesis).

Basilides in his gospel of Basilides is reported by Irenaeus as having taught a docetic doctrine of Christ's passion. He states the teaching that Christ in Jesus, as a wholly divine being, could not suffer bodily pain and did not die on the cross; but that the person crucified was, in fact, Simon of Cyrene.[11][12] Irenaeus quotes Basiledes:

He appeared on earth as a man and performed miracles. Thus he himself did not suffer. Rather, a certain Simon of Cyrene was compelled to carry his cross for him. It was he who was ignorantly and erroneously crucified, being transfigured by him, so that he might be thought to be Jesus. Moreover, Jesus assumed the form of Simon, and stood by laughing at them.[13] Irenaeus, Against Heresies[14]

In popular culture

According to the visions of Anne Catherine Emmerich, Simon was a pagan. The Romans recognized he was not a Jew by his clothes and then chose him to oblige him to help Jesus carry the cross.[15]

Poet Ridgely Torrence wrote a play about him titled Simon the Cyrenian. A 1920 YWCA production of this play was directed by Dora Cole, sister of composer Bob Cole, and starred Paul Robeson.[16]

Sidney Poitier was cast as Simon of Cyrene in The Greatest Story Ever Told that was directed by George Stevens and released in 1965.[17] On the other hand, the contemporaneous King of Kings has had a black soldier in the scene of Jesus' flagellation.

The 1979 comedy film Monty Python's Life of Brian contains a vignette referencing the Simon of Cyrene episode. In this case a seemingly pious and generous man offers to one of the condemned carrying a cross, "Brother, let me shoulder your burden". Upon doing so, the condemned man runs off, leaving the generous man stuck with the cross and future crucifixion.

The film The Passion of the Christ portrays Simon as a Jew who, having been forced by the Romans to carry the cross, is initially unwilling but comes to show compassion to Jesus and helps him.

Movements

Both the Simon Community, and the Cyrenian movement (which provides services to homeless and other disadvantaged groups in the UK)[18] take their name from Simon of Cyrene.

See also

References

  1. ^ Mark 15:21-22
  2. ^ a b Matthew 27:32
  3. ^ Luke 23:26
  4. ^ a b c T.A. Bryant, compiler. Today's Dictionary of the Bible. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1982. Page 580.
  5. ^ The liturgy for the fifth Station of the Cross at catholic.org
  6. ^ a b D. A. Carson, "Matthew". In The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Frank E. Gaebelein, ed. Vol. 8. Grand Rapids: Regency (Zondervan), 1984. Page 575.
  7. ^ Walter W. Wessel. "Mark." In The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Frank E. Gaebelein, ed. Vol. 8. Grand Rapids: Regency (Zondervan), 1984. Page 778.
  8. ^ N. Avigad, "A Depository of Inscribed Ossuaries in the Kidron Valley," Israel Exploration Journal 12 [1962]: 1-12; cited in D. A. Carson, "Matthew". In The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Frank E. Gaebelein, ed. Vol. 8. Grand Rapids: Regency (Zondervan), 1984. Page 575.
  9. ^ James H. Charlesworth (editor), Jesus and Archaeology, page 338 (Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2006). ISBN 0-8028-4880-X
  10. ^ Willis Barnstone and Marvin Meyer, eds. The Gnostic Bible. Boston: Shambhala, 2002. Pages 465, 469-470.
  11. ^ Frank Leslie Cross, Elizabeth A. Livingstone (1997). "Basilides". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. p. 168. ISBN 019211655X
  12. ^ Ehrman, Bart (2005). Lost Christianities. OUP. p. 188. ISBN 0195182499
  13. ^ Kelhoffer, James A. (2014). Conceptions of "Gospel" and Legitimacy in Early Christianity. Mohr Siebeck. p. 80. ISBN 9783161526367.
  14. ^ "Et gentibus ipsorum autem apparuisse eum in terra hominem, et virtutes perfecisse. Quapropter neque passsum eum, sed Simonem quendam Cyrenæum angariatum portasse crucem ejus pro eo: et hunc secundum ignorantiam et errorem crucifixum, transfiguratum ab eo, uti putaretur ipse esse Jesus: et ipsum autem Jesum Simonis accepisse formam, et stantem irrisisse eos." Book 1, Chapter 19
  15. ^ http://www.jesus-passion.com/THE_PASSION_3.5.htm#CHAPTER XXXIII, retrieved May 1st 2017
  16. ^ Boyle, Sheila Tully; Bunie, Andrew (2001). Paul Robeson: The Years of Promise and Achievement. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. p. 89. ISBN 1-55849-149-X.
  17. ^ Goudsouzian, Aram (2004). Sidney Poitier: Man, Actor, Icon. Chapell Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 232. ISBN 0-8078-2843-2.
  18. ^ "Cyrenians - About us". Retrieved .

External links


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