State Council of the People's Republic of China
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State Council of the People's Republic of China
State Council of the
People's Republic of China
?
Zh?nghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guówùyuàn
People's Republic of China National Emblem.svg
Agency overview
Formed27 September 1954
Preceding agency
TypeExecutive branch of the central government
Executive body of the National People's Congress[2]
Highest organ of State administration[2]
JurisdictionGovernment of the People's Republic of China
HeadquartersState Council Hall, Zhongnanhai, Beijing
Motto"Serve the People"
Annual budgetCN¥37.2 trillion (2019)[1]
Agency executives
Child agencies
Websiteenglish.gov.cn
State Council of the People's Republic of China
Simplified Chinese?
Traditional Chinese?
Literal meaning"Chinese People('s) Republic State Affair(s) Court"
State Council
(commonly used abbreviation)
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Literal meaning"The Court of State Affairs"
Central People's Government
(Constitutional synonym[2])
Chinese
Literal meaningCentral People('s) Government

The State Council, constitutionally[2] synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.[3] It is chaired by the premier and includes the heads of each of the cabinet-level executive departments.[4] Currently, the council has 35 members: the premier, one executive vice premier, three other vice premiers, five state councillors (of whom three are also ministers and one is also the secretary-general), and 26 in charge of the Council's constituent departments.[5] In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the People's Liberation Army (PLA). The State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, and in practice maintains membership with the top levels of the Chinese Communist Party.

Organization

The State Council meets every six months. Between meetings it is guided by a Standing Committee of the State Council of the People's Republic of China [zh] (Executive Meeting) that meets weekly. The standing committee includes the premier, one executive vice premier, three vice premiers, and five other state councillors (normally one of whom serves as Secretary-General of the State Council, and two of whom concurrently serve as ministers).

The vice-premiers and state councillors are nominated by the premier, and appointed by the president with National People's Congress' (NPC) approval. Incumbents may serve two successive five-year terms.

Each vice premier oversees certain areas of administration. Each State Councillor performs duties as designated by the Premier. The secretary-general heads the General Office which handles the day-to-day work of the State Council. The secretary-general has relatively little power and should not be confused with the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.

Each ministry supervises one sector. Commissions outrank ministries and set policies for and coordinate the related activities of different administrative organs. Offices deal with matters of ongoing concern. Bureaus and administrations rank below ministries.

In addition to the 25 ministries, there are 38 centrally administered government organizations that report directly to the state council. The heads of these organizations attend full meetings of the state committee on an irregular basis.

In practice, the vice premiers and State Councillors assume responsibility for one or more sectors or issues, and remain in contact with the various bodies responsible for policy related to that area. This allows the Standing Committee to oversee a wide range of government functions.

The State Council, like all other governmental bodies, is nominally responsible to the NPC and its Standing Committee in conducting a wide range of government functions both at the national and at the local levels, and nominally acts by virtue of the NPC's authority. In practice, however, the NPC had historically done little more than ratify decisions already made by the State Council. More recently, however, the NPC has taken on a more independent role. There has been at least one case where the NPC has outright rejected an initiative of the State Council and a few cases where the State Council has withdrawn or greatly modified a proposal in response to NPC opposition.

The State Council and the Chinese Communist Party are also tightly interlocked. With rare exceptions, State Councillors are high-ranking members of the CCP. Although, as Party members, they are supposed to follow Party instructions, because they tend to be senior members of the Party they also have substantial influence over what those instructions are. This results in a system which is unlike the Soviet practice in which the Party effectively controlled the State. Rather, the Party and State are fused at this level of government. The members of the State Council derive their authority from being members of the state, while as members of the Party they coordinate their activities and determine key decisions such as the naming of personnel.

There were attempts to separate the party and state in the late 1980s under Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang and have the Party in charge of formulating policy and the State Council executing policy, but these efforts were largely abandoned in the early 1990s.

As the chief administrative organ of government, its main functions are to formulate administrative measures, issue decisions and orders, and monitor their implementation; draft legislative bills for submission to the NPC or its Standing Committee; and prepare the economic plan and the state budget for deliberation and approval by the NPC. The State Council is the functional center of state power and clearinghouse for government initiatives at all levels. With the government's emphasis on economic modernization, the State Council clearly acquired additional importance and influence.

The State Council controls the Ministry for National Defense but does not control the People's Liberation Army, which is instead controlled by the Central Military Commission.

Members

Executive Meeting (Standing Committee)

Members of the Executive Meeting of the 13th State Council (March 2018 - March 2023)
# Portrait
Name
Birth
year
Government posts Duties Party Party positions Functional roles
1 Li Keqiang (cropped).jpg
Li Keqiang
1955 Premier Overall work of the State Council CCP Member, 19th PSC
Secretary, SC Party Group [zh]
Deputy Chairman, Central National Security Commission
Director, Central Institutional Organization Commission
Director, National Defense Mobilization Commission
Director, National Energy Commission
2 Cristina Fernández junto a Han Zheng, el alcalde de Shanghai (cropped).jpg
Han Zheng
1954 Vice Premier

(first-ranked)

Develop & reform, institutional reform, etc. CCP Member, 19th PSC
Deputy Secretary, SC Party Group [zh]
3 Sun Chunlan (22551034609) (cropped).jpg
Sun Chunlan

(female)
1950 Vice Premier Education, health, sport, etc. CCP Member, 19th Politburo
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
?

?


