is a Sorghum genus of about 25 species of flowering plants in the grass family ( Poaceae). Some of these species are grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. One species, , was originally domesticated in Sorghum bicolor Africa and has since spread throughout the globe. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia,  with the range of some extending to  Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.  One species is grown for  grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized in pasture lands.  Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane).
Cultivation and uses
, Sorghum bicolor native to Africa with many cultivated forms now,  is an important crop worldwide, used for  food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. Sorghum's cultivation has been linked by archeological research back to ancient Sudan around 6,000 to 7,000 BP.
All sorghums contain
phenolic acids, and most contain flavonoids. Sorghum grains are one of the highest food sources of the  flavonoid proanthocyanidin. Total  phenol content (in both phenolic acids and flavonoids) is correlated with antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity is high in sorghums having dark  pericarp and pigmented testa. The antioxidant activity of sorghum may explain the reduced incidence of certain cancers in populations consuming sorghum. 
Popped sorghum is popular as a snack in India. The popped sorghum is similar to
popcorn, but the puffs are smaller. Recipes for popping sorghum by microwave, in a pot, etc, are readily available online.  
Most varieties are
drought- and heat-tolerant, nitrogen-efficient, and are especially important in  arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. These varieties form important components of forage in many tropical regions. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the 5th most important cereal crop grown in the world. 
In the early stages of the plants' growth, some species of sorghum can contain levels of
hydrogen cyanide, hordenine, and nitrates, which are lethal to grazing animals. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and nitrates at later stages in growth. 
Role in global economy
Global demand for sorghum increased dramatically between 2013 and 2015, when
China began purchasing US sorghum crops to use as livestock feed as a substitute for domestically grown corn. China purchased around $1 billion worth of American sorghum per year until April 2018, when China imposed retaliatory duties on American sorghum as part of the trade war between the two countries.
Species recorded include:
- northwestern Australia Sorghum amplum
- Queensland Sorghum angustum
- Africa, Indian Subcontinent, Madagascar, islands of the western Indian Ocean Sorghum arundinaceum
- cultivated sorghum, often individually called sorghum, also known as durra, jowari, or milo. Native to Sahel region of Africa; naturalized in many places Sorghum bicolor
- Northern Territory of Australia Sorghum brachypodum
- Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum bulbosum
- Thailand, Myanmar Sorghum burmahicum
- India Sorghum controversum
- Sahel and West Africa Sorghum × drummondii
- Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum ecarinatum
- Northern Territory of Australia Sorghum exstans
- Northern Territory, Queensland Sorghum grande
- Johnson grass - North Africa, islands of eastern Atlantic, southern Asia from Lebanon to Vietnam; naturalized in East Asia, Australia, the Americas Sorghum halepense
- Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum interjectum
- Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum intrans
- Philippines, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, New Guinea, northern Australia Sorghum laxiflorum
- Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria Sorghum leiocladum
- Northern Territory of Australia Sorghum macrospermum
- Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum matarankense
- East Asia, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Micronesia Sorghum nitidum
- Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia Sorghum plumosum
- China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Christmas Island, Micronesia, Cook Islands Sorghum propinquum
- Sahel from Mali to Tanzania; Yemen, Oman, India Sorghum purpureosericeum
- Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum stipoideum
- Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku, New Guinea, northern Australia Sorghum timorense
- Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras Sorghum trichocladum
- eastern + southern Africa from Ethiopia to Namibia; Oman Sorghum versicolor - dry regions from Senegal to the Levant. Sorghum virgatum
"World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" . Retrieved 2016.
Sally L. Dillon; Peter K. Lawrence; Robert J. Henry; et al. "Sorghum laxiflorum and S. macrospermum, the Australian native species most closely related to the cultivated S. bicolor based on ITS1 and ndhF sequence analysis of 28 Sorghum species". Southern Cross Plant Science. Southern Cross University . Retrieved 2016.
Australia, Atlas of Living. "Sorghum - Atlas of Living Australia" . Retrieved 2016.
"Tropicos, . Tropicos.org Sorghum Moench" . Retrieved .
"Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 600 gao liang shu . Efloras.org Sorghum Moench, Methodus. 207. 1794" . Retrieved .
". Sorghum" County-level distribution maps from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014 . Retrieved 2016.
Mutegi, Evans; Sagnard, Fabrice; Muraya, Moses; et al. (2010-02-01). "Ecogeographical distribution of wild, weedy and cultivated Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in Kenya: implications for conservation and crop-to-wild gene flow" (PDF). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 57 (2): 243-253. doi: 10.1007/s10722-009-9466-7. S2CID 28318220.
Stefan Hauser, Lydia Wairegi, Charles L. A. Asadu, Damian O. Asawalam, Grace Jokthan, Utiang Ugbe (2015). "Sorghum- and millet-legume cropping systems" (PDF). CABI and Africa Soil Health Consortium . Retrieved 2018. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter ( link)
Carney, Judith (2009). In the Shadow of Slavery. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. p. 16. ISBN . 9780520269965
^ a b c d
Dykes, Linda; Rooney, Lloyd W. (2006). "Sorghum and millet phenols and antioxidants" (PDF). . Journal of Cereal Science 44 (3): 236-251. doi: 10.1016/j.jcs.2006.06.007.
Luca, Simon Vlad; Macovei, Irina; Bujor, Alexandra; Miron, Anca; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Trifan, Adriana (2020). "Bioactivity of dietary polyphenols: The role of metabolites". . Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 60 (4): 626-659. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1546669. PMID 30614249.
^ a b
"Popped Sorghum". Recipes. Bob's Red Mill. 2021 . Retrieved .
"Popped Sorghum". Recipes. Whole Foods Market. 2021 . Retrieved .
Mulhollem, Jeff (10 August 2020). "Flavonoids' presence in sorghum roots may lead to frost-resistant crop". Pennsylvania State University. ... sorghum is a crop that can respond to climate change because of its high water- and nitrogen-use efficiency ...
Tove Danovich (15 December 2015). "Move over, quinoa: sorghum is the new 'wonder grain. '" The Guardian . Retrieved 2018.
Willy H. Verheye, ed. (2010). "Growth and Production of Sorghum and Millets". . Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production II. EOLSS Publishers. ISBN . 978-1-84826-368-0
"Cyanide (prussic acid) and nitrate in sorghum crops Primary industries and fisheries". Queensland Government . Retrieved .
"Sorghum". Agriculture Victoria. The State of Victoria. Archived from the original on 2019-10-02 . Retrieved .
"Sorghum, targeted by tariffs, is a U.S. crop China started buying only five years ago". LA Times. Apr 18, 2018 . Retrieved 2019.
"The Plant List: . Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. 2013 Sorghum" . Retrieved 2017.