Leader, Leading Group for China Football Reforms
4 Hu Chunhua.jpg
Hu Chunhua
1963 Vice Premier Agricultural and rural affairs, poverty alleviation, water resources, foreign trade CCP Member, 19th Politburo
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
?
?
5 Liu He
1952 Vice Premier Finance, science and technology, industry and transport CCP Member, 19th Politburo
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
Director of the Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission Office
6 Wei Fenghe.jpg
General
Wei Fenghe
1954 State Councillor and Minister of National Defense National defense mobilization, etc. CCP Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
Member, Central Military Commission
Member, Central Foreign Affairs Commission
Director,
7 Wang Yong
1955 State Councillor Emergency management, etc. CCP Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, SC Party Group [zh]

?
?

8 Wang Yi - 2017 (36537168903) (cropped).jpg
Wang Yi
1953 State Councillor and Minister of Foreign Affairs Foreign affairs CCP Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
Member, Central Foreign Affairs Commission
9 Xiao Jie (cropped).jpg
Xiao Jie
1957 State Councillor and Secretary-General of the State Council In charge of the General Office CCP Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
Secretary, SC Offices Party Group [zh]
10 Zhao Kezhi (cropped).jpg
Police Commissioner-General [zh]
Zhao Kezhi
1953 State Councillor and Minister of Public Security Public security, etc. CCP Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
Member, Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission
Member, Central National Security Commission
?

?

Plenary Meeting

The Plenary Meeting of State Council is hosted by the Premier, joined by Vice Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers in charge of Ministries and Commissions, the Governor of the People's Bank, the Auditor-General, and the Secretary General. It usually runs bi-annually and when necessary, non-members can be invited to participate.

Organizational structure

General Office of the State Council

Constituent Departments of the State Council (cabinet-level)

Constituent Departments of the 13th State Council (March 2018 - March 2023)
# Logo Name of Department Year Established Current Chief Party Reports To
1 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Foreign Affairs
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Wang Yi

State Councillor and Minister of Foreign Affairs
CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping (Director of the Central Foreign Affairs Commission)
? Yang Jiechi (Director of the CFAC Office)
2 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of National Defense
1954 (of PRC) General
Wei Fenghe

(Member of the Central Military Commission)
State Councillor and Minister of National Defense
CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping (Chairman of the Central Military Commission)
3 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC)
?
2003 He Lifeng

(Vice-Chairman of the CPPCC National Committee)
Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission
CCP Vice-Premier Han Zheng
4 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Education (MOE)
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Chen Baosheng

Minister of Education
CCP Vice-Premier Sun Chunlan
5 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Science and Technology
1998 Wang Zhigang

Minister of Science and Technology
CCP Vice-Premier Liu He
6 Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT)
?
2008 Xiao Yaqing

Minister of Industry and Information Technology
CCP
7 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg National Ethnic Affairs Commission (NEAC)
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Chen Xiaojiang

Minister in charge of the National Ethnic Affairs Commission
CCP You Quan (Head of the CCP Central Committee United Front Work Department)
8 Police Badge,P.R.China.svg Ministry of Public Security (MPS)
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Police Commissioner-General [zh]
Zhao Kezhi

State Councillor and Minister of Public Security
CCP Guo Shengkun (Secretary of the CCP Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission)
9 Ministry of State Security of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of State Security (MSS)
1983 Chen Wenqing

Minister of State Security
CCP
10 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Civil Affairs (MCA)
1978 Li Jiheng

Minister of Civil Affairs
CCP
11 JUSTICE OF P.R.CHINA badge.svg Ministry of Justice
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
1979 (re-established)
Tang Yijun

Minister of Justice
CCP Guo Shengkun (Secretary of the CCP Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission)
12 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Finance
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Liu Kun

Minister of Finance
CCP Vice-Premier Han Zheng
13 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (MOHRSS)
?
2008 Zhang Jinan

Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security
CCP Vice-Premier Hu Chunhua
14 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry Natural Resources
2018 Lu Hao

Minister of Natural Resources
CCP Vice-Premier Han Zheng
15 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Ecology and Environment
2018 Huang Runqiu

Minister of Ecology and Environment
JS
16 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
2008 Wang Menghui

Minister of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
CCP
17 Traffic law enforcement signs of the P.R.China.svg Ministry of Transport (MOT)
2008 Li Xiaopeng

Minister of Transport
CCP Vice-Premier Liu He
18 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Water Resources
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Li Guoying

Minister of Water Resources
CCP Vice-Premier Hu Chunhua
19 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
2018 Tang Renjian

Minister of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
CCP
20 MINISTRY OF COMMERCE,P.R.CHINA badge.svg Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM)
2003 Wang Wentao

Minister of Commerce
CCP
21 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Culture and Tourism
2018 Hu Heping

Minister of Culture and Tourism
CCP Huang Kunming (Head of the CCP Central Committee Propaganda Department)
22 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg National Health Commission
2018 Ma Xiaowei

Minister in charge of the National Health Commission
CCP Vice-Premier Sun Chunlan
23 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Veterans Affairs
?
2018 Sun Shaocheng

Minister of Veterans Affairs
CCP
24 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Emergency Management
2018 Huang Ming

Ministry of Emergency Management
CCP State Councillor Wang Yong
25 People's Bank of China (PBC)
1948 Yi Gang

Governor of the People's Bank of China
CCP Vice-Premier Liu He (Director of the Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission Office)
26 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg National Audit Office
1983 Hou Kai

Auditor-General of the National Audit Office
CCP Premier Li Keqiang
? Vice-Premier Han Zheng

Special Organization directly under the State Council

Ministry-level

Organizations directly under the State Council

Administrative Offices of the State Council

Institutions directly under the State Council

National Administrations administrated by ministry-level agencies

Interdepartmental coordinating agencies

and many more...

Agencies dispatched by the State Council

See also

References

  1. ^ "Unraveling the Mysteries of China's Multiple Budgets". Bloomberg. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d Article 85 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China
  3. ^ "The State Council". English.peopledaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on 2014-11-22. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "The State Council". Gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-11-14. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-24. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links


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